Now showing items 21-40 of 5563

    • Effect of structured patient education on level of hope in cancer patient

      Wells, Gayle; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1991-02)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of patient participation in a structured education program on the level of hope in cancer patients. The sample consisted of 34 adult subjects diagnosed with cancer within the last five years. The control group (n = 17) consisted of patients receiving care at a private physician's office. The treatment group (n = 17) consisted of participants in a structured education program (I Can Cope) at three sites in the southeastern United States. The Nowotny Hope Scale (NHS) (Nowotny, 1989) was used to measure.hope. A quasiexperimental non-equivalent control group pretest posttest design was utilized tb test the following hypothesis: Adult cancer patients who attend structured educational classes will score higher on a scale measuring hope than those patients who have not attended such a class. Both groups represent naturally occurring collectives and randomization was not possible. The groups were matched by type of cancer diagnosis. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed no significant difference (p = .139) in the adjusted posttest scores of the two groups; therefore, the hypothesis was not supported. In this study, the level of hope for participants in a structured education program did not differ from the level of a similar group not attending such a program. However, in view of the attention given to the concept of hope as a factor in facing the diagnosis of cancer it is important that research efforts continue to be directed to the discovery of effective interventions to foster hope.
    • Mathematical modeling of the human dental arch and its usefulness in longitudinal analysis of treatment effects

      Weddle, Larry; Department of Oral Biology (Augusta University, 1999-11)
      In the practice of orthodontics, the shape of the dental arches is important in the planning and implementation of treatment. Many mathematical functions have been proposed for the characterization of arch form including catenary, p~lynomials, beta, conic sections, and cubic splines. The purpose of this study was to use linear and nonlinear least squares estimation to fit polynomial, catenary-like and beta-like curves to a longitudinal dataset and evaluate both the curve fits and the longitudinal information obtained. A longitudinal dataset was obtained from a private orthodontist. Dental casts of the upper and lower arches were made at three time points for each of 20 subjects: before treatment, immediately following treatment, and following a post-retention follow-up period of at least two years. Each cast and a calibration strip was scanned into a separate image computer file. Image analysis software was used to mark the (x,y) coordinates of buccal landmarks on each tooth from first molar to first molar. The (x, y) coordinates from each cast were collected into a central database for analysis. It was desired to use least squares for curve fitting due to its wide availability and well known properties. In order to use least squares, the casts were required to have consistent x-axis and y-axis orientation. This was done by orienting the x-axis parallel to the line connecting the centroids of the posterior teeth on the right and left sides of each cast. Eight functions were used in the curves fitting. The linear least squares method was used to fit polynomials of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th order. The nonlinear least squares method was used to fit a generalized 5-parameter beta function and generalized inverse catenary functions with 3, 4, and 5 parameters. Each of the eight functions was fit to each of the 120 dental casts in the study. Curve fits were examined for each function and each subject, arch, and time point. The 4th and 5th order polynomials, the generalized beta, and the 4-parameter and 5-parameter generalized inverse catenary functions fit well. For the 4th and 5th order polynomials, the R2 values ranged from xxx to xxx with acceptable visual fits. For the nonlinear models, the model sum of squares approximated the total sum of squares and the curves yielded good visual fits to the data points. Longitudinal analysis was done using Euclidean distance as the metric in the parameter space of each model. In order to assess the parameter metric in terms of physical measurements, the Euclidean distances in the parameter spaces were correlated with intercanine width, intermolar width, and molar-incisor distance. Consistent correlations were not identified though the curve fits were excellent. A comparison of arch form change between upper and lower arches was also done. Since the upper arches changed more, checking the ability of the parameter metrics of the various models to detect the change was of interest. and 3rd order polynomials, All of the models except 2nd and molar-incisor distance measures were capable of detecting the difference in change between the upper and lower arches (ANOVA p-values ~ 0.05). In summary, this study shows a successful method of orienting the casts for curve fitting by least squares. The models with at least 4 parameters generally fit well across the range of dental casts studied with the 5- parameter models slightly superior. The longitudinal analysis indicates that traditional linear measurements such as intercanine width may not adequately measure the multidimensional aspects of arch form change. The parameter space metrics were able to discriminate between upper and lower arch form changes.
    • Teaching Matters June 2021

      Kelehear, Zach; Office of the Vice Provost for Instruction (Augusta University, 2021-06-01)
      Table of Contents: A Note from the Vice Provost; Innovation Updates (Self-Hugging: It's Not the Best Idea, Video-Assisted Debriefing, Spotlight on Data and Research Services, Career Readiness).
    • Teaching Matters May 2021

      Kelehear, Zach; Office of the Vice Provost for Instruction (Augusta University, 2021-05-03)
      Table of Contents: A Note from the Vice Provost; Innovation Updates (USG Faculty Development Offers Summer Webinar Series, Boundless Teaching Award Winners Announced, University Libraries Celebrate National Library Week, Innovation Competition Winners Announced, Simulation Spotlight: Student Simulation Interns; Faculty and Staff Updates (Welcome Veronica Williams, Director of Academic Advisement, IPSO Features Dr. Ralf Lucas and Dr. Maritza Romero Lucus); Student Updates (Want to Help Get Your Students More Career Ready?, FYE/SYE Celebrates Half-Way There Event).
    • Enablers and barriers to the availability of services for HIV-infected persons /

      Walters, Metta L.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1990-12)
    • In vitro effects on fibroblast attachment following demineralization by citric acid compared to doxycycline HC1

      Jankowski, Eric P.; Department of Oral Biology & Pharmacology (Augusta University, 1993-05)
    • Ibuprofen Conjugates as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Drug Candidates

      Wade, Margaret; Department of Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Inflammation is a common immune response to harmful pathogens or damaged cells. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NAIDs) are commonly used to treat inflammation and pain. These drugs can also be used to treat inflammation due to diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease. NSAIDs accomplish this through the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme systems. Selectivity for the inhibition of the COX-2 pathway is an aim in the development of NSAIDs. The COX-2 enzyme predominates at sites of inflammation and releases enzymes responsible for vasodilation. While the inhibition of the COX-1 pathway results in adverse side effects, such as gastric lesions and perforation. The current drug design process has focused on modifying existing NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen. In the current study, conjugates of ibuprofen were developed by incorporating triazole ring in the conjugated molecules through a ‘click’ chemistry approach. The anti-inflammatory properties of the conjugates were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method.
    • Design and Synthesis of Metformin Derivatives as Anticancer Agents

      Thomas, Eyana; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Metformin is the first-line medication for type II diabetes. It initially entered the spotlight as a promising anti-cancer agent due to epidemiologic reports that reduced cancer risk and improved clinical outcomes in diabetic patients taking Metformin. To uncover the anti-cancer mechanisms of Metformin, preclinical studies determined that Metformin impairs cellular metabolism and suppresses oncogenic signaling pathways. Recently, the anti-cancer potential of Metformin has gained increasing interest due to its inhibitory effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are associated with tumor metastasis, drug resistance, and relapse. There is a need to optimize this drug to target a more general audience of non-diabetic cancer patients. Metformin has low bioavailability, a narrow absorption window, and extensive liver metabolism. Its oral administration is accompanied by gastrointestinal adverse effects, including nausea, abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, flatulence, dyspepsia, and anorexia, resulting in up to 50% of patients. We have synthesized metformin hybrid conjugates with aromatics compounds. Spectral studies characterized all the synthesized compounds. The hybrid conjugates showed improved LogP values, determined from computational analyses, over tenfold of Metformin's 0.15, suggesting that these candidates will show better bioavailability in the body.
    • The examination of tianeptine as a possible treatment for traumatic brain injury

      Ravula, Havilah; Department of Psychological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Tianeptine is an analgesic, antidepressant drug that has been previously studied for its benefits in improving recovery conditions in rodent models post injury or stress. In particular, it is of interest in the treatment of traumatic brain injury in humans, especially since there is currently no reliable treatment for human TBI patients. This project examined tianeptine’s efficacy in reducing ventricular enlargement in rodent models caused by TBI. Brain tissue samples were collected from the rodents and studied and the average areas of the lateral ventricle region were compared. The study found that, when administered to rodents with TBI, tianeptine treatments, while not significantly different, showed a strong trend for smaller ventricular areas when compared to saline vehicle treatments; overall, the ventricular area was smallest in rodents with sham surgeries and tianeptine treatments. In rodent models, tianeptine may be beneficial in reducing ventricular enlargement caused by TBI. It is worth exploring the anti-inflammatory benefits of tianeptine for its use as a treatment for TBI.
    • Role of Dendritic Cells in Post-Extraction Alveolar Bone Healing

      Patel, Jaimini; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered the main antigen presenting cells in the body. They are an essential link between innate and adaptive immunity. The plasticity of DCs allows them to initiate an immune response against foreign antigens while maintaining tolerance to commensal microbes. DCs have been recognized as important players in osteoimmunology through their role in regulation of inflammation-induced bone loss. DCs have been identified in inflammatory synovial and periodontal tissues, where they interact with activated T cells to form aggregates called lymphoid foci. DCs have shown an indirect role in inflammation-induced bone loss through activation of RANKL-producing T cells. However, a direct role has also been implicated through the ability of some DC subsets to transdifferentiate into osteoclasts. Although the role of DCs in inflammation-induced bone loss is well recognized, their role in alveolar bone healing and repair remains to be elucidated. We hypothesize here that ablation of DCs in the oral microenvironment will have a negative effect on alveolar bone healing following a maxillary molar extraction in mice due to disruption of osteo-immune homeostasis. Our hypothesis was tested using a classical dendritic cell ablation mouse model, in transgenic Zbtb46 tm1 (DTR)Mnz/J (ZDC-DTR) mice, which are rendered DC deficient by diphtheria toxin injection. Histological analysis of photomicrographs of bone sections at the extraction sites showed a significant increase in osteocyte death in the DC-deficient animals compared to wild type (WT) animals which had normal DC number and activity. Further, the animals deficient in DCs showed less bone regeneration in the extraction socket compared with WT animals. Our results shed light on the important role of DCs in post-extraction homeostasis of alveolar bone healing, allowing for a better understanding of the complex biological process of bone healing.
    • Understanding the compliance of individuals with chronic ankle instability to a home exercise program

      Patel, Annie; Department of Physical Therapy (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries caused by physical activity such as running, kicking, or loss of balance 1. However, the majority of people never seek proper medical treatment, and this tends to lead to chronic ankle instability (CAI) 2. CAI is described by a subjective feeling of the ankle giving way or being unstable 3. CAI may develop after one, or repeated, ankle sprains due to weakened ligaments. Ligaments are structures that connect a bone to another bone crossing a joint to provide it with stability. The development of CAI is caused by a pattern of instability on the lateral side of an ankle. The ankle will repeatedly give out or sprain again because the ligaments have become damaged1. CAI is a problem because the continuous spraining can lead to a decrease in range of motion, strength, postural control, and movement of the ankle 4. However, there are treatments to remedy this form of injury. The proper treatment for acute ankle sprains would be applying ice, rest, and elevation to allow the ligaments to heal. Further treatments include looking at an ankle’s range of motion, exercise, and manual therapy in order to promote proper healing and recovery. CAI is best treated through proper physical therapy 5.
    • ICE Operations and Their Effects on Latin American Immigration: Raids of the 21st Century

      Lopez, Jasmin (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Immigration has shaped the United States’ culture. Many believe that immigrants are the backbone of the U.S. nation; however, in the past decades, citizens continue to use the term ‘immigrant’ negatively— those living for generations on United States soil often look down upon new immigrants, socially excluding them. Adversely, the events of 9/11 created a divide within the nation; those who were different became feared. In response, on March 1, 2003, the government finalized U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) under the newly formed Department of Homeland Security, birthing many benefits and consequences to the United States. Despite government plans to protect ‘legal’ immigration while minimizing ‘illegal’ immigration, ICE pinpoints Latino individuals, damaging not just the family unit but also community relations.
    • The Safeness and Effectiveness of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs When Used Postoperatively in Pediatric Patients

      Long, Nadine; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of routine use of NSAIDs compared to opioids and its complications in postoperative pain management in the pediatric population. We hypothesize that NSAIDs are a safe and effective alternative to opioids for the management of post-operation pain in the pediatric population. Patients between the age 0 – 17 years-old admitted to the PICU at the Children’s Hospital of Georgia between July 2018 to June 2020 were enrolled in the study. Then postoperative chart review and survey was conducted. It was found that those who took NSAIDs reported similar analgesic effects as those who took opioids; however, those who took opioids reported a higher incidence of side effects. Therefore, we believe NSAIDs are a safe and effective way to manage the pediatric pain after an operation. NSAIDs can be used alternatively to opioids or to reduce opioid usage.
    • Distribution of Leptin receptor-expressing Cells in Various Regions of the Mouse Brain

      Kudchikar, Arsheen; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      One of the most life-changing mental disorders in the population all over the world is depression. There have been many treatment options that have been introduced in the medical field but the most prevalent are antidepressants that may not be effective leading to the constant need for more research to be done regarding other viable options when it comes to treating patients with this serious mental disorder. Recent research regarding depression has shifted its focus to the hormone leptin. This hormone has been the topic of many recent findings as it has been found out that leptin has antidepressant-like effects; with this emerging research, it has become more of an interest to find out the potential function of leptin in depression. The hormone is already well known for its role in the control of energy homeostasis, but recent findings have supported that leptin is also involved “in the regulation of mood and emotion” (Lu, 2007). By locating leptin receptor-expressing cells in various regions of the brain, it may bring about more knowledge and evidence in the scientific community of how to manipulate leptin receptor-expressing cells and possibly use this information for the discovery of potential therapeutic targets or new strategies as compared to the traditional route of pills and drugs.
    • Coaching Life Skills and Promoting Positive Youth Development: A Study of Accomplished Female High School Team Sport Coaches

      German, Lindsey; Department of Kinesiology (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the personal experiences, philosophies, attitudes, opinions, beliefs, values, and practices of successful female high school team sports coaches in the southeastern U.S. area to better understand effective coaching practices for youth sports. More specifically, to better comprehend the complexities of youth coaching as it pertains to teaching life skills and promoting positive youth development. Also, to understand why and how successful female high school coaches use positive youth development to their advantage in coaching effectiveness in general. After thorough analysis of seven interviews from accomplished female high school coaches, it is apparent that all of the coaches that participated believe that life skills, positive youth development, and having a strong coach/athlete relationship is important for the success of the team.
    • Assessment of p65 in the Novel Microglial NF-κB Animal Model

      Frerichs, Ryan; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
    • From Tropical Rainforest to Pharmaceutical Laboratories: Nature versus Computational Medicine

      Esteban, Isabella; Department of Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide particularly in low-income countries (“Introduction to Infectious Diseases”). These types of diseases, such as Ebola, human immunodeficiency virus and human papillomavirus, are around for decades, even centuries. Some, such as variola strain of smallpox and polio, have been eradicated or become well con-trolled, while others mutated into newer and deadlier versions like coronavirus. Malaria is a tropi-cal disease carried by mosquitoes that can be traced back to colonial times as early as 1500s-1700s CE in places like Mesoamerica, specifically Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salva-dor, but it is thought to been around since 3200CE in other parts of the world.In 2018, the Cen-ter for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that this mosquito-borne disease killed approximately 405,000 people (CDC - Malaria). In efforts to eliminate this deadly ailment worldwide, much research in medicinal treatments has taken place, resulting in the decline of ma-larial human mortality by 25% from 2010 to 2016 (CDC – Malaria - About Malaria). Similar to malaria, leishmaniasis (leish) is also a tropical disease, though, in this case transmitted by sand-flies. It was first confirmed in 1903 by Scottish doctor William Leishman in Britain Medical Journal, yet medical archeologists found records describing leish as early as 1885 BCE (“leish-maniasis.” World Health Organization). This tropical disease kills anywhere between 700,000 to 1.2 million people who contract it each year (CDC - leishmaniasis). In contrast to malaria, little is known about leishmaniasis, and it is still currently being researched as newer and deadlier strands appeared worldwide. Medicine is trying to keep up with the mutations of infectious diseases, yet Western medicine has overlooked what ancient Mayan Curanderos utilized with little to no me-dicinal knowledge. By demonstrating the importance of nature’s secrets in treating malaria and leishmaniasis, this study seeks to implore big pharma to investigate more avenues in natural com-pounds for drug design.