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Evaluation of a Novel Compression Resistant Matrix for Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (RHBMO-2) for Onlay Graft IndicationsThe discovery and subsequent characterization of endogenous signaling peptides known as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) capable of inducing de novo bone formation in postfetal life represents a critical advancement in the understanding of tissue morphogenesis and has become an incentive to develop additional growth factor based tissue engineering strategies (Wozney & Seeherman 2004). Because BMPs act locally, a suitable carrier system must be used to ensure effective presentation of an adequate dose to a target site (Mont et al. 2004). A number of candidate biomaterials have thus been tested as potential carrier technologies (Huang et al. 2008). Currently, recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) coupled with an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) manufactured from bovine Achilles tendon Type 1 collagen is the only FDA approved device for orthopedic and craniofacial indications. Although the rhBMP-2/ACS construct has demonstrated clinical efficacy for indications including spine fusion, long bone fracture healing, sinus and alveolar augmentation, the ACS’s inability to resist tissue compression limits its use for onlay indications (Wikesjö et al. 2007).