Since the graduation of its first class in 1973, the Dental College of Georgia - the State‘s sole dental school and one of only 56 in the United States - has demonstrated an exemplary record of protecting the oral health of our State’s residents. The Dental College of Georgia was formerly known as the School of Dentistry.

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This Community contains the Department of Continuing Dental Education Publications, the Department of Oral Biology Faculty Papers, the Department of Oral Rehabilitation Faculty Papers, and the Department of Periodontics Faculty Papers.

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Recent Submissions

  • Dendritic Cell Derived Exosomes Loaded with Immunoregulatory Cargo Reprogram local Immune Responses and Inhibit Degenerative Bone Disease In vivo

    Elashiry, Mahmoud; Biomedical Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-12)
    Background: Histopathological study of periodontitis (PD) lesions at sites of bone loss reveals infiltration with dendritic cells (DC) CD4+ T cell clusters and other inflammatory cells. DCs can direct bone protective T-regulatory cell (Tregs) responses, or bone destructive T-helper 17 (Th17). The use of exosomes (EXO), natural nanoparticles released by DCs and other cells, are under intense scrutiny in clinical trials for autoimmune diseases and cancer, but no studies to date have harnessed DC-derived EXO to regulate alveolar bone loss in PD. Aim: To determine the ability of custom DC-derived EXO to reprogram immune cell functions of recipient DCs and T cells and mitigate inflammatory bone loss in mice. Methods: Murine bone marrow derived donor DC subtypes, including immune regulatory DCs (regDC), immature DCs (iDC) and immune stimulatory (stimDC) DCs were the source of purified DC EXO. Reg DC EXO were actively loaded with TGFB1/IL10 using ultrasonication. Preliminary in vitro studies of EXO cargo, stability and resistance of cytokine cargo to proteolysis, as well as immune functions and osteoclastogenesis was investigated. The following DC EXO subtypes were then tested in vivo in six groups of mice, in the ligature induced PD model: Group 1, no ligature, Groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, 8 ligature plus gingival injection of, respectively, PBS, regDC EXO, iDC EXO, stimDC EXO and free TGFB1/IL10. Biodistribution and in vivo uptake of EXO by gingival recipient DCs and T cells were tracked. The ability of DC EXO to modulate gingival recipient DC and CD4 T cells and cytokine expression was confirmed. TRAP staining of histological sections measured osteoclast number, while bone loss volume was measured in 3-D by micro-CT. Results: Injected EXO showed a high affinity for gingival site of inflammatory bone loss. RegDC EXO containing TGFb/IL-10 cargo, protected cargo against proteolytic degradation and were taken up by recipient DCs and T cells in vivo, promoting Tregs, while inhibiting Th17 recruitment and inhibiting bone loss. In contrast, EXO subtypes lacking TGFb/IL-10 or free TGFB/IL-10 did not shift the Treg-Th17 balance and did not inhibit bone loss. Mechanistically, a key role for TGFb1 in induction of Tregs by regDC EXO was found using blocking antibodies to TGFb and/or IL-10. T.E.M. analysis revealed TGFb1 localized in the EXO lumen and in the transmembrane domain, which sustained signaling in recipient DCs. Blocking experiments revealed that sustainable prolonged TGFb1 signaling required initial interaction between regDCs EXO and TGFBR1 complex on acceptor cells, followed by internalization of regDC EXO with TGFB1-TGFBR1 complex for sustained SMAD2/3 phosphorylation. Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of DCs exosomes for inhibition of experimental bone loss and the cellular immune mechanisms involved. This provides the basis for a future novel immunotherapeutic strategy for PD in humans.
  • The effects of altered salivary viscosity on the incidence and extent of dental caries in rats

    Biesbrock, Aaron Reed; Department of Oral Pathology (Augusta University, 1989-05-02)
    The research was intended to determine whether alterations in salivary viscosity brought about by altering dietary components affected the incidence and extent of dental caries in rats.
  • The stability of an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in growing and non-growing golden hamsters

    Berman, Scott C.; Department of Oral Biology (Augusta University, 1993-03)
  • Toxicity of visible light-cured denture resins

    Barron, Dara Jewell; Department of Oral Biology (1992-04)
    In this study three commercial formulations of visible light-cured (VLC) denture resins have been analyzed. The products used are those suggested for the reline, repair and fabrication of dentures to improve their fit. The biocompatibility of these resins was investigated by measuring RNA and DNA synthesis of oral epithelial cells in vitro. The extent to which oral cells recover from toxic resin exposure, the conversion of monomer into polymer, the presence of inorganic filler, and resin leacha~ility have also been studied. It was shown that VLC denture resins inhibit the synthesis of RNA and· DNA relative to a heat-cured resin control (p~0.05). Although epithelial cells appeared to recover from toxic resin exposure, this recovery was inconsistent among experiments. Infrared spectroscopy illustrated chemical group differences that occurred before and after photo-polymerization. Using these differences, the conversion of monomer into polymer ranged from 77% to 97%. This conversion was significantly affected (p< .003) by the type of curing unit, duration of photo-polymerization, and surface exposed to visible light. Soluble substances in cured and uncured resin products were analogous using HPLC. The range of inorganic filler present was 0-15%. These investigations suggest that visible light-cured denture resins may impair the replication of oral epithelial cells. This effect may be related to the leachability of unpolymerized resin constituents, the presence or absence of filler particles, or polymerization by-products.
  • Efficacy of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate-palmitate as a Virucidal Compound Against Norovirus

    Widjaja, Nicole; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
    Norovirus is a highly infectious, non-enveloped virus found to be the leading cause of global gastroenteritis outbreaks. Every year within the United States, this virus is responsible for an average of 19-21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis, approximately 570-800 deaths, and has been the cause of 1.7 to 1.9 million outpatient visits. On a global scale, healthcare costs and lost productivity are estimated to $60 billion due to illnesses and outbreaks caused by the burden of norovirus. Unfortunately, current measures to prevent the transmission of norovirus remain insufficient as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) can only recommend hand washing with soap and water as the best preventative measure. The only other hand hygiene method available is alcohol-based hand sanitizers, but the CDC states that they are not effective in inactivating norovirus particles and warns that it should not be considered a substitute to hand washing. Recently, epigallocatecin-3-gallate (EGCG) a major component extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, also commonly known as tea plant, has shown potential to be the next viable candidate as an antiviral solution. Lipid derivatives of EGCG, most notably EGCGpalmitate, has shown to express potent antiviral properties and has showed to play a crucial role in the fight against other non-enveloped viruses such as poliovirus and adenovirus. In this study, we determined the efficacy of EGCG-palmitate in novel formulations against human norovirus surrogates by utilizing the EU international standards for hand hygiene in vitro studies against norovirus. Evidence is provided determining the virucidal activity of alcohol-based ProtecTeaV formulations containing EGCG-palmitate as well as the potential for EGCG-palmitate as a persistent residual virucidal activity against norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1). By creating an effective, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and long lasting solution composed of EGCG-palmitate, the results of this innovative approach would expand the options available to reduce the transmission of norovirus essentially bridging the gap for a new preventative hand hygiene and ultimately impacting the spread of norovirus on a worldwide scale.
  • The Application of Low-Cost, Close-Range Photogrammetry in Dentistry

    Patel, Mohit; Mettenburg, D.; Biological Sciences, Restorative Sciences (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
    This item presents the abstract for a poster presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
  • Influence of Porphyromonas gingivalis on Anti-Apoptotic/Autophagic Signaling Pathways in Human Dendritic Cells

    Meghil, Mohamed; Tawfik, Omnia; Elashirty, Mahmoud; Rajendran, Mythilypriya; Arce, Roger; Schoenlein, Patricia V.; Cutler, Christopher; Department of Oral Biology & Diagnostic Sciences, Department of Periodontics, Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (Augusta University, 2019)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisims of P. gingivalis-mediated disruption of homeostatic apoptosis and autophagy in DCs.
  • Murine Dendritic Cell Interactions with Minor-fimbriae P. gingivalis

    Yuan, J; Auersvald, c; Elashiry, M; Meghil, M; Elashiry, M; Finger Stadler, A; Arce, R.M.; Department of Periodontics (Augusta University, 2019)
    The objective was to determine DC maturity phenotype of murine bone marrow-derived DCs in response to wild/type (PgWT) and minor-fimbriated DPG3.
  • Direct Composite restorations Using a Clear PVS Matrix to restore Worn Anterior Dentition to Create an Ideal Occlusal Plane

    Fowlkes, Colton; Romero, M; Urbanawiz, D; Department of Restorative Sciences (Augusta University, 2019)
    This clicnical case documents the use of a clear PVS matrix technique to restore the incisal edges of worn mandibular anterior teeth using flowable composite to provide a 20 degree template for eventual complete maxillary denture and mandibular removable partial denture frabrication.
  • The Role of Oral Microbiota in Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Rat Tibial Defect Model

    Jernigan, Joshua; Awad, Mohamed E.; Elsayed, Ranya; Elsalanty, Mohammed (Augusta University, 2019)
    This study aims to develop a rat model for post-traumatic osteonecrosis at an extra-oral bone site that simulates the oral micro-environment, specifically the proximal tibia.
  • Innate Lymphoid Cells in Periodontitis: A Novel Therapeutic Modality

    Ghaly, Mira; Emami, Golnaz; Khodadadi, Hesam; Mozaffari, Mahmood; Baban, Babak; Department of Periodontics, Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences (Augusta University, 2019)
    To determine the presence of ILCs in human periodontium which are emerging immune cells with the potential to be targeted, via novel therapies, in the treatment of peridontitis.
  • Injection of Tumescent Solution into Maxillary Sinuses During LeFort I Osteotomies for Reduction of Intra-operative Blood Loss

    Zastrow, Stephanie; James, Jeffrey; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Augusta University, 2019)
    Orthognathic surgery is a treatment option for many dentofacial deformities that cannot be treated with orthodontics or minor surgeries alone. Repositioning of the maxilla, mandible, chin, or a combination of the three can have a significant effect on a patient’s occlusal function, facial appearance, and self-esteem. Successful, comprehensive treatment usually requires a collaborative approach between an orthodontist and oral and maxillofacial surgeon.
  • Conservative Porcelain Veneer: Step by step protocol for ideal preparation

    Wooten, Rebekah; Coleman, J; Pruett, M; Romeo, M (Augusta University, 2019)
    Since the 1930s laminate veneers have been commonly used to improve appearance of teeth, but they did not become popular until enamel etching and porcelain surface treatments made them more clinically predictable in the 1980s.1 Over the years, they have been indicated to modify the color, shape, length and alignment of teeth to improve their esthetic appearance. Contraindications include severely discolored teeth and lack of enamel remaining to support the restoration.3 Treatment planning is the first step to ideal veneer preparation, which involves determining the incisal edge position, shape and proportions of the teeth being restored. This information is obtained form the diagnostic wax-up and subsequent esthetic mock-up. Veneer preparations often follow one of two common reduction patterns: conservative or standard. The difference between the two being the amount of tooth structure removed. The conservative approach involves reduction of 0.3 mm gingival third, 0.5 mm middle third, and 0.7 mm incisal third; or no reduction may be required. The standard preparation typically follows a reduction pattern of 0.8 mm gingival, 1.0 mm middle, and 1.2 mm incisal. Incisal reduction can be characteristic of either technique to allow room for the addition of incisal effects such as halo and translucency. In order to ensure porcelain veneers have the maximum lifetime expectancy, it is imperative to have preparations entirely in enamel. Bonding porcelain veneers to enamel increases their fracture strength. 2 Based on the best available evidence the ten year survival rate for porcelain veneers is at around 95% if bonded to enamel.1 Maxillary midline diastemas (MMD) are present in 28% of the population, and 87.5% of females with a midline diastema are dissatisfied and seek treatment.3 This clinical report focuses on the clinical management of a maxillary midline diastema (MMD) with porcelain veneers through a conservative preparation and incisal reduction.
  • ACRYLATE/METHACRYLATE CONTENT AMONG A VARIETY OF 3D PRINTING RESINS

    Walker, Dylan; Villalobos, V; Rueggeberg, FA; Brenes, C; Department of Restorative Sciences, Department of General Dentistry (Augusta University, 2019)
    The purposes of this research were to apply an infrared spectroscopic analytical method to differentiate among a variety of commercial, 3D dental printable resins for their acrylate or methacrylate content, and to relate that knowledge to the intended use of the printed item: extraorally or intraorally.
  • Investigation of the Clinical Feasibility of Incorporating Dexmedetomidine into the Outpatient Anesthesia Regimen of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

    Taylor, D. Craig; Ferguson, Henry W.; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Augusta University, 2019)
    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate incorporating a Dexmedetomidine infusion into an established IV Sedation regimen in terms of clinical efficiency (Anesthesia time), Patient subjective experience, and physiologic response to the infusion in comparison to a control appointment without the infusion.
  • A multidisciplinary approach to the management of a maxillary midline diastema: A clinical report

    Romero, Mario F.; Babb, C; Department of Restorative Sciences, Department of General Dentistry (Augusta University, 2019)
    Anterior maxillary spacing has been shown to be one of the most negative influences on self-perceived dental appearance, and a maxillary midline diastema (MMD) is commonly cited by patients as a primary concern during dental consultations. MMD has been defined as a space greater than 0.5 mm between the mesial surfaces of the 2 maxillary central incisors. An MMD greater than 2 mm in the mixed dentition is unlikely to spontaneously close. African Americans are more than twice as likely to have an MMD than whites or Hispanics. In esthetic situations, without a comprehensive smile analysis and proper planning, overtreatment and undesirable effects can occur. Tooth size especially has been emphasized as the primary element of an esthetic smile design. One method of establishing tooth size is tooth biometry as described by Chu. He reported that maxillary anterior tooth widths average 8.5 mm for central incisors, 6.5 mm for lateral incisors, and 7.5 mm for canines and that 80% of the patient population falls within ±0.5 mm of these values. Other important elements of smile analysis include the dental midline, tooth morphology, axial inclinations, and the soft tissue components of gingival health, levels, and harmony. The direct bonding technique is a straightforward, conservative method for diastema closure. However, artistic skills, a knowledge of tooth morphology, and the appropriate selection and use of composite resin materials are essential for success. According to Spear and Kokich, “some existing dentitions simply cannot be restored to a more pleasing appearance without the assistance of several different dental disciplines.” Therefore, complex esthetic dilemmas may require more than one dental discipline, for example, operative dentistry and orthodontics, to establish a functional, maintainable, and pleasant smile. This article illustrates a clinical situation in which an MMD was addressed by first completing a comprehensive smile analysis, followed by closure using limited orthodontics and direct composite resin restorations.
  • DNA Sequencing of Extensive Odontogenic Keratocysts with Possible Therapeutic Implications

    Abdelsayed, Macarius; Kolhe, Ravindra; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (Augusta University, 2019)
    Purpose of this research is: to perform DNA sequencing on a group of previously diagnosed OKC of the jaws which demonstrated clinical aggressive behavior; Compare the genetic profile of the aggressive OKC cases with the genetic profile of a similar number of OKC cases which did not demonstrate aggressive clinical behavior; Evaluate the possibility of therapeutic implications of genetic mutations noted in OKCs
  • EFFECT OF WAVELENGTH EXPOSURE SEQUENCE ON COMPOSITE HARDNESS

    Patel, Mohit; Mettenburg, D; Rueggeberg, FA; Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Restorative Sciences (Augusta University, 2019)
    To measure and compare composite top and bottom surface microhardness values when using a multi-wave LED curing light emitting simultaneous blue and violet light, or when the sequence of wavelength applications was provided as separate exposures, of similar duration.
  • Clinical Guide for Intraosseous Pathology

    Malik, M; Kalathingal, S; Cullum, A; Buchanan, A; Abdelsayed, A; Kurago, Z; Department of Oral Biology & Diagnostic Sciences, Center for Instructional Innovation (Augusta University, 2019)
    To provide a reference database for dental students to describe and analyze intra osseous pathology that aid to develop a list of differential diagnoses for various diseases affecting the maxillofacial region on patients treated in student clinics. The online database will serve as a resource for descriptive terminology and samples to demonstrate the origin of the lesion, radiographic appearance, borders, contents, effects on adjacent structures, etc. which are the fundamental elements that guide a clinician in developing an impression and formulate the differential diagnosis. Histopathologic evaluation that provides the final diagnosis of each disease process will also be included to demonstrate that radiographic presentation of various disease categories may be similar, however, clinical management is ultimately decided by the tissue sample from the biopsy specimen. The interactive database will have various features that enable the user to access a comprehensive glossary list, word- defined searches, a brief overview of the most common diseases affecting dento-alveolar regions and learn about the management strategies.

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