• Absolute cerebral oximeters for cardiovascular surgical cases

      Arthur, Mary E.; Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (Georgia Regents University, 2013-02)
      In the US, about 465,000 cardiopulmonary bypass grafting (CABG) procedures are performed every year. Decreases in oxygen levels occur in about 17-23% of CABG procedures which cause brain injury even in uncomplicated surgeries, and may lead to stroke, cognitive dysfunction, longer ventilation times; longer ICU and hospital stays, and higher health care costs. Because of the brain’s high metabolic rate with limited oxygen reserves, only about 10 seconds at normal body temperature makes the brain is susceptible to oxygen deprivation. A study on patients who underwent CABG surgery found that incidence of cognitive decline was 53% at discharge and 42% at 5 years (Newman, 2001). Furthermore, elderly patients are more likely to develop cerebral desaturation because of age-related reductions in physiologic reserve (Casati, 2005), and the number of surgeries involving older patients is on the rise.