Now showing items 21-40 of 5292

    • Factors That Promote or Inhabit Confrontation of Chemically Impaired Nurses by Nursing Administrators

      Harrell, Lisa G.; College of Nursing (Medical College of Georgia, 1989-06)
    • The Mutual and Individual Role Expectations of Nurses and Physicians

      Hilson, Diane N.; College of Nursing (Medical College of Georgia, 1990-04)
      The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to identify the metal and individual role expectations of physicians and nurses, and to identify discrepant perceptions, if any, on the part of one or the other. A total of sixty-five (54%) nurses and 78 (43%) physicians completed the Nurse and Physician Role Questionnaire and demographic data sheet. Two-tailed t-tests were utilized to test each hypothesis and to measure the differences between the nurses' and physicians' perceptions as expressed in each item response. Significant differences were found between the two groups' perceptions of their own role and the role of the other. Physicians differed in their expectations regarding both the nurse's role and their own role more so than did the nurses.
    • The Relationship Between Nurses' Completion of a Pain Management Educational Program and Nurses' Pain Management Behaviors

      Howell, LaDonna W.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1995)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between nurses' completion of a pain management educational program and nurses' pain management behaviors as evidenced by their documentation. Using a pretest/posttest design, the Chart Audit for Pain and the Pain Audit Tool were used to evaluate 136 chart entries by nurses assigned to surgical units. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square statistic. No significant relationship was found between nurses' completion of the pain management program and their documentation behaviors. Based on these findings a single educational program does not appear to be sufficient to change nurses' documentation behaviors regarding pain management. Frequently scheduled programs and administrative involvement in pain management educational plans were encouraged.
    • Regulation of renal medullary endothelin β receptor function by angiotensin II: evidence of sex differences

      Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2012-08)
      The renin angiotensin system and endothelin (ET) systems play critical roles in regulating kidney function and blood pressure. Angiotensin (Ang) II exerts its pro hypertensive effects through A Tl receptor activation. ET -1 has similar effects mediated by ETA receptor stimulation. In contrast, ET -1, via ET s receptors, mediates vasodilation, anti-inflammation, and natriuresis. In the clinical setting, hypertension is more common in men than in premenopausal women of the same age. Moreover, in a number of animal models of genetic or experimental hypertension, females are somewhat protected from high blood pressure compared to males. We previously found that hypertensive male rats, induced by chronic Ang II infusion, have impaired ET 8 receptor function. Because ET s receptors are highly expressed in the renal medulla, the overall aim of this dissertation is to determine the role of Ang II in mediating renal medullary ET s receptor function, and to determine if differences in renal medullary ET 8 receptor function contribute to the sex differences observed in Ang II hypertension. The fust aim was to test the hypothesis that renal medullary ET 8 receptor function is impaired in male Ang II hypertensive rats. However, ET-mediated natriuresis is preserved in female rats in response to chronic Ang II infusion. We compared the diuretic and natriuretic responses to intramedullary infusion of the ET s receptor agonist, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c), in male and female rats treated with.Ang II (260 ng/kg/min s.c.) or vehicle for 14 days. Male Ang II hypertensive rats had impaired ETs-dependent sodium and water excretion. In contrast, renal medullary ET 8 receptor function was preserved in female Ang II-treated rats. Moreover, ETA-mediated diuretic and natriuretic responses were maintained in female Ang II hypertensive rats. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to male Ang II hypertensive rats, ET receptor-induced diuretic and natriuretic responses are preserved in female rats during chronic Ang II infusion. The second aim was to determine ifETs receptors limit the hypertensive response and renal injury induced by chronic Ang II infusion in female rats compared to males. Male and female rats received Ang II infusion (150 ng/kg/min; sc.) along with a high salt diet (4% Na) for 4 weeks; blood pressure was measured by telemetry. After one week of Ang II infusion with a high salt diet, subsets of both male and female rats received the ET8 antagonist, A-192621, at three doses on consecutive weeks (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/d in food). Male rats had significantly higher blood pressure compared to females after 4 weeks of Ang II. A-192621 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure in female Ang II hypertensive rat while there was no significant change in males. After 4 weeks of Ang II infusion, the levels of proteinuria and nephrinuria were higher in male rats compared to female. A-192621 did not further increase urinary excretion of protein or nephrin in either male or female Ang II hypertensive rats. In conclusion, ET 8 receptors provide more protection against hypertension during chronic Ang II infusion in female rats compared to male. The third aim was to determine the physiological role of Ang II in regulating renal ETa receptor function during salt deprivation, a model with high levels of endogenous Ang II. After 2 weeks of normal (0.4% Na) or low (0.01-0.02% Na) salt feeding, the activation of ET B receptors in the renal medulla increased urine flow and sodium excretion of rats on normal salt diet. While urinary ET-1 excretion was comparable between a normal and low salt diet, ET B-dependent diuresis and natriuresis in response to acute intramedullary infusion of S6c was reduced in the low salt treated rats. Chronic treatment with the A Tl receptor antagonist, candesartan, restored ET B-induced water and sodium excretion in rats fed low salt diet. These findings support the hypothesis that A Tl receptors regulate renal medullary ET 8 receptor function in a low salt diet model to conserve sodium. From these studies, we conclude that Ang II"via the A Tl receptor attenuates renal medullary ET 8 receptor function resulting in sodium and water retention. During pathological situations, Ang II has a greater inhibitory effect on ET B receptor function in male rats compared to females, leading to a greater increase in blood pressure in response to chronic Ang II infusion.
    • T-type calcium current and calcium-induced calcium-release in developing chick myocardium

      Kitchens, Susan A.; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2002-02)
    • Emotional and physical health impacts of intergenerational caregiving for the cognitively and/or functionally impaired elderly in Korea

      Kim, Jin-Sun; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2000-05)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional and physical health of daughter and daughter-in-law caregivers who cared for cognitively and/or functionally impaired parents or parents-in-law in Korea and to identifY factors that explain the emotional and physical health of Korean daughter and daughter-in-law caregivers. The study was guided by Riegel's (1975, 1979) and Lerner's (1985, 1986, 1991) human developmental theories with emphasis on cultural factors and social network interactions. A purposive sample of 120 daughter arid daughter-in-law caregivers who cared for cognitively and/or functionally impaired parents or parents-in-law was selected for this study. Care-recipients were predominantly female, widowed and less educated. Levels of cognitive and functional impairment were relatively low compared to Western studies. Caregivers were predominantly daughters-in-law and married. Most provided caregiving due to a general sense of obligation and responsibility rather than affectional motives. Caregivers in this study reported relatively poor emotional and physical health. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that poor emotional health of caregivers was predicted by lower family income, the presence of dementia in carerecipients, and higher·social conflict. Poor physical health of caregivers was predicted by older age, fewer competing roles, and poor emotional health. Among cultural variables, only social conflict was a significant predictor of caregivers ' emotional health, while competing roles were significant predictors of caregivers ' physical health. In addition to regression analyses, path analysis was used to test an overall conceptual model of caregiver health. Social conflict emerged as an important mediating variable for caregiver emotional health; furthermore, social conflict and the caregivers ' emotional health were mediators for caregiver physical health. 1bis study confirmed the importance· of a comprehensive understanding of social network interactions. Social . conflict, especially intrafarnily conflict was a powerful predictor of caregivers ' negative health outcomes. Interventions to relieve negative social network interaction may prevent or relieve the negative health outcomes of caregivers.
    • The Effects of different scanning parameters on measurements around titanium implants using micro-ct

      Khodakhast, Beheshteh; Department of Oral Biology (Augusta University, 2010-04)
    • The role of GnRH pulse patterns and gonadal steroids on divergent gonadotropin release throughout the estrous cycle of the rat

      Kellom, Theresa; Department of Physiology and Endocrinology (Augusta University, 1990-06)
      The object of these studies was to determine the capacity of pulsatile GnRH, estradiol and progesterone to modulate gonadotropin secretion from superfused anterior pituitary cell cultures. Five GnRH pulse patterns were employed. LH responses to R1 ranked as follows: proestrous 1900 > proestrous 1500 > proestrous 0800 = estrous 0800 > diestrous 1 0800 = diestrous 2 0800. No cycl> related differences were observed for FSH secretion with R1. To further pursue FSH responsiveness, GnRH pulses of increased amplitude and duration were employed (R2-5) at proestrous 1900. Only the first pulse of R4 resulted in significantly greater LH release as compared to R1 at P1900. In contrast, FSH release was significantly elevated by all regimens at P1900; however, R3 and R5 elicited greater FSH responses than R2 and R4. At estrous 0800 FSH and LH release were significantly elevated by R3 as compared to R1. When GnRH pulse frequency was reduced (R5) at estrous 0800 FSH release was further elevated while LH release was unaffected as compared to R3. At proestrous 1500 both LH and FSH release were significantly elevated by R3 and when GnRH pulse frequency was reduced (R5), FSH release was further elevated while LH release was suppressed. To study the capacity of estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) to modulate LH and FSH secretion, anterior pituitary cultures derived from two week castrate rats were incubated with or without either 1 or 10 nM E for 48 hours; during the last 12 hours of incubation 100 nM P was added for 3, 6 or 12 hours. Cultures were then stimulated with either R1, R3 or R5. 1 nM E for 48 hours followed by R3 caused FSH release to be significantly elevated while LH was unaffected. Increasing E to 10 nM significantly inhibited LH release in response to R1 and R3. With 1 nM E priming LH release was inhibited with the 3 and 12 hour P incubations and either unaffected or stimulated with 6 hours P regardless of the GnRH regimen employed. When pulsed with R3 and R5 the 6 hour P incubation resulted in a stimulation of FSH release at the first GnRH pulse. With 10 nM E priming LH release was stimulated by the 3 and 6 hour P incubations when pulsed with R3 and R5. When pulsed with R3 FSH release was stimulated by 3 and 6 hours of P while only 3 hours P resulted in elevated FSH when pulsed with R5.
    • Cloning, expression and characterization of bovine αB-crystallin

      Kelley; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2000-01)
      The lens protein, aB-crystallin, plays central role in slowing the formation of pre-cataractous protein aggregates. By binding to newly exposed, hydrophobic regions of I I d\lffiaged proteins, aB-crystallin creates stable, soluble complexes that are resistant to further unfolding and aggregation. Several regions of aB-crystallin have been identified as possible sites for this chaperone-like binding, three of which are explored further in the present work using assays for both the physical properties and in vitro function of sitedirected mutants of aB-crystallin. A priority in this study was the generation of a bovine , aB-crystallin eDNA clone. One of the regions of putative chaperone binding in aB- ' crystallin, residues 24-32, which was implicated by deuterium exchange experiments, ! cpntains several hydrophobic residues. Since hydrophobic residues are thought to play a central role in chaperone binding, the present work investigates a mutant of one of these ~sidues, F28, which was changed to serine. Two charged residues within this same domain, E30, and E34 were each separately mutated to glutamine in order to assess the I role of negatively charged residues in chaperone activity. Another two regions implicated as possible binding sites in aB-crystallin, residues 59-68 and residues 92-108, were previously identified using SAED binding studies. In the present study, one hydrophobic residue from each of these domains was mutated to a less hydrophobic residue: 161 S and L94Q. The results show that at 25°C, a serine as position 28 (F28S) causes moderate alterations in secondary structure, tertiary structure and oligomeric assembly. At 58°C, however, this mutant suffers from a disintegration of oligomeric structure as well as a loss of chaperone function. The data implicate F28 as a critical residue for maintaining the structural integrity of aB-crystallin. The other mutants, with the exception of L94Q, behaved similar to wild type aB-crystallin whether assaye(l at 37 ° or 58 °. The L94Q I mutant displayed slightly better chaperone activity than wild type in the high temperature 1 (58°) assay. The present work supports the idea that the chaperone-like behavior of aBI crystallin requires intact oligomeric structure and thatthe activity may not be associated with a discreet binding site but instead a diverse array of residues spread out over the surface of aB-crystallin.
    • Novel nitric oxide synthase-dependent mechanism of vasorelaxation in small arteries from hypertensive rat

      Kang, Kyu-Tae; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2007-10)
      Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension is associated with impaired endotheliumdependent vasorelaxation, which is consistently observed in conduit vessels. However, the controversial observation of either impaired or intact vasorelaxation of small resistance arteries from hypertensive animals suggests that the mechanism(s) of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries may be different from that observed in conduit vessels under hypertensive condition. Vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries is mediated via multiple pathways including nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-, cyclooxygenase (COX)-, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated pathway. Therefore, the overall goal of these studies was to determine the mechanism(s) involving vasorelaxation of small arteries from hypertensive rats. For these studies, normotensive (NORM), angiotensin IT-infused (ANG), high salt (HS), ANG high salt (ANG/HS), placebo, and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA) rats were studied. The studies with pharmacological blockade of each pathway demonstrated that the NOS-dependent component was increased to maintain acetylcholine (ACh)- induced vasorelaxation in small mesenteric arteries from hypertensive rats. Furthermore, increased NOS-dependent pathway appears to compensate for the dysfunctional Ca2+- activated K+ channel-sensitive EDHF pathway in small mesenteric arteries from ANG compared to NORM. These results led us to design further experiments to test the hypothesis that both NO and HzOz serve as NOS-dependent mediators to maintain vasorelaxation in small mesenteric arteries from hypertensive rats.In small arteries from ANG, ACh increased NOS-dependent cGMP production. ACh also increased NOS3 phosphorylation at Ser 633 and decreased phosphorylation at Thr 495. While, NOS3 phosphorylation at Ser 1177 was impaired in response to ACh in ANG, which was accompanied by reduced basal and a less extended ACh-stimulated cGMP production in ANG compared to NORM. To investigate the alteration of signal transduction pathways related to impaired NOS3 phosphorylation at Ser 1177 in response to ACh, Akt phosphorylation at Ser 473 and VASP phosphorylation at Ser 239 were tested. These pathways were not changed by ACh in the small mesenteric arteries from ANG. Our results indicate that the NO/cGMP signaling is present in response to ACh in small mesenteric arteries from ANG, however this signaling pathway-mediating vasorelaxation may be facilitated via neither Akt nor PKG. On the other hand, ACh stimulated L-N~-sensitive HzOz production in small mesenteric arteries from ANG, but not NORM. H20 2 induced vasorelaxation and catalase blunted ACh-mediated vasorelaxation in small mesenteric arteries from ANG. Reduced BH4/BH2 ratio was observed in small mesenteric arteries from ANG compared to NORM, which might be one of the mechanisms of NOS-mediated H20 2 production. Antioxidant enzyme capacity was also determined in small mesenteric arteries from ANG and NORM. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and protein expression of CuZri SOD. and ecSOD were reduced in ANG compared to NORM, while Mn SOD expression was comparable between groups. Interestingly, both activity and expression of catalase were reduced in ANG compared to NORM, whereas GPx activity and expression were not changed. These results indicate that reduced catalase activity and expression may contribute to the augmentation of H20z in small mesenteric arteries from ANG, whereasreduced SOD does not greatly influence the HzOz production in both basal and AChstimulated condition. In conclusion, the NOS pathway appears to be the primary endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) pathway in small mesenteric arteries from experimental animal models of hypertension. The increased dependence on the NOS pathway in ACh-induced vasorelaxation is mediated by both NOS-derived NO/cGMP signaling and NOS-mediated H2O2.
    • Teaching Matters January 2021

      Kelehear, Zach; Office of the Vice Provost for Instruction (Augusta University, 2021-01-06)
      Table of Contents: Innovative Updates (Student COVID-19 Safety Training, Spring Student Innovative Competition, Trauma Informed Education, Simulation Technology Support, University Libraries Virtual Finals Frenzy, IPSO Features: Dr. Yong Teng, AURI Awards for Significant Contributions to AU's COVID-19 Response, 2021-2022 Study Abroad and Away Program Proposals Coming Soon); Student Updates (Advisement Center Update, Call for CURS Spring Summer Grant Proposals, Career Services January Events).
    • Bausch & Lomb Dual Eye, No. 3

      Augusta University Libraries (1970)
      Dual eye or binocular microscope manufactured by Bausch & Lomb, ca. 1970s, and electrical powered.
    • OPTIMIZED ISOLATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF IN VIVO DISTRIBUTION OF EXOSOMES FOR POTENTIAL TARGETED THERANOSTIC APPLICATION

      Rashid, Mohammad Harun; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Augusta University, 2019-07)
      Exosomes are critical mediators of intercellular crosstalk and regulators of the cellular/tumor microenvironment. Exosomes have great prospects for clinical application as a theranostic and prognostic probe. Nevertheless, the advancement of exosome research has been thwarted by our limited knowledge of the most efficient isolation method and the in vivo trafficking. Here we have shown that a combination of two size-based methods using a 0.20 μm syringe filter and 100k centrifuge membrane filter followed by ultracentrifugation yields a greater number of uniform exosomes compared to other available methods. We demonstrated the visual representation and quantification of the differential in vivo distribution of radioisotope 131I-labeled exosomes from diverse cellular origins, e.g., tumor cells with or without treatments, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and endothelial progenitor cells. We also determined that the distribution was dependent on the exosomal protein/cytokine contents. Further, we also generated engineered exosomes expressing precision peptide for targeting CD206 positive M2-macrophages. M2-macrophages participate in immune suppression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, invasion, angiogenesis, tumor progression and subsequent metastasis foci formation. Given their pro-tumorigenic function and prevalence in most malignant tumors with lower survival, early in vivo detection and intervention of M2-macrophages may boost the clinical outcome. To determine in vivo distribution of M2-macrophages, we adopted 111In-oxine based radiolabeling of the targeted exosomes and SPECT. When injected these radiolabeled targeted exosomes into 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice, exosomes accumulated at the periphery of the primary tumor, metastatic foci in the lungs, in the spleen, and liver. Ex vivo quantification of radioactivity also showed similar distribution. Injected DiI dye-labeled exosomes into the same mice showed the adherence of exosomes to the CD206 positive macrophages on ex vivo fluorescent microscopy imaging, confirming the targeting efficacy of the exosomes. In addition, we utilized these engineered exosomes to carry the Fc portion of mouse IgG2b with the intention of augmenting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We have auspiciously demonstrated that M2-macrophage targeting therapeutic exosomes deplete M2-macrophages both in vitro and in vivo, and reduce tumor burden in a metastatic breast cancer model. The applied in vivo imaging modalities can be utilized to monitor disease progression, metastasis, and exosome-based targeted therapy.
    • Development and Characterization of a Closed-Head Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Model

      Alverson, Katelyn; Clinical Laboratory Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-12)
      Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and places an enormous economic burden on both families and health care systems that provide support for survivors. The majority of TBI cases are deemed mild (mTBI) and go undetected due to the less discernable signs and symptoms. However, there is increasing evidence that mTBI can lead to detrimental chronic consequences. Unfortunately, the mTBI research field is still in its infancy. We set out to develop a model of closed-head mTBI that recapitulated mTBI in the clinic. Using a murine controlled cortical impact model, we show no structural damage, increased edema, behavioral deficits, cell death and decreased synapses in the acute time after the mTBI. We also evaluated the chronic behavioral changes from two weeks to three months post TBI. All in all, our mTBI model showed significant cellular changes, but did not give robust chronic behavioral results. A secondary outcome of our study was the evaluation of a potential therapeutic: remote ischemic conditioning (RIC). Acutely, RIC improved edema, behavioral outcomes, cell death, and synapse loss. Overall, our study does identify key areas that should be recapitulated in further development of the model: no structural damage, little to no edema, cell death and decreased synapses, and behavioral changes. This model also requires further investigation into the chronic consequences of mTBI as well as the use of RIC.
    • MCG Fact Book 1990

      Stephens, Barbara P.; Barshafsky, Deborah L.; Institutional Effectiveness (Augusta University, 1990)
      The MCG Fact Book was an annual report of statistical information regarding the Augusta University Health Sciences Campus when the campus was known by the institution-wide name the Medical College of Georgia. This fourteenth edition was for 1990.
    • MCG Fact Book 1989

      Stephens, Barbara P.; Barshafsky, Deborah L.; Institutional Effectiveness (Augusta University, 1989)
      The MCG Fact Book was an annual report of statistical information regarding the Augusta University Health Sciences Campus when the campus was known by the institution-wide name the Medical College of Georgia. This thirteenth edition was for 1989.
    • MCG Fact Book 1988

      Stephens, Barbara P.; Gooding, Gilda G.; Institutional Effectiveness
      The MCG Fact Book was an annual report of statistical information regarding the Augusta University Health Sciences Campus when the campus was known by the institution-wide name the Medical College of Georgia. This twelfth edition of the MCG Fact Book is for 1988.
    • MCG Fact Book 1987

      Stephens, Barbara P.; Gooding, Gilda G.; Institutional Effectiveness (Augusta University, 1987)
      The MCG Fact Book was an annual report of statistical information regarding the Augusta University Health Sciences Campus when the campus was known by the institution-wide name the Medical College of Georgia. Starting with this 1987 eleventh edition of the MCG Fact Book, the publication date was changed to allow additional time for gathering current year data as opposed to past fiscal year only.
    • MCG Fact Book 1985-1986

      Stephens, Barbara P.; Deriso, Christine H.; Institutional Effectiveness (Augusta University, 1986)
      The MCG Fact Book was an annual report of statistical information regarding the Augusta University Health Sciences Campus when the campus was known by the institution-wide name the Medical College of Georgia. This edition was for the fiscal year 1985-1986.