• Differential effects of taurine treatment and taurine deficiency on the outcome of renal ischemia reperfusion injury

      Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Patel, Champa; Wimborne, Hereward J. C.; Liu, Jun Yao; Schaffer, Stephen W; Department of Oral Biology; Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences (2010-08-24)
      Taurine possesses membrane stabilization, osmoregulatory and antioxidant properties, aspects of relevance to ischemic injury. We tested the hypothesis that body taurine status is a determinant of renal ischemic injury. Accordingly, renal function and structure were examined in control (C), taurine-treated (TT) and taurine deficient (TD) rats that were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia (60 min) followed by reperfusion (IR); sham operated rats served as controls. Baseline urine osmolality was greater in the TD group than in the control and the TT groups, an effect associated with increased renal aquaporin 2 level. The IR insult reduced urine osmolality (i.e., day-1 post insult); the TD/IR group displayed a more marked recovery in urine osmolality by day-6 post insult than the other two groups. Fluid and sodium excretions were lower in the TD/IR group, suggesting propensity to retention. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of tubular necrotic foci in the C/IR group than sham controls. While renal architecture of the TD/IR group showed features resembling sham controls, the TT/IR group showed dilated tubules, which lacked immunostaining for aquaporin 2, but not 1, suggestive of proximal tubule origin. Finally, assessment of cell proliferation and apoptosis revealed lower proliferation but higher apoptotic foci in the TT/IR group than other IR groups. Collectively, the results indicate that body taurine status is a major determinant of renal IR injury.
    • Effects of chromium picolinate on glycemic control and kidney of the obese Zucker rat.

      Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Liu, Jun Yao; Wimborne, Hereward J. C.; El-Remessy, Azza B.; El-Marakby, Ahmed; Department of Oral Biology; Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences (2009-12-30)
      ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chromium picolinate (Cr(pic)3) is advocated as adjuvant therapy for impaired glycemic control, despite concerns for DNA damage. Potential toxicity of Cr(pic)3 should be greater for the kidney that accumulates chromium. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Cr(pic)3 treatment of obese Zucker rats (OZR) exacerbates renal abnormalities associated with dysglycemia. METHODS: Male OZR were treated with diets lacking or containing 5 and 10 mg/kg of chromium, as Cr(pic)3, for 20 weeks; lean Zucker rats (LZR) served as controls. Glycemic and renal effects of Cr(pic)3 were determined in the context of indices of oxidative stress and inflammation. RESULTS: The OZR displayed increased fasting plasma glucose and insulin in association with enlarged pancreatic islets exhibiting collagen and periodic acid Schiff-positive deposits compared to LZR; Cr(pic)3 treatment did not affect these parameters. The OZR, irrespective of Cr(pic)3, excreted more albumin than LZR. Also, other indices of renal function or histopathology were not affected by Cr(pic)3 treatment. Urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an index of oxidative DNA damage, was greater in the OZR than LZR; dietary Cr(pic)3 treatment attenuated 8-OHdG excretion. However, immunostaining of kidney for 8-OHdG revealed similar staining pattern and intensity, despite significant renal accumulation of chromium in Cr(pic)3-treated groups. Finally, increased renal nitrotyrosine and cyclooxygenase-2 levels and urinary excretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 of OZR were partially reversed by Cr(pic)3 treatment. CONCLUSION: Dietary Cr(pic)3 treatment of OZR does not beneficially influence glycemic status or increase the risk for oxidative DNA damage; rather, the treatment attenuates indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.
    • Polymeric-calcium phosphate cement composites-material properties: in vitro and in vivo investigations.

      Khashaba, Rania M.; Moussa, Mervet M; Mettenburg, Donald J; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Chutkan, Norman B.; Borke, James L.; Department Oral Biology; Department Orthopedic Surgery; Department of Oral Rehabilitation (2010-09-02)
      New polymeric calcium phosphate cement composites (CPCs) were developed. Cement powder consisting of 60 wt% tetracalcium phosphate, 30 wt% dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, and 10 wt% tricalcium phosphate was combined with either 35% w/w poly methyl vinyl ether maleic acid or polyacrylic acid to obtain CPC-1 and CPC-2. The setting time and compressive and diametral tensile strength of the CPCs were evaluated and compared with that of a commercial hydroxyapatite cement. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of the two CPCs and hydroxyapatite cement were assessed. The setting time of the cements was 5-15 min. CPC-1 and CPC-2 showed significantly higher compressive and diametral strength values compared to hydroxyapatite cement. CPC-1 and CPC-2 were equivalent to Teflon controls after 1 week. CPC-1, CPC-2, and hydroxyapatite cement elicited a moderate to intense inflammatory reaction at 7 days which decreased over time. CPC-1 and CPC-2 show promise for orthopedic applications.