• Automated Reporter Quantification In Vivo: High-Throughput Screening Method for Reporter-Based Assays in Zebrafish

      Walker, Steven L.; Ariga, Junko; Mathias, Jonathan R.; Coothankandaswamy, Veena; Xie, Xiayang; Distel, Martin; Koster, Reinhard W.; Parsons, Michael J.; Bhalla, Kapil N.; Saxena, Meera T.; et al. (2012-01-4)
      Reporter-based assays underlie many high-throughput screening (HTS) platforms, but most are limited to in vitro applications. Here, we report a simple whole-organism HTS method for quantifying changes in reporter intensity in individual zebrafish over time termed,
    • The Effects of Mechanical Stress on the Growth, Differentiation, and Paracrine Factor Production of Cardiac Stem Cells

      Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Masayuki; Ohshima, Mako; Yamamoto, Yumi; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Ryo; Ikenaga, Shigeru; Mikamo, Akihito; Udo, Koichi; Hamano, Kimikazu; et al. (2011-12-28)
      Stem cell therapies have been clinically employed to repair the injured heart, and cardiac stem cells are thought to be one of the most potent stem cell candidates. The beating heart is characterized by dynamic mechanical stresses, which may have a significant impact on stem cell therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate how mechanical stress affects the growth and differentiation of cardiac stem cells and their release of paracrine factors. In this study, human cardiac stem cells were seeded in a silicon chamber and mechanical stress was then induced by cyclic stretch stimulation (60 cycles/min with 120% elongation). Cells grown in non-stretched silicon chambers were used as controls. Our result revealed that mechanical stretching significantly reduced the total number of surviving cells, decreased Ki-67-positive cells, and increased TUNEL-positive cells in the stretched group 24 hrs after stretching, as compared to the control group. Interestingly, mechanical stretching significantly increased the release of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β as well as the angiogenic growth factors VEGF and bFGF from the cells in 12 hrs. Furthermore, mechanical stretching significantly reduced the percentage of c-kit-positive stem cells, but increased the expressions of cardiac troponin-I and smooth muscle actin in cells 3 days after stretching. Using a traditional stretching model, we demonstrated that mechanical stress suppressed the growth and proliferation of cardiac stem cells, enhanced their release of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors, and improved their myogenic differentiation. The development of this in vitro approach may help elucidate the complex mechanisms of stem cell therapy for heart failure.
    • Human Platelet-Rich Plasma- and Extracellular Matrix-Derived Peptides Promote Impaired Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo

      Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Wolf, Lindsey; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.; McNeil, Paul L.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy; College of Graduate Studies (2012-02-23)
      Previous work in our laboratory has described several pro-angiogenic short peptides derived from endothelial extracellular matrices degraded by bacterial collagenase. Here we tested whether these peptides could stimulate wound healing in vivo. Our experiments demonstrated that a peptide created as combination of fragments of tenascin X and fibrillin 1 (comb1) applied into cranial dermal wounds created in mice treated with cyclophosphamide to impair wound healing, can improve the rate of wound closure. Furthermore, we identify and characterize a novel peptide (UN3) created and modified from two naturally-occurring peptides, which are present in human platelet-rich plasma. In vitro testing of UN3 demonstrates that it causes a 50% increase in endothelial proliferation, 250% increase in angiogenic response and a tripling of epithelial cell migration in response to injury.
    • Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipogenic Reduction by Prohibitin Silencing in 3T3-L1 Cells

      Liu, Dong; Lin, Yiming; Kang, Ting; Huang, Bo; Xu, Wei; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Olatinwo, Moshood; Matthews, Roland; Chen, Yuqing Eugene; Thompson, Winston E.; et al. (2012-03-30)
      Increase in mitochondrial biogenesis has been shown to accompany brown and white adipose cell differentiation. Prohibitins (PHBs), comprised of two evolutionarily conserved proteins, prohibitin-1 (PHB1) and prohibitin-2 (PHB2), are present in a high molecular-weight complex in the inner membrane of mitochondria. However, little is known about the effect of mitochondrial PHBs in adipogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that the levels of both PHB1 and PHB2 are significantly increased during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, especially in mitochondria. Knockdown of PHB1 or PHB2 by oligonucleotide siRNA significantly reduced the expression of adipogenic markers, the accumulation of lipids and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. In addition, fragmentation of mitochondrial reticulum, loss of mitochondrial cristae, reduction of mitochondrial content, impairment of mitochondrial complex I activity and excessive production of ROS were observed upon PHB-silencing in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that PHBs are critical mediators in promoting 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and may be the potential targets for obesity therapies.