• Protection of Rat Cardiac Myocytes by Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate and 2,3-Butanedione

      Wheeler, Thomas J.; Chien, Sufan; McNeil, Paul L.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy; College of Graduate Studies (2012-04-27)
      Earlier studies by our group showed that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) enhances the hypothermic preservation of rat cardiac myocytes and the functional recovery of animal hearts after hypothermic storage. However, the mechanisms involved were not clear. We extended the cardiomyocyte studies by testing whether the FBP effects were due to chelation of extracellular calcium, leading to lower intracellular levels. We also tested effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), pyruvate, and adenine nucleotide precursors. Cardiomyocytes were incubated in ischemic suspension at 3°C, and aliquots examined over 48 to 72 hours for retention of rod-shaped morphology, a measure of viability. Cytosolic Ca2+ levels were measured in some experiments. FBP at 5 mM reduced the death rate even when added after one or two days of incubation. It caused cytosolic calcium levels that were 33% lower than controls in freshly-isolated cells and 70% lower after one day of incubation. EGTA protected against cell death similarly to FBP. These results indicated that one of the mechanisms by which FBP exerts protective effects is through chelation of extracellular calcium. BDM was strongly protective and reduced cytosolic calcium by 30% after one day of incubation. As with FBP, BDM was effective when added after one or two days of incubation. BDM may be useful in combination with FBP in preserving heart tissue. Pyruvate, adenine, and ribose provided little or no protection during hypothermia.