The Relationship Between Social Support and Coping in Critical Care Patients in Taiwan
AbstractThe purposes of this descriptive correlational study were to identify the common sources of social support and the coping strategies most frequently used by critical care patients, and to examine the relationship between social support and coping in this group. A total of 41 adult subjects (mean age 45.8, range 18-60) were selected from six critical care units in Taiwan, the Republic of China. A Demographic Data Questionnaire, the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), and the revised Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL) were translated into the Chinese language for use to Taiwan. Pearson correlations were computed for the NSSQ and WCCL scores. Findings indicated that the most common sources of social support for critical care patients were family or relatives (57.3%). The coping strategy most frequently used was problem-focused coping (Problem-Focused = 22.9%, Seeks Social Support = 22.2%). The hypotheses regarding social support and coping were not fully supported. Additional findings were that married subjects perceived higher social support in both Total Functional Support (t=3.98, p=.01) and Total Network Support (t=2.65, p=.01), and females had a significantly higher score than did males on Wishful Thinking ([relative] females = 23.4%, males= 20.5%, t=3.19, p=.01).
AffiliationSchool of Nursing
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A study of the relationship between perceived social support, satisfaction with social support networks, and self-rated health in older adultsSeagraves, Pat C.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1992-04)The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived social support, satisfaction with social support networks and self-rated health in older adults. The study used a cross-sectional correlational design to examine the hypothesis that perceived social support and satisfaction with social support networks would be positively correlated (p < .05} with scores on a selfrated health measure. The convenience sample consisted of forty-three subjects ranging in age from sixty-five to ninety-five years, with a mean age of 75.4 years. All subjects were able to speak and understand English, and were judged to have the physical ability to complete a written questionnaire packet. All subjects completed Pfeiffer's Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ} with no more than two adjusted errors, indicating intact mental functioning. The Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ-85} was used to measure perceived social support, and investigator developed measures were used to assess satisfaction with social support and self-rated health. A list of health problems common to older adults provided an index of actual health status. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for satisfaction with social support networks, age, self-rated health and the subscales of PRQ-85, Part II. While the hypothesis of the study was not supported, a significant inverse correlation was demonstrated between age and nurturance, indicating that as a person ages, the opportunity for nurturant behavior decreases. The results of the data analysis reflected the multiplicity and chronicity of health problems in this age group, but revealed that older people do not evaluate their own health according to the number or type of health problems they experience. Nor is their self-rated health score consistent · with the number and type of medications they take. Further, the data from this sample woula indicate that self-rated health in this age group is not dependent on one's perception of social support, nor their satisfaction with their so"cial support network.
Evidence Supporting Glial Derived TGF-B1 as a Modulator of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing HormoneBuchanan, Clint D.; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics (2000-03)The overall objective of this research is to elucidate mechanisms involved in glial cell regulation of reproductive function. Regulation of LHRH secretion is a complex process that involves a multiplicity of inputs of both excitatory and inhibitory nature, and recent evidence has demonstrated the significance of glial cell-neuron interactions in modifying the activity of LHRH producing neurons. Evidence exists indicating that glial derived growth factors may play a role in the functional control o f the LHRH neuronal network as conditioned medium from astrocytes has been shown to stimulate LHRH secretion from immortalized LHRH neurons (52-55,57,58). However, there is a controversy concerning the identity of the active factor from astrocytes that is responsible for the LHRH releasing activity of conditioned medium. Melcangi and colleagues have provided evidence that TGF-Pi may be responsible for astrocyte-conditioned medium induced LHRH release in the GTl-l cell line (55). However, many of these studies supporting a role for TGF-pi were performed using cortical astrocytes, and additionally, no attempt was made to measure TGF-Pi levels in astrocyte-conditioned medium and correlate it to conditioned medium ability to induce LHRH release. Furthermore, these studies did not discuss potential regulators of TGF-pi secretion and also failed to investigate whether TGF-p receptors, which are necessary for TGF-pi action, are expressed in the GT1 cell line or hypothalamic tissue of the female rat (55,57,58). A second group suggests that TGF-a rather than TGF-Pi may be the active astrocyte factor that regulates LHRH release (53). Although TGF-a mRNA expression and precursor peptide immunoreactivity have been reported in the female rat hypothalamus, these studies failed to demonstrate the ability of hypothalamic astrocyte cultures to produce Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 15 TGF-a and relied upon addition of exogenous TGF-a to astrocyte cell cultures (50ng/ml 16 hours) in formation of astrocyte TGF-a-conditioned medium (25,46,52,53,76,77).
The relationships among first-time mothers' perceptions of maternal- role identity, social support and ageHarris McElvy, Patricia; School of Nursing (1987-11)A survey was conducted of first-time mothers to examine the relationships among maternalrole identity, social support and age. The study sample consisted of 58 subjects between 14 and 28 years of age who were 3 to 12 months postpartum. The majority of the sample were single, and reported low to moderately low income levels. Racial composition of the sample was 74.13°/o (N=43) blacks, 24.13°/o (N=14) whites and 1.74°/o (N=1) hispanic. A descriptive correlational research design was used to test the following three hypotheses: (a) age is positively related to maternal identity; (b) age is positively related to social support and (c) social support is positively related to maternal identity. Instruments used to measure maternal identity were Myself as Mother and My Baby. The Family Support Scale was used to measure social support. The first two hypotheses were rejected. Hypothesis #3 was partially supported. Findings indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between scores on the Family Support Scale and scores on Myself as Mother (r=.29; p .014), but not between scores on the Family Support Scale and scores on My Baby. Findings in this study indicate further research is needed. The finding which indicated a statistically significant relationship between scores on the Family Support Scale and scores on Myself as Mother suggest social support may assist mothers attain positive attitudes toward themselves as mothers. This finding implies that the community health nurse could encourage the inclusion of supportive individuals when providing care and educational services to first:time mothers; thus, allowing first-time mothers to utilize existing social support systems which could help develop more positive attitudes toward themselves as mothers. Caution must be used in generalizing these findings to other populations.