• a-Calcium Calmodulin Kinase II Modulates the Temporal Structure of Hippocampal Bursting Patterns

      Cho, Jeiwon; Bhatt, Rushi; Elgersma, Ype; Silva, Alcino J.; Tsien, Joe Z.; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2012-02-20)
      The alpha calcium calmodulin kinase II (a-CaMKII) is known to play a key role in CA1/CA3 synaptic plasticity, hippocampal place cell stability and spatial learning. Additionally, there is evidence from hippocampal electrophysiological slice studies that this kinase has a role in regulating ion channels that control neuronal excitability. Here, we report in vivo single unit studies, with a-CaMKII mutant mice, in which threonine 305 was replaced with an aspartate (a-CaMKIIT305D mutants), that indicate that this kinase modulates spike patterns in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Previous studies showed that a- CaMKIIT305D mutants have abnormalities in both hippocampal LTP and hippocampal-dependent learning. We found that besides decreased place cell stability, which could be caused by their LTP impairments, the hippocampal CA1 spike patterns of a-CaMKIIT305D mutants were profoundly abnormal. Although overall firing rate, and overall burst frequency were not significantly altered in these mutants, inter-burst intervals, mean number of intra-burst spikes, ratio of intra-burst spikes to total spikes, and mean intra-burst intervals were significantly altered. In particular, the intra burst intervals of place cells in a- CaMKIIT305D mutants showed higher variability than controls. These results provide in vivo evidence that besides its wellknown function in synaptic plasticity, a-CaMKII, and in particular its inhibitory phosphorylation at threonine 305, also have a role in shaping the temporal structure of hippocampal burst patterns. These results suggest that some of the molecular processes involved in acquiring information may also shape the patterns used to encode this information.
    • The Actin Binding Domain of bI-Spectrin Regulates the Morphological and Functional Dynamics of Dendritic Spines

      Nestor, Michael W.; Cai, Xiang; Stone, Michele R.; Bloch, Robert J.; Thompson, Scott M.; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2011-01-31)
      Actin microfilaments regulate the size, shape and mobility of dendritic spines and are in turn regulated by actin binding proteins and small GTPases. The bI isoform of spectrin, a protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to membrane proteins, is present in spines. To understand its function, we expressed its actin-binding domain (ABD) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. The ABD of bI-spectrin bundled actin in principal dendrites and was concentrated in dendritic spines, where it significantly increased the size of the spine head. These effects were not observed after expression of homologous ABDs of utrophin, dystrophin, and a-actinin. Treatment of slice cultures with latrunculin-B significantly decreased spine head size and decreased actin-GFP fluorescence in cells expressing the ABD of a-actinin, but not the ABD of bI-spectrin, suggesting that its presence inhibits actin depolymerization. We also observed an increase in the area of GFPtagged PSD-95 in the spine head and an increase in the amplitude of mEPSCs at spines expressing the ABD of bI-spectrin. The effects of the bI-spectrin ABD on spine size and mEPSC amplitude were mimicked by expressing wild-type Rac3, a small GTPase that co-immunoprecipitates specifically with bI-spectrin in extracts of cultured cortical neurons. Spine size was normal in cells co-expressing a dominant negative Rac3 construct with the bI-spectrin ABD. We suggest that bI-spectrin is a synaptic protein that can modulate both the morphological and functional dynamics of dendritic spines, perhaps via interaction with actin and Rac3.
    • Adult Type 3 Adenylyl Cyclaseâ Deficient Mice Are Obese

      Wang, Zhenshan; Li, Vicky; Chan, Guy C. K.; Phan, Trongha; Nudelman, Aaron S.; Xia, Zhengui; Storm, Daniel R.; Tsien, Joe Z.; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2009-09-11)
      Background: A recent study of obesity in Swedish men found that polymorphisms in the type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) are associated with obesity, suggesting the interesting possibility that AC3 may play a role in weight control. Therefore, we examined the weight of AC3 mice over an extended period of time.
    • Analysis of the Potential Role of GluA4 Carboxyl-Terminus in PDZ Interactions

      Coleman, Sarah K.; Cai, Chunlin; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Korpi, Esa R.; Keinanen, Kari; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2010-01-14)
      Background: Specific delivery to synapses of a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors with long-tailed subunits is believed to be a key event in many forms of activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength. GluA1, the best characterized long-tailed AMPA receptor subunit, contains a C-terminal class I PDZ binding motif, which mediates its interaction with scaffold and trafficking proteins, including synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97). In GluA4, another long-tailed subunit implicated in synaptic plasticity, the PDZ motif is blocked by a single proline residue. This feature is highly conserved in vertebrates, whereas the closest invertebrate homologs of GluA4 have a canonical class I PDZ binding motif. In this work, we have examined the role of GluA4 in PDZ interactions
    • BDNF Facilitates L-LTP Maintenance in the Absence of Protein Synthesis through PKMf

      Mei, Fan; Nagappan, Guhan; Ke, Yang; Sacktor, Todd C.; Lu, Bai; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2011-06-29)
      Late-phase long term potentiation (L-LTP) is thought to be the cellular basis for long-term memory (LTM). While LTM as well as L-LTP is known to depend on transcription and translation, it is unclear why brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could sustain L-LTP when protein synthesis is inhibited. The persistently active protein kinase f (PKMf) is the only molecule implicated in perpetuating L-LTP maintenance. Here, in mouse acute brain slices, we show that inhibition of PKMf reversed BDNF-dependent form of L-LTP. While BDNF did not alter the steady-state level of PKMf, BDNF together with the L-LTP inducing theta-burst stimulation (TBS) increased PKMf level even without protein synthesis. Finally, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis, BDNF maintained TBS-induced PKMf at a sufficient level. These results suggest that BDNF sustains L-LTP through PKMf in a protein synthesis-independent manner, revealing an unexpected link between BDNF and PKMf.
    • Behavioral Consequences of NMDA Antagonist-Induced Neuroapoptosis in the Infant Mouse Brain

      Yuede, Carla M.; Wozniak, David F.; Creeley, Catherine E.; Taylor, George T.; Olney, John W.; Farber, Nuri B.; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2010-06-29)
      Background: Exposure to NMDA glutamate antagonists during the brain growth spurt period causes widespread neuroapoptosis in the rodent brain. This period in rodents occurs during the first two weeks after birth, and corresponds to the third trimester of pregnancy and several years after birth in humans. The developing human brain may be exposed to NMDA antagonists through drug-abusing mothers or through anesthesia.
    • beta-Catenin Regulates Intercellular Signalling Networks and Cell-Type Specific Transcription in the Developing Mouse Midbrain-Rhombomere 1 Region

      Chilov, Dmitri; Sinjushina, Natalia; Saarimaki-Vire, Jonna; Taketo, Makoto M.; Partanen, Juha; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2010-06-3)
      b-catenin is a multifunctional protein involved in both signalling by secreted factors of Wnt family and regulation of the cellular architecture. We show that b-catenin stabilization in mouse midbrain-rhombomere1 region leads to robust upregulation of several Wnt signalling target genes, including Fgf8. Suggestive of direct transcriptional regulation of the Fgf8 gene, b-catenin stabilization resulted in Fgf8 up-regulation also in other tissues, specifically in the ventral limb ectoderm. Interestingly, stabilization of b-catenin rapidly caused down-regulation of the expression of Wnt1 itself, suggesting a negative feedback loop. The changes in signal molecule expression were concomitant with deregulation of anteriorposterior and dorso-ventral patterning. The transcriptional regulatory functions of b-catenin were confirmed by b-catenin loss-of-function experiments. Temporally controlled inactivation of b-catenin revealed a cell-autonomous role for b-catenin in the maintenance of cell-type specific gene expression in the progenitors of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. These results highlight the role of b-catenin in establishment of neuroectodermal signalling centers, promoting region-specific gene expression and regulation of cell fate determination.
    • Binge-Pattern Alcohol Exposure during Puberty Induces Long-Term Changes in HPA Axis Reactivity

      Przybycien-Szymanska, Magdalena M.; Mott, Natasha N.; Paul, Caitlin R.; Gillespie, Roberta A.; Pak, Toni R.; Brann, Darrell W; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2011-04-13)
      Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH) treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and corticosterone (CORT) during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.
    • Cell-Type Specific Expression of a Dominant Negative PKA Mutation in Mice

      Willis, Brandon S.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Su, Thomas; Amieux, Paul S.; McKnight, G. Stanley; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2011-04-12)
      We employed the Cre recombinase/loxP system to create a mouse line in which PKA activity can be inhibited in any celltype that expresses Cre recombinase. The mouse line carries a mutant Prkar1a allele encoding a glycine to aspartate substitution at position 324 in the carboxy-terminal cAMP-binding domain (site B). This mutation produces a dominant negative RIa regulatory subunit (RIaB) and leads to inhibition of PKA activity. Insertion of a loxP-flanked neomycin cassette in the intron preceding the site B mutation prevents expression of the mutant RIaB allele until Cre-mediated excision of the cassette occurs. Embryonic stem cells expressing RIaB demonstrated a reduction in PKA activity and inhibition of cAMPresponsive gene expression. Mice expressing RIaB in hepatocytes exhibited reduced PKA activity, normal fasting induced gene expression, and enhanced glucose disposal. Activation of the RIaB allele in vivo provides a novel system for the analysis of PKA function in physiology.
    • The Combination of Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein Predicts the Outcomes of Chinese Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Vascular Parkinsonism

      Zhang, Limin; Yan, Junqiang; Xu, Yunqi; Long, Ling; Zhu, Cansheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; Yang, Lijuan; Bian, Lianfang; Wang, Qing; et al. (2011-04-27)
      Background: The elevation of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) has been correlated to an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) or vascular diseases. The association and clinical relevance of a combined assessment of Hcy and CRP levels in patients with PD and vascular parkinsonism (VP) are unknown.
    • Critical Role of NADPH Oxidase in Neuronal Oxidative Damage and Microglia Activation following Traumatic Brain Injury

      Zhang, Quan-Guang; Laird, Melissa D; Han, Dong; Nguyen, Khoi; Scott, Erin L.; Dong, Yan; Dhandapani, Krishnan M.; Brann, Darrell W; Department of Neurology; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics; et al. (2012-04-2)
      Background: Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in the pathology of traumatic brain injury. Mitochondria are thought to be the major source of the damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) following TBI. However, recent work has revealed that the membrane, via the enzyme NADPH oxidase can also generate the superoxide radical (O2^-), and thereby potentially contribute to the oxidative stress following TBI. The current study thus addressed the potential role of NADPH oxidase in TBI.
    • Diabetes Mellitus, Acute Hyperglycemia, and Ischemic Stroke

      Bruno, Askiel; Liebeskind, David; Hao, Qing; Raychev, Radoslav; Department of Neurology (2010-08-21)
      Opinion statement
    • Diagnostic Potential of the NMDA Receptor Peptide Assay for Acute Ischemic Stroke

      Dambinova, Svetlana A.; Bettermann, Kerstin; Glynn, Theodore; Tews, Matthew; Olson, David; Weissman, Joseph D.; Sowell, Richard L.; Department of Neurology (2012-07-27)
      Background: The acute assessment of patients with suspected ischemic stroke remains challenging. The use of brain biomarker assays may improve the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The main goal of the study was to evaluate whether the NR2 peptide, a product of the proteolytic degradation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, can differentiate acute ischemic stroke (IS) from stroke mimics and persons with vascular risk factors/healthy controls. A possible correlation between biomarker values and lesion sizes was investigated as the secondary objective.
    • Differential Regulation of the Variations Induced by Environmental Richness in Adult Neurogenesis as a Function of Time: A Dual Birthdating Analysis

      Llorens-Martí­n, Marí­a; Tejeda, Gonzalo S.; Trejo, José L.; Tsien, Joe Z.; Department of Neurology (2010-08-16)
      Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) augments after environmental enrichment (EE) and it has been related to some of the anxiolytic, antidepressant and neuroprotective effects of EE. Indeed, it has been suggested that EE specifically modulates hippocampal neurogenic cell populations over the course of time. Here we have used dual-birthdating to study two subpopulations of newborn neuron in mice (Mus musculus): those born at the beginning and at the end of enrichment. In this way, we demonstrate that while short-term cell survival is upregulated after an initial 1 week period of enrichment in 2 month old female mice, after long-term enrichment (2 months) neither cell proliferation nor the survival of the younger newly born cell populations are distinguishable from that observed in non-enriched control mice. In addition, we show that the survival of older newborn neurons alone (i.e. those born at the beginning of the enrichment) is higher than in controls, due to the significantly lower levels of cell death. Indeed, these parameters are rapidly adjusted to the sudden cessation of the EE conditions. These findings suggest both an early selective, long-lasting effect of EE on the neurons born in the initial stages of enrichment, and a quick response when the environment again becomes impoverished. Therefore, EE induces differential effects on distinct subpopulations of newborn neurons depending on the age of the immature cells and on the duration of the EE itself. The interaction of these two parameters constitutes a new, specific regulation of these neurogenic populations that might account for the long-term enrichment's behavioral effects.
    • Dihydrotestosterone Ameliorates Degeneration in Muscle, Axons and Motoneurons and Improves Motor Function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model Mice

      Yoo, Young-Eun; Ko, Chien-Ping; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2012-05-14)
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal disease characterized by a progressive loss of motoneurons. The clinical symptoms include skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy, which impairs motor performance and eventually leads to respiratory failure. We tested whether dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which has both anabolic effects on muscle and neuroprotective effects on axons and motoneurons, can ameliorate clinical symptoms in ALS. A silastic tube containing DHT crystals was implanted subcutaneously in SOD1-G93A mice at early symptomatic age when decreases in body weight and grip-strength were observed as compared to wild-type mice. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated ameliorated muscle atrophy and increased body weight, which was associated with stronger grip-strength. DHT treatment increased the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in muscle, which can exert myotrophic as well as neurotrophic effects through retrograde transport. DHT treatment attenuated neuromuscular junction denervation, and axonal and motoneuron loss. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated improvement in motor behavior as assessed by rota-rod and gait analyses, and an increased lifespan. Application of DHT is a relatively simple and non-invasive procedure, which may be translated into therapy to improve the quality of life for ALS patients.
    • Disease-Associated Mutations Prevent GPR56-Collagen III Interaction

      Luo, Rong; Jin, Zhaohui; Deng, Yiyu; Strokes, Natalie; Piao, Xianhua; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2012-01-4)
      GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Mutations in GPR56 cause a devastating human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP). Using the N-terminal fragment of GPR56 (GPR56N) as a probe, we have recently demonstrated that collagen III is the ligand of GPR56 in the developing brain. In this report, we discover a new functional domain in GPR56N, the ligand binding domain. This domain contains four disease-associated mutations and two N-glycosylation sites. Our study reveals that although glycosylation is not required for ligand binding, each of the four disease-associated mutations completely abolish the ligand binding ability of GPR56. Our data indicates that these four single missense mutations cause BFPP mostly by abolishing the ability of GPR56 to bind to its ligand, collagen III, in addition to affecting GPR56 protein surface expression as previously shown.
    • Double Dissociation of Amygdala and Hippocampal Contributions to Trace and Delay Fear Conditioning

      Raybuck, Jonathan D.; Lattal, K. Matthew; Tsien, Joe Z.; Department of Neurology (2011-01-19)
      A key finding in studies of the neurobiology of learning memory is that the amygdala is critically involved in Pavlovian fear conditioning. This is well established in delay-cued and contextual fear conditioning; however, surprisingly little is known of the role of the amygdala in trace conditioning. Trace fear conditioning, in which the CS and US are separated in time by a trace interval, requires the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. It is possible that recruitment of cortical structures by trace conditioning alters the role of the amygdala compared to delay fear conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To investigate this, we inactivated the amygdala of male C57BL/6 mice with GABA A agonist muscimol prior to 2-pairing trace or delay fear conditioning. Amygdala inactivation produced deficits in contextual and delay conditioning, but had no effect on trace conditioning. As controls, we demonstrate that dorsal hippocampal inactivation produced deficits in trace and contextual, but not delay fear conditioning. Further, pre- and post-training amygdala inactivation disrupted the contextual but the not cued component of trace conditioning, as did muscimol infusion prior to 1- or 4-pairing trace conditioning. These findings demonstrate that insertion of a temporal gap between the CS and US can generate amygdala-independent fear conditioning. We discuss the implications of this surprising finding for current models of the neural circuitry involved in fear conditioning.
    • Dystroglycan and Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L34 Regulate Differentiation in the Drosophila Eye

      Zhan, Yougen; Melian, Nadia Y.; Pantoja, Mario; Haines, Nicola; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Bourque, Charles W.; Rao, Yong; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2010-05-5)
      Mutations that diminish the function of the extracellular matrix receptor Dystroglycan (DG) result in muscular dystrophies, with associated neuronal migration defects in the brain and mental retardation e.g. Muscle Eye Brain Disease. To gain insight into the function of DG in the nervous system we initiated a study to examine its contribution to development of the eye of Drosophila melanogaster. Immuno-histochemistry showed that DG is concentrated on the apical surface of photoreceptors (R) cells during specification of cell-fate in the third instar larva and is maintained at this location through early pupal stages. In point mutations that are null for DG we see abortive R cell elongation during differentiation that first appears in the pupa and results in stunted R cells in the adult. Overexpression of DG in R cells results in a small but significant increase in their size. R cell differentiation defects appear at the same stage in a deficiency line Df(2R)Dg248 that affects Dg and the neighboring mitochondrial ribosomal gene, mRpL34. In the adult, these flies have severely disrupted R cells as well as defects in the lens and ommatidia. Expression of an mRpL34 transgene rescues much of this phenotype. We conclude that DG does not affect neuronal commitment but functions R cell autonomously to regulate neuronal elongation during differentiation in the pupa. We discuss these findings in view of recent work implicating DG as a regulator of cell metabolism and its genetic interaction with mRpL34, a member of a class of mitochondrial genes essential for normal metabolic function.
    • Early Development of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Is Coordinated by Wnt and BMP Signals

      Patthey, Cédric; Gunhaga, Lena; Edlund, Thomas; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2008-02-20)
      The formation of functional neural circuits that process sensory information requires coordinated development of the central and peripheral nervous systems derived from neural plate and neural plate border cells, respectively. Neural plate, neural crest and rostral placodal cells are all specified at the late gastrula stage. How the early development of the central and peripheral nervous systems are coordinated remains, however, poorly understood. Previous results have provided evidence that at the late gastrula stage, graded Wnt signals impose rostrocaudal character on neural plate cells, and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signals specify olfactory and lens placodal cells at rostral forebrain levels. By using in vitro assays of neural crest and placodal cell differentiation, we now provide evidence that Wnt signals impose caudal character on neural plate border cells at the late gastrula stage, and that under these conditions, BMP signals induce neural crest instead of rostral placodal cells. We also provide evidence that both caudal neural and caudal neural plate border cells become independent of further exposure to Wnt signals at the head fold stage. Thus, the status of Wnt signaling in ectodermal cells at the late gastrula stage regulates the rostrocaudal patterning of both neural plate and neural plate border, providing a coordinated spatial and temporal control of the early development of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
    • Effects of Kisspeptin1 on Electrical Activity of an Extrahypothalamic Population of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

      Zhao, Yali; Wayne, Nancy L.; Brann, Darrell W; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2012-05-23)
      Kisspeptin (product of the kiss1 gene) is the most potent known activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Both kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor are highly expressed in the hypothalamus of vertebrates, and low doses of kisspeptin have a robust and long-lasting stimulatory effect on the rate of action potential firing of hypophysiotropic gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH1) neurons in mice. Fish have multiple populations of GnRH neurons distinguished by their location in the brain and the GnRH gene that they express. GnRH3 neurons located in the terminal nerve (TN) associated with the olfactory bulb are neuromodulatory and do not play a direct role in regulating pituitary-gonadal function. In medaka fish, the electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons is modulated by visual cues from conspecifics, and is thought to act as a transmitter of information from the external environment to the central nervous system. TN-GnRH3 neurons also play a role in sexual motivation and arousal states, making them an important population of neurons to study for understanding coordination of complex behaviors. We investigated the role of kisspeptin in regulating electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons in adult medaka. Using electrophysiology in an intact brain preparation, we show that a relatively brief treatment with 100 nM of kisspeptin had a long-lasting stimulatory effect on the electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of GnRH neurons. Dose-response analysis suggests a relatively narrow activational range of this neuropeptide. Further, blocking action potential firing with tetrodotoxin and blocking synaptic transmission with a low Ca2+/high Mg2+ solution inhibited the stimulatory action of kisspeptin on electrical activity, indicating that kisspeptin is acting indirectly through synaptic regulation to excite TN-GnRH3 neurons. Our findings provide a new perspective on kisspeptin's broader functions within the central nervous system, through its regulation of an extrahypothalamic population of GnRH neurons involved in multiple neuromodulatory functions.