• Caspase-14: A novel caspase in the retina with a potential role in diabetic retinopathy

      Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Ahmad, Saif; Megyerdi, Sylvia; Othman, Amira; Baban, Babak; Palenski, Tammy L.; Shin, Eui Seok; Gurel, Zafer; Hsu, Stephen; Sheibani, Nader; et al. (2012-07-14)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate caspase-14 expression in the retina under normal and diabetic conditions, and to determine whether caspase-14 contributes to retinal microvascular cell death under high glucose conditions.
    • Induction of Hemeoxygenase-1 Reduces Renal Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

      Elmarakby, Ahmed A.; Faulkner, Jessica; Baban, Babak; Sullivan, Jennifer C.; Department of Oral Biology; Department of Medicine (2012-02-26)
      The renoprotective mechanisms of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in diabetic nephropathy remain to be investigated. We hypothesize that HO-1 protects the kidney from diabetic insult via lowering renal oxidative stress and inflammation. We used control and diabetic SHR with or without HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) treatment for 6 weeks. Urinary albumin excretion levels were significantly elevated in diabetic SHR compared to control and CoPP significantly attenuated albumin excretion. Immuno-histochemical analysis revealed an elevation in TGF-b staining together with increased urinary collagen excretion in diabetic versus control SHR, both of which were reduced with CoPP treatment. Renal oxidative stress markers were greater in diabetic SHR and reduced with CoPP treatment. The increase in renal oxidative stress was associated with an elevation in renal inflammation in diabetic SHR. CoPP treatment also significantly attenuated the markers of renal inflammation in diabetic SHR. In vitro inhibition of HO with stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) increased glomerular NADPH oxidase activity and inflammation and blocked the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CoPP. These data suggest that the reduction of renal injury in diabetic SHR upon induction of HO-1 are associated with decreased renal oxidative stress and inflammation, implicating the role of HO-1 induction as a future treatment of diabetic nephropathy.
    • Innate Lymphoid Cells in Periodontitis: A Novel Therapeutic Modality

      Ghaly, Mira; Emami, Golnaz; Khodadadi, Hesam; Mozaffari, Mahmood; Baban, Babak; Department of Periodontics, Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences (Augusta University, 2019)
      To determine the presence of ILCs in human periodontium which are emerging immune cells with the potential to be targeted, via novel therapies, in the treatment of peridontitis.
    • Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Leishmania Infection

      Makala, Levi HC; Baban, Babak; Department of Pediatrics; Department of Oral Biology (InTech, 2014-03-19)
      Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Approximately 1.2 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is lethal if untreated, occur annually across the globe as per world health organization (WHO) estimates [1-3]. Current statistics and information relevant to leishmaniasis are summarized in Table 1. Leishmaniasis currently affects about 12 million people and it is estimated that approximately 350 million people live in risk of infection [1-3].The number of cases of leishmaniasis is probably underestimated because only 40 of the 88 countries where diseases frequently occur report them on a regular basis [4]. Leishmaniasis, is caused by several leishmania spp., that are obligate intracellular and unicellular kinetoplastid protozoan flagellate that establish themselves within the phagolysosome of host immune competent cells, especially macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). In 1903, W.B. Leishman and C. Donovan reported this new parasite at the turn of the century [5,6]. Ronald Ross christened the new genus leishmania and the new species donovani in year 1903 [7]. L. major infection (leishmaniasis) in mice is a widely used model of human infection that has yielded critical insights into the immunobiology of leishmaniasis [8-10]. Leishmaniasis as a parasitic disease manifests itself mainly in 3 clinical forms; visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), of which VL is the most severe form of the disease. VL is lethal if untreated and spontaneous cure is extremely rare. Cutaneous leishmaniasis usually has milder course and often results into a self-healing of ulcers. Resolution of leishmanial infection is dependent on the coordinated interactions between components of cell mediated immune response, specifically the activation of targeted T-cell populations for appropriate cytokine production and activation of macrophages. L. major infection of B6 and BALB/c mouse strains drives predominantly TH1 and TH2 responses, respectively [11-14]. In murine model, the development of Th1 response is associated with control of infection, and Th2 response is associated with disease progression. However, Th1 and Th2 dichotomy in the human system is not as distinct as in mice and the murine model does not strictly apply to human leishmaniasis.
    • The potential role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) as a predictive and therapeutic target for diabetes treatment: a mythical truth

      Baban, Babak; Penberthy, W. Todd; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Department of Oral Biology (2010-03-19)
      Keywords: Individual tolerance