Now showing items 21-40 of 4991

    • Efficacy of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate-palmitate as a Virucidal Compound Against Norovirus

      Widjaja, Nicole; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Norovirus is a highly infectious, non-enveloped virus found to be the leading cause of global gastroenteritis outbreaks. Every year within the United States, this virus is responsible for an average of 19-21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis, approximately 570-800 deaths, and has been the cause of 1.7 to 1.9 million outpatient visits. On a global scale, healthcare costs and lost productivity are estimated to $60 billion due to illnesses and outbreaks caused by the burden of norovirus. Unfortunately, current measures to prevent the transmission of norovirus remain insufficient as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) can only recommend hand washing with soap and water as the best preventative measure. The only other hand hygiene method available is alcohol-based hand sanitizers, but the CDC states that they are not effective in inactivating norovirus particles and warns that it should not be considered a substitute to hand washing. Recently, epigallocatecin-3-gallate (EGCG) a major component extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, also commonly known as tea plant, has shown potential to be the next viable candidate as an antiviral solution. Lipid derivatives of EGCG, most notably EGCGpalmitate, has shown to express potent antiviral properties and has showed to play a crucial role in the fight against other non-enveloped viruses such as poliovirus and adenovirus. In this study, we determined the efficacy of EGCG-palmitate in novel formulations against human norovirus surrogates by utilizing the EU international standards for hand hygiene in vitro studies against norovirus. Evidence is provided determining the virucidal activity of alcohol-based ProtecTeaV formulations containing EGCG-palmitate as well as the potential for EGCG-palmitate as a persistent residual virucidal activity against norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1). By creating an effective, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and long lasting solution composed of EGCG-palmitate, the results of this innovative approach would expand the options available to reduce the transmission of norovirus essentially bridging the gap for a new preventative hand hygiene and ultimately impacting the spread of norovirus on a worldwide scale.
    • THE SECURITY DILEMMA IN RELATION TO RUSSIA’S CYBERAGGRESSION TOWARDS THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 2016 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

      O'Neil, Rachelle; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Voting for public office is often touted as a right, and the ability to do so without interference is vital to the democratic process of the United States. However, during the U.S. 2016 Presidential Election, Russia interfered with the voting process. Given that Russia and the U.S. has a long tenuous relationship that consist of a mutual back and forth, this paper proposes that the security dilemma theory offers an explanation outlining Russia’s cyberaggression toward the U.S. 2016 Presidential Election and whether the aggression posturing was offensive, defensive, or an exchange of both. Additionally, this paper conducts a literature review of the security dilemma theory and the rise of the cybersecurity dilemmas its derivative and ascertains their applicability to the proposed thesis. The paper further argues that in relation to the U.S., Russia, as a Great Power, more likely favors cyberaggression when threatened, real or perceived. This paper uses case analysis as the methodology for testing its research question and answering its thesis. The case analysis comprises of examples of the security dilemma theory, aggression, the cybersecurity dilemma , and cyberaggression exchanged between Russia and the U.S. during the Cold War and 21st Century. After reviewing analysis trends, a discussion follows that covers gapsin this research; advanced knowledge about the theory; the thesis astested; the development or testing of the theory; methodology of cases analyzed; the sources used; measurement of variables; limitations of the study; generalization of results; and finally the reliability or replicability of the results.
    • The Cybersecurity Dilemma and Targeted Advertising

      Martin, Elizabeth; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      A great debate remains regarding whether cyberspace is offense dominant or defense dominant. This paper reviews the literature of scholars within the cybersecurity offense-defense balance theory discipline. It discusses both the offensive and defensive arguments in detail and determines the United States should ultimately pursue a defensive dominance to ensure cyber superiority. To emphasize the need for defense, the three-year, social-media platform-based, Russian Federation Information Operation serves as a baseline example. Russia not only sowed distrust in the American Democratic process but was successful in inflaming fragile social issues throughout the United States. Russia directly threatened United States sovereignty across an extended period of time and did so, literally from half a world away. This paper serves to develop the role Information Warfare has in manipulation of the Offense-Defense Balance and concludes with the discussion for much needed legislation change, industrial herd immunity, and increased and direct investment in defense and education.
    • The Influence of Instructional Rounds on Teacher Metacognition in a Middle School Context: A Mixed Methods Study

      Townsend, Holly; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      This study investigated, quantified, and observed metacognitive transformation in middle school ELA and math teachers through the implementation of instructional rounds as a change agent in comparison to the traditional, one-stop workshop format of professional development. A mixed method design was utilized that addressed two research questions: How is teacher metacognition impacted through professional development, and what is the difference in teacher metacognition scores after receiving traditional professional development versus instructional rounds? The results of the study suggested that teacher metacognition is positively impacted by instructional rounds and there were positive attitudes towards instructional rounds as an alternative to traditional professional development. Additionally, the qualitative data indicated that instructional rounds did have a positive impact on instructional practices and supported a progressive maturation of teacher metacognition that could be ultimately transferred to the learner. First, the results elucidated that normal teaching practice is inherently metacognitive and embodies the metacognitive knowledge tenets: person, task, and strategy. Next, teacher collaboration supports the perpetuation of a metacognitive experience, which innately lends itself to reflection. Thirdly, teacher reflection fosters metacognitive goals, thereby resulting in regulation of actions or strategies. Finally, teacher action derived from goal setting is, by definition, metacognitive action. In summary, instructional rounds appeared to be an effective form of professional development that increased and matured teacher metacognition.
    • The Influence of Instructional Rounds on Teacher Metacognition in a Middle School Context: A Mixed Methods Study

      Scoggins, Katherine; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      This study investigated, quantified, and observed metacognitive transformation in middle school ELA and math teachers through the implementation of instructional rounds as a change agent in comparison to the traditional, one-stop workshop format of professional development. A mixed method design was utilized that addressed two research questions: How is teacher metacognition impacted through professional development, and what is the difference in teacher metacognition scores after receiving traditional professional development versus instructional rounds? The results of the study suggested that teacher metacognition is positively impacted by instructional rounds and there were positive attitudes towards instructional rounds as an alternative to traditional professional development. Additionally, the qualitative data indicated that instructional rounds did have a positive impact on instructional practices and supported a progressive maturation of teacher metacognition that could be ultimately transferred to the learner. First, the results elucidated that normal teaching practice is inherently metacognitive and embodies the metacognitive knowledge tenets: person, task, and strategy. Next, teacher collaboration supports the perpetuation of a metacognitive experience, which innately lends itself to reflection. Thirdly, teacher reflection fosters metacognitive goals, thereby resulting in regulation of actions or strategies. Finally, teacher action derived from goal setting is, by definition, metacognitive action. In summary, instructional rounds appeared to be an effective form of professional development that increased and matured teacher metacognition.
    • PREDICTING TRAINEE PSYCHOTHERAPIST GRADUATE STUDENT SUCCESS WITH ACADEMIC AND PERSONALITY MEASURES

      Lewis, Casey; Department of Psychological Sciences (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      Success in counseling psychology programs includes both academic and clinical performance. Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) and undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) have been linked to the academic aspects of success in programs (e.g., Daehnert & Carter, 1987). Letters of recommendation, personal statements, and interviews are thought to assess interpersonal functioning, which is important in therapeutic ability (e.g., Barnicot, Wampold, & Priebe, 2014). However, these assessments have significant limitations. The current study uses standardized personality assessments in conjunction with GRE and UGPA to predict student success. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980, 1983) was used to assess self-reported empathy. Additionally, a performance-based measure, the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale – Global Rating Method (SCORS-G; Westen, 1995) was used to rate Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1973) narratives to assess trainees’ interpersonal functioning. Variables related to students’ completion vs. non-completion of the first year of a master in clinical and counseling psychology program were analyzed using t-tests and discriminant function analyses. Our findings suggest that a performance-based measure of interpersonal ability is useful at assessing applicants to counseling psychology programs, while GRE scores may not be as useful in the admissions process. Additionally, a significantly higher rate of male vs. female non-completers may reveal a trend in clinical/counseling psychology programs that needs to be addressed.
    • AN ACTOR-NETWORK VIEW OF THE CYBER DOMAIN’S EFFECTS ON DEMOCRATIZATION THROUGH ELECTIONS

      Garrett, Eric; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Cyberspace conceptualizations include combinations of Internet infrastructure, the devices used to access it, and applications used to encapsulate or communicate data. Other conceptualizations are more abstract. Whether it directly enables democracy as a public sphere, drives economics in the private sector, or securitizes as a domain for information operations, or cyber warfare. These conceptualizations obscure understanding cyberspace’s first order effects on events, and second order understanding related to intelligence and security studies. The research question, can actor-network theory supply a robust theoretical framework to understand and describe cyberspace’s core qualities as a democratizing medium, will be examined in Kenyan, Nigerian, and Zambian use of cyberspace related to elections. Examination of these data points through four elemental characteristics of cyberspace, proliferation, evolution, “spatial hereness,” and linkability, within an actor-network theory will lead to a determination if the totality of cyberspace is a democratizing medium. Lastly, this paper will make general recommendations that can lead to greater understanding of cyberspace that can influence policy and decision making as well as encourage democratic maturity in cyberspace by applying the considerations gained from an actor-network theory perspective.
    • OSTEOPONTIN AS A NOVEL IMMUNE CHECKPOINT

      Klement, John; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      The host adaptive immune system functions to discriminate self from non-self, eliminating threats from viral infection to tumors. Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) are the primary effector arm of adaptive immunity. To prevent aberrant activation and autoimmunity, immune checkpoints function physiologically to restrain the CTL response. Tumors pathologically express these checkpoints, preventing immune-driven tumor clearance. Accordingly, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable clinical success. However, many types of malignancies, as well as many individual patients with responsive tumor types, fail to benefit from current ICI immunotherapies. This conundrum suggests that as-yet undiscovered immune checkpoints exist. We observed that mice deficient in the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor eight (IRF8) tolerated allogenic tumor grafts and demonstrated impaired CTL activation with an accumulation of CD44hi memory-like CTLs. We sought to investigate the mechanism of this immunosuppression. Conditional deletion of IRF8 in T cells, as well as a mixed chimera model, demonstrated that IRF8 did not directly control CTL activation or differentiation into a CD44hi population. Instead, global loss of IRF8 lead to an expansion of an immature myeloid CD11b+Ly6G+Ly6Clo population which highly expressed osteopontin (OPN), a physiological ligand for CD44. Elevated levels of OPN were shown to suppress murine CTL activation and proliferation. A similar IRF8-OPN-CD44 axis was observed in murine and human colorectal cancer, which is refractory to current ICI therapies. Malignant cells and human patients displayed enhanced OPN levels relative to healthy donor controls. This was shown to be mediated by loss of IRF8 expression, which directly bound to the OPN promoter to repress its transcription. Elevated levels of OPN similarly prevented human CTL activation, and higher levels of OPN were correlated with decreased survival in human patients. We have shown that the IRF8-OPN-CD44 axis functions as a novel immune checkpoint in both myeloid and tumor cells. Blockade of OPN may have potent anti-tumor activity, expanding the pool of patients responsive to ICI therapy.
    • Effect of tobacco smoke components on NFkB activation in human monocytes

      Perry, Mary Heather; School of Graduate Studies (2002-07)
    • Preschoolers' knowledge of health and healthy behaviors

      Pearre, Rena C.; School of Nursing (1993-05)
      Children's knowledge and thoughts about health can influence their adult health behaviors, because behaviors learned in childhood are frequently carried throughout life. The purpose of this study was to explore preschoolers' knowledge of health. Twenty preschool children were interviewed using Flaherty's (1986) Preschool Health Picture Interview (PHPI). Data analyzed by t-tests revealed the age of the child to be a significant factor in the childs knowledge of health. The findings of this study suggest that preschoolers recognize pictures that indicate situations that could be hazardous to health as well as activities that promote health. Nurses need to work with preschoolers to promote health education so that these behaviors will continue in adulthood.
    • Adrenal zona glomerulosa targeting in transgenic mice

      Parmar, Jeniel; School of Graduate Studies (2009-12)
      The final step in the production of aldosterone is performed by the enzyme aldosterone synthase (CYP11 B2)-. CYP11 B2 is primarily expressed in the zona glomerulosa (ZG). of the adrenal cortex. Adrenocortical, expression of CYP11 B2 is primarily regulated by circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and K+, but the molecular mechanisms that control its ZG-specific expression are not clearly defined. Con$iderable in vitro analyses have been performed towards defining the mechanisms that control CYP11 B2 expression. Previous studies from our laboratory and others have identified · several cis-regulatory elements on the 5' · flanking promoter region (at -71/64, -129/114, -351/343 and -773/766) that regulate basal expression as well as maximal stimulation of CYP11 B2 gene transcription. Moreover, key· transcription factors that bind these cis-regulatory regions including NGFIB, NURR1, SF-1 and COUP-TF have also been identified. Hence, through several in vitro analyses, a considerable evidence exists supporting the contention that these regulatory elements found within the 5' flanking promoter region may control ZG-specific expression of CYP 11 B2 gene. However, thus far, all evidence is based on in. vitro analyses of transcriptional regulation, which does not always depict in vivo_occurrences. To initiate our in vivo assessment of CYP1182 promoter, we began by comparing the DNA sequences between human, mouse, and rat CYP1182 genes, which interestingly revealed high sequence similarity in the · 5' flanking promoter region of the CYP1182 gene. This result suggested that the cisregulatory regions identified by in vitro analyses likely plays an important role in CYP1182 ZG-specific gene expression. Therefore, we generated transgenic mouse lines by pronuclear injection of a Transgenic (Tg) DNA construct containing 985 base pairs (bp) of the mouse Cyp11 b2 promoter driving expression of a Lacz reporter gene.· Importantly, 4 founder Tg mouse lines revealed Lacz expression exclusively in the adrenal ZG. Mice fed a normal sodium diet (0.3 %) and a low sodium diet (0.03 %) showed Lacz mRNA expression exclusively in adrenal tissue. Furthermore, (3-galactosidase protein (the product of LacZ) was localized solely in the ZG of the Tg mice. Hence, the role of the proximal promoter region of the Cyp11 b2 gene was confirmed, in vivo, as this region allowed induction of Lacz exclusively in the adrenal ZG of Tg mice. Moreover, with the expression of Lacz properly restricted to adrenal ZG, we concluded that regions required for Cyp11 b2 gene repression in the adjacent inner two zones of the adrenal cortex were also confined within the 985 bp promoter. This regulatory fragment. will be an invaluable tool for adrenal ZG targeting of genes believed to play a role in adrenocortical diseases and aldosterone dysregulation. While developing Tg mice, we also focused on characterization and development of novel adrenocortical cell lines. As aforementioned, in vitro culture models have allowed a multitude of studies that have broadened our understanding of normal adrenocortical endocrine function. Primary cultures of adrenocortical cells have been an excellent source for in vitro studies. However, the eventual onset of senescence in primary cultures of cells creates a recurring need for the costly · and difficult isolations of fresh adrenocortical cells. Hence, the use of primary cultures has been increasingly supplemented by immortalized cell lines. We utilized an adrenocortical carcinoma to develop a human adrenocortical cell line. We entitled it the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line clone 15 (HAC15). HAC15 represents only the second human adrenocortical cell line available that exhibits physiological hormonal responses, steroid.ogenesis, and expression of steroid-metabolizing enzymes. The ability of HAC15 to respond to Ang II, K+, and ACTH makes it the first adrenal cell line capable of responding to the three main physiologic regulators of the adrenal cortex.
    • Post-translational regulation of nadph oxidase 5 (NOX5) mediated via phosphorylation and sumoylation

      Pandey, Deepesh; School of Graduate Studies (2011-03)
      the protein: protein interactions that coordinate the activation of other Nox isoforms [4]. Instead, the primary driving force for Nox5 activity is calcium [5]. While calcium is absolutely required for Nox5 activity, discrepancies between the ~mount of calcium needed to initiate ROS production versus that measured inside cells has led to the discovery by our laboratory and others that the calcium sensitivity of Nox5 can be modified by the specific phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues in response to the protein kinase C (PKC)-agonist, PMA resulting in a sustained activation of Nox5 at resting levels of calcium [6, 7]. However, the specific kinase(s) mediating the phosphorylation and activation of Nox5 are not known and their identification was the goal of our study. Using pharmacological inhibitors, dominant negative mutants and knockdown of endogenous genes (MEKl, MEK2 and CAMKIIa) using siRNA approach, we demonstrated that MEKl/2-ERKl/2 and CAMKIIa signaling pathways can positively regulate Nox5 activity by inducing the specific phosphorylation of S498 and S475, respectively. While much attention has been given to the mechanisms that positively regulate Nox activity, little is known about mechanisms that suppress Nox function. Cellular stress arising from changes in osmotic pressure, heat, cold etc are potent stimuli for protein SUMOylation. Importantly, oxidative stress arising from increased ROS is one of the best recognized stimuli for regulating protein SUMOylation [8, 9]. Hence, we investigated whether SUMO could influence· the activity of Nox and thus limit the damaging effects of these molecules. We found that SUMO-1 and the SUMO-specific conjugating enzyme, UBC-9 potently suppressed the activity of Nox5 as well as other Nox isoforms (Noxl, 2, 3 and 4). We also found that co-expression of SUMO-1 does not result in the SUMOylation ofNox5 and that mutation of predicted sites of SUMOylation and conserved lysines on Nox5 failed to prevent the SUMO-I driven inhibition of ROS production. In summary, we have identified the expression ofNox5 and more specifically the and p splice variants in human blood vessels and tissues. Our data suggest that Nox5 a and p are the only variants capable of producing ROS in human blood vessels, but also that the inactive variants can function as dominant negatives. Additionally, we have shown that MAPK and CAMKIIa signaling pathways positively regulate Nox5 activity via changes in phosphorylation whereas SUMO-I negatively regulates activity through a yet to be defined mechanism.
    • Modulation of ion channels by cannabinoid receptors in rat sympathetic neurons

      Pan, Xianghua; School of Graduate Studies (1996-09)
      The rat brain-cannabinoid receptor (CBl) is a member of the G protein coupled receptor family. The present study direcdy- tested the functional coupling of CB 1 receptor with neuronal ion channels. _ The rat CBl receptor.was heterologously expressed by microinjection of cRNA into the enzymatically dissociated adult rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. The cannabinoid receptor agonists WIN 55,212-2 and .CP 55940 produced a voltagedependent inhibitio_n of whole cell Ca2+ currents. The maximal inhibitions of the Ca2+ current by WIN 55,212-2 and CP 55,940 were 73% and 38%, respectively. The ECso -of WIN 55,212-2 was 47 nM and the ECso of CP 55940 was 7 nM. The inhibition was mediated by pertussis toxin (PTX) sensitive Gprotein and the N-type - Ca2+ channels are the targets. The L-type Ca2+ channels, M type K+ current and the A current were not modulated by WIN 55,212-2. An inwardly rectifying current was activated by WIN 55,212-2. The selective CBl receptor antagonist SR 141716A and LY 320135 abolished the inhibition of the Ca2+ currents by WIN 55,212-2. However, when given alone, SR 141716A and LY 320135 increased the Ca2+ current in SCG neurons expressing the- CBl receptor. SR 141716A increased Ca2+ current with an ECso of 32 nM and a maximal current increase of 41 % at 1 μM. This increase of Ca2+ current by SR 141716A was a reversal of a tonic inhibition of Ca2+ current in neurons expressing CB 1 receptors. A K 192A mutant of the human CB 1 receptor was tested to determine whether the tonic activation of the cannabinoid receptor is due to endogenous arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide). The K192A mutant receptor was expressed by microinjection of receptor cDNA into nucleus of the SCG neurons. WIN 55,212-2 inhibited the Ca2+ current in these SCG neurons, but SR 141716A did not increase the Ca2+ current. However, SR 141716A inhibited the effect of WIN 55,212-2. Ca2+ ·currents from male rat major pelvic ganglion neurons were examined for modulation by native cannabinoid receptors. WIN 55,212-2 inhibited and SR· 141716A increased the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents in a subpopulation of the rat major pelvic ganglion neurons. 1 μM WIN 55,212-2 inhibited current by 26.1±1.8% and 1 μM SR 141716A increased current by 27.4±6.9%. These findings indicate that both heterologously expressed CB 1 cannabinoid receptors and the native neuronal cannabinoid receptors can inhibit voltage-dependent - Ca2+ channels. There is a tonic activation of both the heterologously expressed rat and human CB 1 receptor and the native rat cannabinoid receptor. Two possible mechanisms may be responsible for the tonic receptor activation: an endogenous agonist may exist or the cannabinoid receptor can adopt an active conformational state such that SR 141716A may act as an inverse agonist.
    • Activity-dependent regulation of the dopamine transporter is mediated by Cam Kinase II signaling

      Padmanabhan, Shalini; School of Graduate Studies (2009-01)
      Dopamine signaling in the brain governs a variety of functions such as locomotor activity, reward, attention and working memory. The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a crucial role in the clearance of extracellular dopamine and thus helps terminate dopamine neurotransmission. DAT is also the target for psychostimulant drugs of abuse and therapeutic agents. Changes in DAT expression occur in neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chro_nic psychostimulant use, and variability in DAT abundance is associated with differences in working memory. However, mechanisms regulating DAT expression are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that neuronal activity is one of the non-genetic determinants of DAT abundance. Chronic perturbations in neuronal firing, caused by pharmacological agents, significantly altered DAT expression and function in primary cultures of mesencephalic neurons. Pharmacological experiments showed that calcium entry through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity played a role in activity-dependent changes in DAT expression. In order to further evaluate the role of CaMKII in DAT regulation, the effect of sustained depolarization, a stimulus often used to study activity-dependent changes in gene expression, on DAT expression was tested. Surprisingly, chronic KCl-induced depolarization decreased DAT expression and function. Measurement of CaMKII activity in dopam·ine neurons showed that chronic depolarization led to a decrease in CaMKI I activity, even in the presence of elevated intracellular calcium, due to activation of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A. Moreover, increasing CaMKII activity in dopamine neurons by introducing a constitutively active CaMKII mutant caused a significant increase in DAT abundance while inhibiting CaMKII activity in dopamine neurons using a dominant-negative CaMKII mutant decreased DAT abundance suggesting that CaMKII activity is both sufficient and required to cause changes in DAT expression in a cell autonomous fashion. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CaMKI I activity can govern DAT expression and may play an important role in dopamine neurotransmission in the brain.
    • The Effects of endocrine dysfunction on the cerebrovasculature and stroke

      Osmond, Jessica Martin; School of Graduate Studies (2010-02)
    • The Influence of Instructional Rounds on Teacher Metacognition in a Middle School Context: A Mixed Methods Study

      Hamilton, William B; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      This study investigated, quantified, and observed metacognitive transformation in middle school ELA and math teachers through the implementation of instructional rounds as a change agent in comparison to the traditional, one-stop workshop format of professional development. A mixed method design was utilized that addressed two research questions: How is teacher metacognition impacted through professional development, and what is the difference in teacher metacognition scores after receiving traditional professional development versus instructional rounds? The results of the study suggested that teacher metacognition is positively impacted by instructional rounds and there were positive attitudes towards instructional rounds as an alternative to traditional professional development. Additionally, the qualitative data indicated that instructional rounds did have a positive impact on instructional practices and supported a progressive maturation of teacher metacognition that could be ultimately transferred to the learner. First, the results elucidated that normal teaching practice is inherently metacognitive and embodies the metacognitive knowledge tenets: person, task, and strategy. Next, teacher collaboration supports the perpetuation of a metacognitive experience, which innately lends itself to reflection. Thirdly, teacher reflection fosters metacognitive goals, thereby resulting in regulation of actions or strategies. Finally, teacher action derived from goal setting is, by definition, metacognitive action. In summary, instructional rounds appeared to be an effective form of professional development that increased and matured teacher metacognition. Keywords: Instructional rounds, metacognition, professional development, teaching practice
    • ROLE OF CLASS III PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE IN THE RENAL PROXIMAL TUBULE

      Liu, Ting; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Yeast only has a single phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) known as vacuolar protein sorting 34 (VPS34); however, mammals have evolved to express three structurally different classes of PI3Ks: class I, II, and III. Although the class III PI3K (Pik3c3) is the only PI3K evolutionarily conserved from yeast to man, its distribution in the mammalian kidney is unknown, and its role in the renal proximal tubule, especially under certain pathophysiological conditions such as nephron loss-induced Compensatory Nephron Hypertrophy (CNH), remains undefined. The goal of Aim 1 was to define the expression pattern and relevant biological function of Pik3c3 in the kidney. We found that the glomerular podocyte expresses the highest level of Pik3c3 in the kidney. Among all renal tubular cells, the specialized distal convoluted tubular epithelial cells called macula densa cells express the highest level of Pik3c3, and the renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) express the second highest level of Pik3c3. This prompted us to perform additional experiments for Aim 1 that led to the demonstration of an essential function of Pik3c3 in regulating the degradation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and the termination of EGFR signaling in RPTC following EGF binding with EGFR. The goal of Aim 2 was to determine whether Pik3c3 is essential in mediating uninephrectomy (UNX)-induced compensatory nephron hypertrophy. We generated a global Pik3c3-hypomorphic mouse model and two slightly different proximal tubule-specific Pik3c3 knockout mouse models: Pik3c3Neo-ptKO and Pik3c3ptKO. Interestingly, CNH was markedly inhibited in the global Pik3c3-hypomorphic mouse model and proximal tubule-specific Pik3c3 knockout models. The goal of Aim 3 was to determine the effect and underlying mechanism of complete Pik3c3 deletion in renal proximal tubule cells. We found that complete Pik3c3 deletion in some renal proximal tubule cells resulting in marked cell death that subsequently progressed to tubulointerstitial fibrosis. My project has, for the first time, determined the expression pattern of Pik3c3 in the kidney and provided the first definitive evidence that Pik3c3 controls the degree of CNH and functions upstream of the mTORC1-S6K1-rpS6 pathway in the regulation of CNH. In addition, my project reveals an essential role of Pik3c3 in maintaining the homeostasis and survival of proximal tubule cells.
    • Teaching Matters May 2020

      Kelehear, Zach; Office of the Vice Provost for Instruction (Augusta University, 2020-05-06)
      Table of Contents: Innovation Challenge Competition Winners Announced, Innovation and Engagement: Now More Important Than Ever, Career Services Is There For You, AHEC Updates, Computer Game Teaches Students the Factors of Fair Use, First and Second Year Experiences Updates, Academic Advisement Center updates, ASC Updates, AAMI Program Charges Ahead.