The 17th Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference is an opportunity for all undergraduate students of Augusta University (Summerville and Health Sciences campuses) to showcase their scholarly and artistic endeavors. Abstracts from ALL disciplines, such as the fine arts, social sciences, education, business, and natural & applied sciences, will be accepted.

Conference Planning Committee

Angie Spencer, Chair

Trinanjan Datta, Abstracts

Jessica Reichmuth, Facilities and Publicity

Abigail Drescher, Judging

Kimberly Mears, Archivist and Judging

Scott Thorp, Advisory Member

Kevin Fraizer, Advisory Member

Richard Davis, Taylor Awalt, Kristen Bowie, Aaryn Steinberg, Ashley White, Cody Woods, Publications

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Recent Submissions

  • Does Teaching Grammar Lead To Better Writing? Questions from Evolving Writers and Teachers

    Osburn, Curtis; Department of English and Foreign Languages (2016-03)
    As a prospective English teacher, I have formulated the following research question for my project: Does the study of grammar lead to better writing? Specifically, my project examines whether or not the study of descriptive grammar (grammar defining the syntactical structures of the language) improves writing. My paper 1) contextualizes my research question within recent linguistic/pedagogical research and 2) explains the results of a grammar-in-context experiment I conducted using my own writing as data. In this experiment, I analyzed the effectiveness of my writing and utilized skills gained in my grammar class to correct and enhance them. Writing contains two phases: Invention and editing. Based on research and the findings from this experiment I concluded that the initial process of writing relies primarily on the writer’s intrinsic understanding of language and that grammar studies possess the capacity to help writers mostly in the editing phase. I believe this conclusion possesses important implications for teachers. Based on this project, I believe that grammar-in-context exercises during the editing phase can lead students to identify their own writing patterns and build the intuitive knowledge necessary to better communicate their thoughts. I intend to demonstrate how I utilized in-context grammar exercises during the presentation.
  • Assisting and Assimilating: How Culturally-Competent Care and Community-Centeredness Impact Quality of Life for Minority Members

    Thompson, Taylor; Department of English and Foreign Languages (2016-03)
    Most Americans are aware that the United States’ population is headed toward a minority-majority. Although demographers expect this shift to take at least another decade, the minority-majority is already a reality among the nation’s children. In 2014, 50.2% of America’s children under the age of five were minority group members. In 2016, the U.S. faces an influx of refugees and changing ethnic distributions, as Mexican immigrants return home in greater numbers while Asian immigrants arrive in greater proportions. In light of these facts, two community efforts are increasingly essential: preparing culturally-competent public servants and promoting resources available to both immigrants and minorities. This presentation will address both of these goals by first presenting a model for culturally-competent job training in The University of Texas at El Paso’s Master of Social Work Program, and then highlighting the services and successes of some of the CSRA’s minority-serving organizations.
  • Psychological Variables Associated with Health Behavior

    Gaffney, Jasmine; Rogers, Rebecca L.; Department of Psychological Sciences (2016-03)
    Forty percent of deaths from heart disease, cancer, respiratory diseases, and stroke are preventable. Altering compromising health behavior would significantly reduce premature death; thus, investigating variables associated with health behavior is important. We examined whether health locus of control (HLOC), hypochondriasis (Hs), and social introversion (Si) would predict perceived physical fitness (PPF) and health behavior (e.g., tobacco use). HLOC is the extent to which people believe that their health is controlled by internal or external factors. Individuals who score high on scales of Hs tend to be preoccupied with their health whereas those who score high on Si tend to be shy and submissive. Participants were 108 undergraduate students. Separate hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted with PPF and health behavior as the dependent variables. Factors of HLOC were entered at stage one of the analyses. Hs and Si were entered at stage two. HLOC did not predict PPF. However, introducing the Hs and Si variables explained 20% of the variation in PPF (p = .001). Likewise, HLOC did not predict health behavior but adding Hs and Si explained 14% of the variation in health behavior (p = .01). Higher Hs and Si were related to lower PPF and health behavior.
  • The Presence of Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms in a Sports Environment

    Caballer-Hernani, Teresa; Covington, Katherine; Chen, Lin; Department of Psychological Sciences (2016-03)
    Golf is relatively unique compared to other sports, with large nature landscapes providing the area of play. Golf courses are often home to wildlife and provide rest stops for migratory birds. Animal inhabitants, as well as natural streams and ponds, provide an ideal environment for the proliferation of coliforms and fecal coliforms. Unlike other sports, golfers may engage in several hand to mouth behaviors (e.g. licking their fingers to clean mud off a ball, eating food during play). Furthermore, the research team hypothesizes that golfers may not clean some of their equipment frequently (e.g. gloves, bags). To assess golfers’ potential exposure to coliforms and fecal coliforms during a round of golf, swabs were taken from a pilot sample of ten golfers’ hands and equipment prior to and following their round of golf. A brief survey assessed golfers’ hand washing, eating and golf equipment cleaning behaviors. While none of the golfers’ hands tested positive for fecal coliforms prior to the round of golf, 55% of the golfers’ equipment and/or hands tested positive after the round. No golfers reported cleaning their gloves or bags, and most reported they would likely lick their fingers and/or eat while golfing.
  • Determining a Correlation in Field and Lab Measurements of Cs-137 Concentrations in Deer at the Savannah River Site

    Stagich, Brooke; Jannik, Tim; Dixon, Ken; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    The Savannah River Site (SRS) hosts controlled hunts on their land to help control the population of deer and wild pigs. All of the animals harvested are measured for Cs-137 in the field to estimate the dose the hunter could receive from that animal. Flesh samples are taken from every tenth animal and sent to an onsite radiological lab for more sensitive measurements of the Cs-137 concentrations. The dose a hunter may receive from the deer or hogs is calculated using the field data; however, over the past few years, this data was found to be biased and lower than the lab data. Previously, this bias was adjusted by using a correction factor based on the weight of the animal. Over the summer, a comparison of the data from measured deer/hog samples was performed in an attempt to find a better correlation between the field and lab data to replace the current correction factor. Data from the past three years were used to help look at the possible sources of bias in the field data. A comparison between the NaI(Tl) detector readings and the source concentrations during calibration found a strong linear relationship. There was no correlation found between the weight of the deer and the readings from both the field and the lab. A definitive correlation was not found and two new correction factors were determined based on the concentration levels. For concentration below 2.00 pCi/g the correction factor is 1.44, and above 2.00 pCi/g the factor is 1.56. The previous weight-based correction factor was not technically correct and was replaced by the new correction factors based on concentrations. The new concentration-based correction factors will need to be revised on an annual basis as more data is collected. Funding Source: Department of Energy
  • Spin Wave Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation Package

    Datta, Trinanjan; Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Department of Chemistry and Physics; Department of Physics and Astronomy (2016-03)
    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group’s effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.
  • A MATLAB GUI to Study Ising Model Phase Transition

    Thornton, CurtisLee; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    We have created a MATLAB based graphical user interface (GUI) that simulates the single spin flip Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. The GUI has the capability to study temperature and external magnetic field dependence of magnetization, susceptibility, and equilibration behavior of the nearest-neighbor square lattice Ising model. Since the Ising model is a canonical system to study phase transition, the GUI can be used both for teaching and research purposes. The presence of a Monte Carlo code in a GUI format allows easy visualization of the simulation in real time and provides an attractive way to teach the concept of thermal phase transition and critical phenomena. We will also discuss the GUI implementation to study phase transition in a classical spin ice model on the pyrochlore lattice. Funding Source: Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship and Department of Chemistry and Physics
  • Studying the Interplay between Superconductivity and Anti-Ferromag-Netism through Bose-Fermi Mixtures on Optical Lattices

    Brackett, Jeremy; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    Motivated by the recent experimental progress with ultra-cold atoms, we investigate the physics of a Bose-Fermi mixture on a two dimensional optical lattice. We treat the system parameters such that 2-component fermions are in a deep external trap and weakly interacting bosons are in a shallow external trap, however both of these atoms are subjected to the same optical lattice. In this parameter regime, the bosons form a Bose-Einstein condensate and mediate an attractive interaction between fermions through low energy Bose excitations. As a result, the dynamics of the fermions can be described by the single band Hubbard model that involves on-site repulsive interaction and elementary excitation mediated attractive interactions. Using a mean field theory, we derive an effective action up to the quartic order in both d-wave superconducting and anti-ferromagnetic order parameters. Using this Landau energy functional, we then discuss the phase transition and study the competition and/or cooperation of anti-ferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in the system.
  • Can Anti-Ferromagnetism And Anisotropic Superconductivity Coexist In Iron Pnictides?

    Newman, Joseph; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    By treating both anti-ferromagnetism (AFM) and superconductivity (SC) on an equal footing, we investigate the possible coexistence of AFM and SC of recently found high-temperature superconducting compounds. Assuming that the electron pairing is mediated by the spin fluctuations and using a mean-field theory, we derive a set of gap equations for both AFM and SC order parameters. In the spirit of the second order phase transition, we then linearize the gap equations using various base functions for superconducting order to include the different pairing symmetries. By analyzing the solution of our linearized equations, we then discuss the possible coexistence of AFM and anisotropic SC in these compounds.
  • Expression of Suv39h1 in Escherichia coli

    Baumert, Delphine; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    A hallmark of metastatic human colorectal cancer is silencing of Fas expression, a death receptor protein involved in an extrinsic apoptotic pathway. A number of histone methyltransferases (HMTases), including SUV39H1, have recently been linked to silencing Fas expression through methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) in the Fas promoter region; methylation being an epigenetic factor commonly associated with gene silencing. A natural compound found in pathogen-infected mushrooms, verticillin A, has been identified as a potent inhibitor of SUV39H1, as well as a number of other HMTases. Unfortunately it exhibits toxicity at low concentrations in mice, likely because of its association of multiple targets. Because of this toxicity and the lack of specificity exhibited by verticillin A, the goal of this project is to to identify SUV39H1-specific small molecule inhibitors. Once identified, these inhibitors will be tested for their ability to suppress colon carcinoma growth. In order to obtain large amounts of SUV39H1 for this study, we are working on sub-cloning the gene for SUV39H1 into the expression vector, pET21c(+), so that the gene product can be over-expressed in E. coli BL21 cells. Once the protein has been purified, we will test the effects of various inhibitors on the activity of SUV39H1 in vitro. Funding Source: Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship and Department of Chemistry and Physics
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Mediates Di-N-Octyl Phthalate-Induced Hepatocyte Proliferation

    Buckner, Shelby; Department of Biological Sciences (2016-03)
    Certain chemicals used in manufacturing plastics are linked to severe, negative health effects such as cancer. Di-N-Octylphthalate (DNOP) is a phthalate found in many plastics and has been linked with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this research project was to study the effect of DNOP on the proliferation of normal mouse hepatocytes and the growth factor implicated. The expression of several growth factors and receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr), epidermal growth factor (egf), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (igf1r), insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1), insulin-like growth factor 2 (igf2), and hepatocyte growth factor (hgf)) was assessed in normal hepatocytes AML-12 cell line by RT-PCR and qPCR. The rate of cell proliferation of AML-12 cells was measured using MTT cell proliferation assay kit. DNOP at 0.1% caused an increase in expression of egf at 24h, 48h, and 72 h. This result was confirmed by Western blot. DNOP did not cause changes in any of other studied genes. The rate of cell proliferation increased in those cells treated with 0.1% DNOP at 72 h and 96 h. In conclusion, our observation indicates that DNOP, through an increase in the expression of egf, acts as a proliferative agent in normal mouse hepatocytes. Funding Source: Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship, Department of Biological Sciences and Scholarly Activity Award
  • Ufmylation Maintains the Proper Er Homeostasis of Pancreas from Alcoholic Rodents

    Miller, Camille; Department of Biological Sciences (2016-03)
    The accumulation of misfolded pancreatic enzymes in the rough ER causes an activation of unfolded protein response (UPR). Ufmylation (Ufm1) is a novel post-translational ubiquitin-like modification system involved in UPR. Ufm1 modifies its target proteins through a biochemical pathway that involves E3 ligase. RCAD is an E3 ligase that forms a complex with DDRGK1. Be- cause of the synthesis, folding/sorting of pancreatic enzymes takes place in the rough ER and Ufm1 is involved in ER homeostasis. The first objective was to study the importance of RCAD and DDRGK1 in both proper sorting and secretion of digestive enzymes. We found that the lack of RCAD or DDRGK1 causes an increase in the expression of pancreatic amylase and trypsin activation. Because Ufmylation is involved in rough ER homeostasis and alcoholism causes changes in the expression of multiple rough ER proteins involved in the UPR, the next objective was to compare the relative expression of RCAD and DDRGK1 in alcohol-treated rats with non-treated rats. We found that both RCAD and DDRGK1 are highly expressed in alcohol-treated pancreas. In conclusion, alcoholism could increase the level of these proteins in the exocrine pancreas to protect it from ER stress and inflammation. Funding Source: Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship, Department of Biological Sciences and Scholarly Activity Award
  • A Prospective Dominant Negative Mutant of Wnt Signaling In Zebrafish Causes Craniofacial Asymmetry with Low Penetrance

    Ravilla, Dheeraj; Neiswender, Hannah; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2016-03)
    Wnt gene signaling pathways have been implicated in development, cell behavior, and diseases, including craniofacial abnormalities. We created mutant complementary DNA constructs using QuikChange mutagenesis and then compared them to wild-type cDNA for effects on zebrafish development following injection into one-cell embryos. We hypothesized that disrupting a putative Wnt-binding lipocalin motif would allow mutant tinagl1 mRNAs to induce a dominant negative phenotype, similar to tinagl1 gene knockdown. Mutant LCN-W2 but not WT mRNA preferentially gave small eyes and ventral body curvature similar to the gene knockdown. Our main focus was on craniofacial development using Alcian blue staining of cartilage elements in 5 day old zebrafish. Abnormalities were seen at low penetrance in high-survival (high-quality) clutches with the highest injected dose of TIN LCN-W2,150 pg. These included smaller head and asymmetric head skeleton with one smaller eye on side of variable cartilage defects. Craniofacial defects, especially asymmetry, were more prevalent in clutches with lower survival rates. These asymmetric defects had not been seen in the gene knockdown. In summary, the phenotypes of LCN-W2 partially support similarity to a dominant negative phenotype with cartilage defects, small eyes, and ventrally curved body, but the craniofacial asymmetry appears novel. More research is needed for further understanding.
  • Effectors Implicated In the Ac1 Inhibitory Effect on Cell Proliferation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Medepalli, Vidya; Department of Biological Sciences (2016-03)
    Introduction and aim: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is among the most aggressive of all cancers. Adenosine 3’, 5’ cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is involved in the internal cellular enzymatic activity and gene expression. It is found to be involved in the mechanism of pancreatic tumorigenesis. So far, two effectors for cyclic AMP are known; one is protein kinase A (PKA) and the other is an exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC). Our research group has found that AC1 is responsible for the inhibitory effect of Forskolin on cell proliferation of HPAC. My research project focuses on studying the effectors implicated in the inhibitory effect of activated AC1. Result: We were successfully able to overexpress AC1 using a plasmid human ADCY1 cDNA in pCMV-SPORT6. Through the overexpression, we were able to support the conclusion that AC1 inhibits cell proliferation in HPAC cells. We found that both H-89 (inhibitor of PKA) and ESI (inhibitor of EPAC) counteracts the effect of AC1. Conclusion: Both effectors- PKA and EPAC- mediate the inhibitory effect of AC1. Funding Source: Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship and Department of Biological Sciences, Scholarly Activity Award
  • Complexation Of Holmium With Tributyl Phosphate In Bis (Trifluoromethylsulfonyl)Imide Ionic Liquid Solutions

    Meeker, David; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    A growing area of interest is in the search for significantly safer and more eco-friendly improvements to nuclear fuel reprocessing. One proposal that addresses these issues involves the use of room temperature ionic liquids in the place of tradition- al organic solvents. Unlike the current commonly used solvents, most ionic liquids are nonvolatile and nonflammable, which greatly reduces the risk of industrial accidents and environmental contamination; other potential benefits involve monitoring applications using electrochemistry. The focus of our research involves understanding the coordination behavior of trivalent lanthanide ions (a common byproduct of spent nuclear fuel) in ionic liquids and the extraction behavior of the metal complexes between organic and aqueous phases. The lanthanide, holmium, was dissolved in the super-acid hydrogen bis(trifluoromethyl- sulfonyl)imide, and diluted to form an aqueous solution of known concentration. The holmium solution was then equilibrated with samples of organic ionic liquids, containing the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, with dissolved tributyl phosphate (TBP, the PUREX extractant) in the ionic liquid phase. Visible absorbance spectroscopy was used to determine partition coefficients of holmium at varied [TBP], and at varied extraction times for kinetics. Results will be presented from the kinetics study and the distribution ratios of holmium in these ionic liquids. Funding Source: Department of Chemistry and Physics
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Nanothermometers

    Baumert, Delphine; George, Larsen; Murph, Simona; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    Nanothermometers enable the measurement of local temperatures at nanoscale dimensions (1-100 nm), which can provide insight into many biological and industrial applications. Previously synthesized nanothermometers are similar to molecular beacons, consisting of fluorescently labeled stem-loop DNA strands linked to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a thiol-gold link- age. The principle behind their operation is that the fluorophore is quenched by the nanoparticle due to the self-binding of the stem-loop DNA at low temperatures. As the nanothermometers are heated, the stem-loop unfolds at its characteristic melting point, and as a result, the fluorophore is no longer in the quenching region of the nanoparticle and a dramatic rise in fluores- cence will occur. The temperature response of the nanothermometer can be selected by optimizing the sequence of the DNA strand. Typically, the AuNPs only serve to quench the fluorophores in these types of nanothermometers. However, by anchoring stem-loop DNA to functional nanoparticles, a new type of system is created, one which can provide tailored functionality and also real-time, local temperature information. For example, AuNPs can be used for their catalytic, plasmonic and visible light properties, Fe2O3 nanoparticles can be used for their magnetic and photocatalytic properties, and Pd can be used for catalysis or hydrogen storage. In an effort to create nanothermometers that also possess these multifunctional properties, we have successfully synthesized a variety of nanothermometers supported by a variety of nanoparticles, including Au, Au-Fe2O3, Pd, Pd-Fe2O3, and Au-Pd-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The obtained nanothermometers are currently being characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and phase analysis light scattering (PALS). Funding Source: Department of Energy
  • Assessment of BRET between NanoLuc and Various Fluorescent Dyes

    DuPlain, Holly; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    Bioluminescence is a natural phenomenon whereby light is emitted by a living organism. This light is generated when a sub- strate is reacted upon by enzymes called luciferases. Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) is a technique that relies on a luciferase (donor) to transfer energy to a fluorescent molecule (acceptor). If the donor and acceptor are in close proximity and their emission and excitation spectra overlap, the acceptor absorbs energy from the donor and light is emitted at a longer wavelength. This spectral shift can be quantified. One such luciferase is NanoLuc (Nluc), a genetically engineered en- zyme from Oplophorus gracilirostris. In order to explore the use of Nluc as a donor in BRET, we cloned the gene for Nluc into the plasmid vector pET21c(+). Formation of recombinant DNA was verified by agarose gel electrophoresis. After transformation of the recombinant plasmid into E. coli BL21 cells, Nluc protein containing a C-terminal His6 tag was over-expressed and purified using affinity chromatography. Purification yielded a relatively pure protein with a molecular weight of 19 kDa as judged by SDS-PAGE. Activity of the protein was verified by measuring its ability to generate light in the presence of coelenterazine. The ability of Nluc in conjunction with various acceptors, both attached and free at varying concentrations, to perform BRET will be assessed using luminometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. Funding Source: Center for Undergraduate Research Summer Scholars Program and Department of Chemistry and Physics
  • Cloning, Purification, and Inhibition of the SUV39H2 Histone Methyl Transferase

    Jones, Preston Dimitri; Department of Chemistry and Physics (2016-03)
    The most significant challenge in treating human colorectal cancer (CRC) is metastasis of the cancer. Although the study of colorectal cancer metastasis is still elementary, it is known that silencing of Fas expression is a hallmark of human colorectal cancer metastasis. The Fas protein is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- a receptor superfamily that plays a major role in the regulation of programmed cell death. The interaction of Fas with its ligand, Fas L, triggers a signal cascade that ends in apoptosis. Silencing of Fas expression thus allows cancer cells to evade cell death triggered by the immune system. In human CRC patients, the Fas promoter is characterized by high H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3). This methylation is primarily caused by histone methyl transferases such as SUV39H2. We hypothesize that inhibiting H3K9 trimethylation is a potential anti-cancer strategy. To study this possibility, the gene for human SUV39H2 was cloned into pET21 and the protein was overexpressed in E.coli BL21- DE3 cells. The activity of the purified protein will be tested against various inhibitors. Funding Source: National Science Foundation
  • Cash Flow Pattern Analysis of Fraud and Non-Fraud Firms: A Comparison and Contrast

    Runger, Shannon; Department of Business Administration (2016-03)
    In the aftermath of the major financial scandals that came to light in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, many researchers have begun looking into fraud detection and prediction. My research seeks to determine whether or not a company’s cash flow pattern is an indicator of fraud. A cash flow pattern consists of either a positive or negative flow of cash in the three categories relating to a company’s cash activities: operational, financial and investment. They are located on the financial report known as the Statement of Cash Flows. To conduct this research, I randomly selected 30 companies from a mixture of over 250 companies. These companies are known to have released fraudulent financial statements in the past few decades according to releases by the Securities and Exchange Commission. I matched these 30 fraud companies with similarly sized companies in the same industry based on assets. From here, I will review the distribution of cash flow patterns based on financial data from one year prior to the fraudulent activity. After running some statistical tests on the data, I will analyze the findings and determine the outcome of the research.
  • Intercultural Praxis: Communicating with Public Art

    Granade, Payton; Department of Communications (2016-03)
    My research is a continuation of a project that began in Dr. Melanie O’Meara’s fall 2015 Intercultural Communication course. The objective of our final project was to design a mock Art the Box that best represented the theory of intercultural praxis as discussed in Kathryn Sorrell’s “Intercultural Communication: Globalization and Social Justice.” Art the Box is a public art campaign to decorate Augusta area traffic boxes. Intercultural praxis is the process of critical analysis, reflection, and action for effective intercultural communication in the context of globalization. My goal is to see how art affects the way individuals communicate and changes points of view without the need for verbal communication. Sometimes we may think we do not see or hear something, but in reality, that something made an internal impression on our life. Creating a design that best communicates intercultural blindness around us will also help achieve this goal. My intention is to complete the box by the end of spring 2016, after I will begin my research on the effects of communication through art.

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