Now showing items 41-60 of 5030

    • Development of an occupational therapy education program for a technical institute

      Schumann, Sandra H.; School of Graduate Studies (1999-04)
    • An examination of telenursing : description of the professional role and predictors of role stress, role ambiguity and role conflict

      Schlachta-Fairchild, Loretta M.; School of Graduate Studies (2000-11-07)
      An examination of telenursing: Description of the professional role and predictors of role stress, role ambiguity and role conflict. Telenursing is the use of telehealth technology to deliver nursing care and conduct nursing practice (Schlachta & Sparks, 1999). In response to the rapid adoption of telemedicine technology in he'1:lthcare organizations, telenursing is emerging as a new role, prompting discussion of licensure, malpractice, and credentialing issues within nursing. Role stress associated with new nursing roles such as telenursing impacts individual patients and the larger healthcare organization, causing turnover, burnout, loss of continuity of care and loss of operational expertise. As with many emerging technologies, nurses assume increasingly complex roles and responsibilities. As telemedicine proliferates, the role of nurses in participating in and improving the telemedicine process will take on more pr.ominence. It is important to identify issues related to use and integration of telemedicine into nurses' roles to minimize role stress, encourage telenursing participation and position nursing practice to take advantage of telemedicine technologi~s. Using the portion of Role Theory, that relates to the impact of Role Set upon Role· Strain, as a framework this was a descriptive ·research study that identified a current population of 796 telenurses in the U.S., representi!lg 40 states. From this population, 196 telenurses participated in a telephonic or an online, web-based survey during Summer 2000. The purposes were to 1) Describe a) telenurses' professional role(s) and characteristics and b) U.S. strategies for nursing competence and patient safety 2) Measure telenurses' work satisfaction_ and its components, and role stress and its components 3) Predict the relationship between the components of work satisfaction, individual and professional role characteristics, and role stress, role ambiguity and role conflict. iv Findings of the Telenursing Role Study indicated that the typical Y2K telenurse is 46 years old, has worked 21 years in nursing and >6 months in her telenursing position. She has a 27% chance of being an advanced practice nurse, and has at least a baccalaureate degree, and likely a graduate degree. The typical telenurse is white, female, married, and has children .. She works full-time in teleriursing and makes just over $49,000 per year. Telenurse.s work in over 29 practice settings, including web portals, private companies and for telemedicine equipment vendors. They have a host of unique, new titles such as Bioengineering Clinical Nurse Specialist, Telehealth Project Director and Consumer Information Nurse. Telenurses experience less than average role stress, role ambiguity and role conflict. They also have the same work satisfaction as other hospital-based nurses. The most important factor contributing to telenurses' work satisfaction is autonomy. Findings of regression analysis were that education level and level of work satisfaction both predict role stress and role ambiguity in telenurses. Higher education levels of telenurses are associated with higher role stress and role ambiguity. Higher levels of work satisfaction of telenurses are associated with lower role stress and role ambiguity. Role ambiguity, level of education and work satisfaction are significant predictors of role conflict in telenurses.
    • Determinants of quality of the caregiving relationship

      Sauter, Maranah A.; Determinants of quality of the caregiving relationship (1996-10)
    • Implications based on these results support the need for critical care nurses to use caution to avoid overestimating parental stress. Parents should be included in care of the child whenever possible,· and recognized for their uniqu~ ability to parent their child, even when critically ill.

      Sanders, Cindy L.; School of Nursing (1993-03)
      Th~ admission of a child to the PICU is stressful t6 parents of that child. Critical care nurses caring f~r these critically ill children and their families are in a unique position to assess parental str~ss. The purpose of this st~dy was to compare nurses' (n=30) and parents• (n=30) perceptions of· parental strassors in the PICU, as,measured by scores 6n the Parental Str~ssor s6ale: Pediatric Intensive Care· (PSS: PICU) developed by Miles and Carter (1982). Differences between parents 1 and nurses' mean scores on the total PSS:PICU and each of seven dimertsibnai scores were analyzed using paired t-tests. Significantly higher scores were found for nurses in bo€h total PSS:PICU and four of seven sub,scales. Analysis of mean scores between mothers and fath~rs, nurses who ~ere afid were n6t parants, arid nurses wfth less than ·five and greater than fi'(e year-s PICU experience showed ·no significant differences. Parents who experienced unplanned PICU admissions scored signiticantly _higher than parents whose child's admission was planned on the dimension of child's appearance. Implications based on these results support the need for critical care nurses to use caution to avoid overestimating parental stress. Parents should be included in care of the child whenever possible,· and recognized for their uniqu~ ability to parent their child, even when critically ill.
    • An unusual DNA sequence observed in the [gamma] globin gene loci of two members of a Chinese family

      Ryan, Qin Cao; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1989-05)
      There are two nonallelic human y globin genes located on the short arm of ~hromosome #11 in the order 5'-Gy-Ay-3'. Various modifications of the two y genes have been reported and include: deletion·s., triplications., quadruplications and recently a quintuplication. These are :.generally created by one or more unequal crossovers in the y globin ge~e- _regions on adjacent chromosomes. During the c~urse of looking for a y0 thala~semia,. which might be due to a_ crossover within the y genes., two cases were found in the family W. · Bgl II mapping studies showed a 5 kb deletion at the y gene loci in these individuals. The ·Bgl II fragment from th(= y gene loci of R .W. was cloned into the phage vector ·oRl. Phage mapping showed that two out o·f the three Pst I sites within the Bgl II fragment were missing which suggested that the crossover might· have occurred within the y gene., possibly within the yIVS II region. Sequence analysis of the cloned fragment revealed an unusual sequence which had no sequence homology with the r gene region except for a small 264 .bp region near the 3' end. The orientation of the 264 bp fragmen~ is inverted _relat~ve to homologous sequences in the Gr and A'Y IVS II. . The unus~al sequence was computer analyzed for homology with every DNA sequence file in the EMBL data base and GenBank and did not show ·any significant homologies to._ all the available DNA sequences except for the 264 ~p _yIVS II homology. Sine~ mor~ than 99% of the DNA sequences in. the whole of nature still remain unknown., ~he origin of this unusual sequence is a question which mu.st ~wait further investigation.
    • Hypothalamic AgRP and POMC neurons modulate stress-induced depression-related behaviors

      Fang, Xing; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine
      Depression is a common and debilitating mental disease. Currently available antidepressants are not effective for many individuals with depression and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remain limited. Evidence suggests that hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is highly responsive to acute stress. The ARC contains two distinct subpopulations of neurons—expressing orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). AgRP and POMC neurons regulate food intake and the food reward system. It is unknown whether AgRP and POMC neurons are recruited by chronic stress and if their dysfunction may contribute to the development of chronic stress-induced depression-related behaviors. To address this, we have developed a mouse model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which can induce anhedonia and despair behavior that mimic symptoms in human depression. Using this animal model, I investigated the roles of AgRP and POMC neurons in stress responses and stress-induced depression-related behaviors. I demonstrated that CUS decreases activity of AgRP neurons but increases activity of POMC neurons. A chemogenetic approach was used to selectively manipulate the activity of POMC and AgRP neurons, leading to opposite effects of stress-induced depression-related behaviors. These results suggest that AgRP and POMC neurons are differentially involved in stress maladaptation and related behaviors. It provides insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of depression and novel strategies for the treatment of this mental illness.
    • The effects of metronidazole on murine (mus musculus) bone-cell culture

      Rouse, Stephen J.; School of Oral Biology (1998-05)
    • Androgenic maintenance of rat penile erection

      Reily, Christopher M.; School of Graduate Studies (1997-06)
    • Venous contraction to endothelin-1 in congestive heart failure.

      Reddy, Vikram; School of Graduate Studies (2003-04)
      Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is produced by endothelial cells and can stimulate either the ET A or the ET 8 receptors. The role of ET-1 and the identity of the endothelin receptors involved in mediating tone in the mesenteric small veins of the -Golden Syrian hamster are not known. ET-1. induces venoconstriction, thereby increasing the preload to the heart in congestive heart failure. However, mechanisms mediating contraction to ET-1 in the mesenteric small veins of the cardiomyopathic hamsters in the early and late stages of CHF are not known. Therefore, mechanisms mediating ET-1 induced contraction were determined in the mesenteric small veins of the Golden Syrian and cardiomyopathic hamsters in the early and late sta~es of CHF. Baseline intraluminal diameter of small veins was measured before anci after treatment with either ET A or ET 8 receptor antagonists. .ET-1 induced contraction was higher in the · early stage of CHF, while it was· decreased in the late stage of CHF. Blockade of the ET A receptor decreased ET-1 induced contraction in the mesenteric small veins from the control and cardiomyopathic hamsters in both the early and late stage of CHF. ET 8 receptor blockade decreased the ET-1 induced contraction in the control and cardiomyopathic hamsters in the early, but not late, stage of CHF. Therefore, ET-1 induced contraction in the mesenteric small veins is mediated by the ET A receptors alone in the late stage of CHF, while both the ET A and ET 8 receptors mediate vasoconstriction in the controls and in the early stage of CHF. Stimulation of ET-1 receptors is associated with an increase in calcium levels within the vascular smooth muscle cells. It is not known whether the increase in reactivity to ET-1 in the early stage of CHF or the decrease in reactivity to ET-1 in the late stage of CHF is due to problems with mobilization of the intracellular calcium levels within the vascular smooth muscle cell. Following ET-1, calcium levels within the vascular smooth muscle cell were increased to a larger extent in the early stage of CHF, than in the late stage _of CHF, in agreement with the vascular reactivity data. Calcium levels were also measured before and after treatment with either ET A or ET B receptor antagonists. Blockade of the ETA receptor inhibited the ET-1. ·induced increase in calcium levels in the mesenteric small veins from the control and cardiomyopathic hamsters in both the early and late stage of CHF. However, ETa_ receptor blockade inhibited the ET-1 induced increase in calcium levels in only the control and cardiomyopathic hamsters in the early stage of CHF. These results indicate the absence of a functional responses mediated by the ET a receptor in the late stage of CHF. Studies have shown that NO can modulate the contraction to ET-1 in the vasculature. Baseline intraluminal diameter of small veins were measured before and after treatment with N-nitro-L-arginine (LNA), a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide · synthase. LNA decreased the contraction to ET-1 in the early stage of CHF, but increased contraction to ET-1 in the late stage of CHF. This indicates thatNOS mediates a vasodilatory effect that counteracts contraction to ET-1 in the late stage, but contributes to the vasoconstrictor effect of ET-1 in the late stage of CHF. NOS activity was. measured to identify the NOS isoforms contributing to the modulation of ET-1 induced vascular reactivity. Total NOS activity was significantly increased in the cytosolic fraction of small veins from hamsters in the late stage of CHF and in the particulate fraction in hamsters in the early stage of CHF. In the late stage, the increase in NOS activity was inhibitable by 1400W, an iNOS selective inhibitor, suggesting that an increase in iNOS decreases the contraction to ET-1. In summary, in the early stage of CHF, there is an increase in the vascular reactivity to ET-1 associated with an increase in intracellular calcium levels and partially mediated by NOS. This may-increase preload and impair myocardial function in CHF. There is an absence of ET 8 receptor-mediated responses in the late stage of CHF, associated with very high plasma ET -1 levels and imp•aired intracellular calcium · signaling. NOS activity is significantly enhance4 in the mesenteric small veins from the cardiomyopathic hamsters in the late phase of CHF, and this increase in NOS activity is at least partially dependent on iNOS and may contribute to impaired venous contraction to ET-1 in cardiomyopathic hamsters. This may serve as a compensatory mechanism to decrease the preload to the failing heart.
    • The effects of age and endotoxin on antioxidant enzyme activity in the eye

      Recasens, Jaime F.; Department of Ophthalmology (1990-06)
    • Modulation of Interleukin-6 by levonorgestrel in murine osteoblasts

      Raez, Arlynn G.; School of Graduate Studies (1997-01)
    • Multifaceted role of progesterone upon the reproductive functions of the female rat

      Putnam, Carla D.; Deparment of Physiology and Endocrinology (1990-07)
    • Creating a new life : the process of temperance for perinatal cocaine crack users

      Pursley-Crotteau, Margaret Suzanne; School of Nursing (1995-03)
    • Comparison of two work schedules and interference with personal activities and employee attitudes

      Pompey, Joyce; School of Nursing (1990-03)
      In nursing job dissatisfaction and nursing turnover are· high. One strategy that has been developed to attempt to alleviate some of these problems is the introduction of alternate work schedules into the ·health care fields. One such alternate work schedule is the twelve-hbu~ shift. This comparative ex-post facto study design systematically examines the attitudes of two groups of regist~red nurses in relatidn to the twelve-hour -alterriate work .schedule: and the traditional eight-hour work schequle. One group of nurses - worked twelve hours per day at -least.two days per week. The other group of hurses worked eight hour~ per day, four tb five days per ~~ek~ _:·surveys·were·c6mp1eted by the registered nurses, and the results-wefe analyzed to· - determine the attitudes of each group regarding the spe6ific schedule worked and the amount of interference with personal activities. No significant difference Was found between the two groups in ralation to attitudes toward the ~chedule. ·Howe~er, there was a signijicant difference in the amount of interference with personal activities. The twelve-hour group consistently reported less interference with personal activities than the eight-hour group.
    • Molecular mechanisms of high glucose-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in retinal endothelial cells

      Platt, Daniel H; School of Graduate Studies (2004-10)
      Studies in diabetic patients, experimental animal models and tissue culture cells treated with high glucose have shown a close association between pathologic vascular growth, over-expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and oxidative stress. Studies of diabetic patients and high glucose treated cells have also shown increased levels of tyrosine nitration, a marker for the formation of the reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite. Excess formation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species has been shown to activate two transcription factors that regulate the expression of VEGF, hypoxia-inducible factor-I (HIF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). These observations suggest that diabetes causes increases in VEGF expression due to the effects of high glucose in stimulating the formation of peroxynitrite, which l~ads to the activation of the transcription factors HIF-1 and/or ST AT3 and increases in VEGF expression. This hypothesis was tested by experiments using primary cultures of retinal endothelial cells treated with peroxynitrite or high glucose. Both treatments .increased VEGF mRNA and protein levels. Further, pretreatment with the 'specific peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTPPs blocked the increase in VEGF expression. To determine if HIF-1 and/or STAT3 play a role in the peroxynitrite-induced VEGF expression, studies were done to analyze the activation patterns of both transcription factors. These studies showed that peroxynitrite had no effect on the activation or nuclear translocation of HIF-1 a, but did induce a rapid activation and nuclear translocation of STAT3. To further explore the role of STAT3 in the VEGF expression, cells were treated with peroxynitrite or high glucose in the presence or absence of an adenoviral vector expressing dominant-negative STAT3. Overexpression of the dominant-negative STAT3 blocked the effects of either peroxynitrite or high glucose in increasing VEGF mRNA. Further, treatment with FeTPPS blocked the effects of high glucose in stimulating activation of STAT3. A non-receptor tyrosine kinase, cSrc, has been shown to play a role in the activation of ST AT3 as well as the induction of VEGF expression during tumor angiogenesis. To determine if cSrc plays a role in ST AT3 regulated VEGF transcriptional activation, retinal endothelial cells were transduced with an adenovirus over-expressing a constitutively active Src (vSrc). The vSrc transduction induced activation of STAT3 and increased VEGF expression. Further, FeTPPs blocked the effects of peroxynitrite and high glucose in stimulating activation of cSrc. Additionally, the Src inhibitor PPl blocked the effects of peroxynitrite anμ high glucose in· increasing VEGF mRNA and protein expression. This work is the first to show that 1) high glucose-induced peroxynitrite formation increases· VE_GF expression, 2) STAT3 activation by high glucose-induced peroxynitrite formation regulates VEGF expression and 3) cSrc activation by high glucose-induced peroxynitrite formation activates STAT3 and increases VEGF expression.
    • Efficacy of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate-palmitate as a Virucidal Compound Against Norovirus

      Widjaja, Nicole; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Norovirus is a highly infectious, non-enveloped virus found to be the leading cause of global gastroenteritis outbreaks. Every year within the United States, this virus is responsible for an average of 19-21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis, approximately 570-800 deaths, and has been the cause of 1.7 to 1.9 million outpatient visits. On a global scale, healthcare costs and lost productivity are estimated to $60 billion due to illnesses and outbreaks caused by the burden of norovirus. Unfortunately, current measures to prevent the transmission of norovirus remain insufficient as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) can only recommend hand washing with soap and water as the best preventative measure. The only other hand hygiene method available is alcohol-based hand sanitizers, but the CDC states that they are not effective in inactivating norovirus particles and warns that it should not be considered a substitute to hand washing. Recently, epigallocatecin-3-gallate (EGCG) a major component extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, also commonly known as tea plant, has shown potential to be the next viable candidate as an antiviral solution. Lipid derivatives of EGCG, most notably EGCGpalmitate, has shown to express potent antiviral properties and has showed to play a crucial role in the fight against other non-enveloped viruses such as poliovirus and adenovirus. In this study, we determined the efficacy of EGCG-palmitate in novel formulations against human norovirus surrogates by utilizing the EU international standards for hand hygiene in vitro studies against norovirus. Evidence is provided determining the virucidal activity of alcohol-based ProtecTeaV formulations containing EGCG-palmitate as well as the potential for EGCG-palmitate as a persistent residual virucidal activity against norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1). By creating an effective, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and long lasting solution composed of EGCG-palmitate, the results of this innovative approach would expand the options available to reduce the transmission of norovirus essentially bridging the gap for a new preventative hand hygiene and ultimately impacting the spread of norovirus on a worldwide scale.