The Relationship Between Social Support and Coping in Critical Care Patients in Taiwan
AbstractThe purposes of this descriptive correlational study were to identify the common sources of social support and the coping strategies most frequently used by critical care patients, and to examine the relationship between social support and coping in this group. A total of 41 adult subjects (mean age 45.8, range 18-60) were selected from six critical care units in Taiwan, the Republic of China. A Demographic Data Questionnaire, the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), and the revised Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL) were translated into the Chinese language for use to Taiwan. Pearson correlations were computed for the NSSQ and WCCL scores. Findings indicated that the most common sources of social support for critical care patients were family or relatives (57.3%). The coping strategy most frequently used was problem-focused coping (Problem-Focused = 22.9%, Seeks Social Support = 22.2%). The hypotheses regarding social support and coping were not fully supported. Additional findings were that married subjects perceived higher social support in both Total Functional Support (t=3.98, p=.01) and Total Network Support (t=2.65, p=.01), and females had a significantly higher score than did males on Wishful Thinking ([relative] females = 23.4%, males= 20.5%, t=3.19, p=.01).
AffiliationSchool of Nursing
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A study of the relationship between perceived social support, satisfaction with social support networks, and self-rated health in older adultsSeagraves, Pat C.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1992-04)The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived social support, satisfaction with social support networks and self-rated health in older adults. The study used a cross-sectional correlational design to examine the hypothesis that perceived social support and satisfaction with social support networks would be positively correlated (p < .05} with scores on a selfrated health measure. The convenience sample consisted of forty-three subjects ranging in age from sixty-five to ninety-five years, with a mean age of 75.4 years. All subjects were able to speak and understand English, and were judged to have the physical ability to complete a written questionnaire packet. All subjects completed Pfeiffer's Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ} with no more than two adjusted errors, indicating intact mental functioning. The Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ-85} was used to measure perceived social support, and investigator developed measures were used to assess satisfaction with social support and self-rated health. A list of health problems common to older adults provided an index of actual health status. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for satisfaction with social support networks, age, self-rated health and the subscales of PRQ-85, Part II. While the hypothesis of the study was not supported, a significant inverse correlation was demonstrated between age and nurturance, indicating that as a person ages, the opportunity for nurturant behavior decreases. The results of the data analysis reflected the multiplicity and chronicity of health problems in this age group, but revealed that older people do not evaluate their own health according to the number or type of health problems they experience. Nor is their self-rated health score consistent · with the number and type of medications they take. Further, the data from this sample woula indicate that self-rated health in this age group is not dependent on one's perception of social support, nor their satisfaction with their so"cial support network.
Relationships between aid, affective and affirmative social support; and sense of coherence in older adultsSchear, Nancy Kappus; School of Nursing (1988-05)This study described the relationship b~tween three types of functional social support (affective, affirmative, and aid) and perceived wellness in older adults. It also examined whether functional measures of social support were more highly correlated with wellness than- structural measures. Fifty eight older adults (mean age 70.3, SO 5.7, range 60-86) were recruited at community seniot citizen sites in a southern metropolitan area. The questionnaire data obtained from the Norbeck Social Support Scale (Norbeck, Lindsey, & Carrieri, 1981) and the Sense of Coherence (SOC) Scale·(Antonovsky, 1987) was analyzed using Pearson product-moment-correlation. Results show significant correlations (p < .001) between sense of coherence and three types of functional support (affective r = .4629, affirmative, r = .5095, and aid r = .4522) A test for differences between dependent correlations ·shows stronger correlations of total functional social_ support with SQ.C ~han the correlation of tot~l structural social support with SOC (t = 2.58, df= 55, p ·.< .025~.· The results suggest functional social support is related to .wellness in older persons and demonstrate th~ utility of measuring . functional as well.as structural social suPP<>rt.
The relationship between social support and coping behaviors in women with breast cancerHuang, Tsae-Tun Joyce; School of Nursing (1988-03)Cancer is.the second leading cause of death among Americans with breast cancer being the most common site in women. Social support is needed by patients with cancer as they learn to cope with thetr disease and its treatment. Coping behaviors are the specific techniques a person selects to manage stress. A descriptive correlational research design was used to determine the nature and quality of social support, to examine the coping strategies, and to describe the relationship between social support and coping behaviors in women with breast cancer. The sample.consisted of 43 women ages 25 to 77 years who acknowledged their diagnosis of breast cancer, were 3 months to 21 years since the diagnosis, and received treatment in three ambulatory care clinics in a medical center in the Southeastern in the United States. An investigator-developed Demographic Form, the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, and the Jalowiec Coping Scale were completed by each subject. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample, the components of social support, and coping behaviors. Pearson's prdduct-moment cor~elations were calcul~ted to determine the direction and strength of the relationship between social support and coping behaviors. Family members were listed more frequently than any other source of support category. Only 4.7% of the subjects identified a health care provider in her support network. The subjects identified problem-oriented coping methods more frequently than affective-oriented coping methods. The most often indicated coping methods in this sample were prayer, maintaining hope, accepting the situation, and u~e of sleep. The research hypothesis that there is a positive .relationship between social support and coping behaviors in women with breast cancer was supported by the-findings. ·statistically significant correlations were identified between affectiveoriented and problem-oriented coping behaviors and the social support components of Total Functional Support and Total_Network.Support. For the purpose of increasing a patient's coping ability, a professional nurse should identify the amount and quality of support a patient receives, encourage family members and friends to visit and· communicate with the patient, and offer to serve as one of the patient's support network. These findings also suggest that it is ne~essary to introduce the concepts of social support and coping behaviors to nursing students early in their nursing education program.