• NF-Y Recruits Both Transcription Activator and Repressor to Modulate Tissue- and Developmental Stage-Specific Expression of Human γ-Globin Gene

      Zhu, Xingguo; Wang, Yongchao; Pi, Wenhu; Liu, Hui; Wickrema, Amittha; Tuan, Dorothy; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2012-10-10)
      The human embryonic, fetal and adult β-like globin genes provide a paradigm for tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene regulation. The fetal γ-globin gene is expressed in fetal erythroid cells but is repressed in adult erythroid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional switch during erythroid development is not completely understood. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays to dissect the molecular assemblies of the active and the repressed proximal γ-globin promoter complexes in K562 human erythroleukemia cell line and primary human fetal and adult erythroid cells. We found that the proximal γ-globin promoter complex is assembled by a developmentally regulated, general transcription activator NF-Y bound strongly at the tandem CCAAT motifs near the TATA box. NF-Y recruits to neighboring DNA motifs the developmentally regulated, erythroid transcription activator GATA-2 and general repressor BCL11A, which in turn recruit erythroid repressor GATA-1 and general repressor COUP-TFII to form respectively the NF-Y/GATA-2 transcription activator hub and the BCL11A/COUP-TFII/GATA-1 transcription repressor hub. Both the activator and the repressor hubs are present in both the active and the repressed γ-globin promoter complexes in fetal and adult erythroid cells. Through changes in their levels and respective interactions with the co-activators and co-repressors during erythroid development, the activator and the repressor hubs modulate erythroid- and developmental stage-specific transcription of γ-globin gene.
    • Sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporters in normal tissues and in cancer.

      Ganapathy, Vadivel; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Gopal, Elangovan; Martin, Pamela M; Itagaki, Shiro; Miyauchi, Seiji; Prasad, Puttur D; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2008-04-30)
      SLC5A8 and SLC5A12 are sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (SMCTs), the former being a high-affinity type and the latter a low-affinity type. Both transport a variety of monocarboxylates in a Na(+)-coupled manner. They are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, thyroid, brain, and retina. SLC5A8 is localized to the apical membrane of epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract and proximal tubule. In the brain and retina, its expression is restricted to neurons and the retinal pigment epithelium. The physiologic functions of SLC5A8 include absorption of short-chain fatty acids in the colon and small intestine, reabsorption of lactate and pyruvate in the kidney, and cellular uptake of lactate and ketone bodies in neurons. It also transports the B-complex vitamin nicotinate. SLC5A12 is also localized to the apical membrane of epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract and proximal tubule. In the brain and retina, its expression is restricted to astrocytes and M?�ller cells. SLC5A8 also functions as a tumor suppressor; its expression is silenced in tumors of colon, thyroid, stomach, kidney, and brain. The tumor-suppressive function is related to its ability to mediate concentrative uptake of butyrate, propionate, and pyruvate, all of which are inhibitors of histone deacetylases. SLC5A8 can also transport a variety of pharmacologically relevant monocarboxylates, including salicylates, benzoate, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and fenoprofen, also interact with SLC5A8. These drugs are not transportable substrates for SLC5A8, but instead function as blockers of the transporter. Relatively less is known on the role of SLC5A12 in drug transport.
    • TNFα Cooperates with IFN-γ to Repress Bcl-xL Expression to Sensitize Metastatic Colon Carcinoma Cells to TRAIL-mediated Apoptosis

      Liu, Feiyan; Hu, Xiaolin; Zimmerman, Mary; Waller, Jennifer L.; Wu, Ping; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Lev, Dina; Liu, Kebin; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (2011-01-17)
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    • Uracils at nucleotide position 9â 11 are required for the rapid turnover of miR-29 family

      Zhang, Zhuo; Zou, Jun; Wang, Guo-Kun; Zhang, Jun-Tao; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Jing, Qing; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2011-02-1)
      MicroRNAs are endogenous small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Although the biogenesis of microRNAs and their regulation have been thoroughly elucidated, the degradation of microRNAs has not been fully understood. Here by using the pulseâ chase approach, we performed the direct measurement of microRNA lifespan. Five representative microRNAs demonstrated a general feature of relatively long lifespan. However, the decay dynamic varies considerably between these individual microRNAs. Mutation analysis of miR-29b sequence revealed that uracils at nucleotide position 9â 11 are required for its rapid decay, in that both specific nucleotides and their position are critical. The effect of uracil-rich element on miR-29b decay dynamic occurs in duplex but not in single strand RNA. Moreover, analysis of published data on microRNA expression profile during development reveals that a substantial subset of microRNAs with the uracil-rich sequence tends to be down-regulated compared to those without the sequence. Among them, Northern blotting shows that miR-29c and fruit fly bantam possess a relatively rapid turnover rate. The effect of uracil-rich sequence on microRNA turnover depends on the sequence context. The present work indicates that microRNAs contain sequence information in the middle region besides the sequence element at both ends.