• How Does Economic Turmoil Affect Alcohol Consumption?

      Bruker, Augustus; Medcalfe, Simon; Hull College of Business; Medcalfe, Simon; Augusta University (2/4/2020)
      This paper's purpose is to examine the affects that recessive economic periods have on drinking habits in different countries. A recession is a very complex economic event that can affect behavioral patterns, including changes in drinking habits, across countries. The economic factors studied will include changes in median household incomes, unemployment rates, and GDP's of different countries. Alcohol consumption will be broken down into beer, wine, and spirits, which is necessary to the research because different countries may show different trends in what form of alcohol they choose to turn to during a recession. This research is important because it could potentially show a global problem in which society is turning to the dangerous habit of alcoholism to deal with their economic hardships. For the data in my paper, I plan to refer to the World Health Organization's 2018 global status report on alcohol and health. This report has data for all major countries pertaining to how much alcohol they consume per year on average, what types of alcohol the country prefers, and how factors such as age, gender, and race affect drinking in their country. I hypothesize that the public does in fact drink more alcohol during times of economic turmoil.
    • Ionic and Covalent Conjugates of Metronidazole and Tryptamine

      Lyons, Dominique; Baako, Precious; Lebedyeva, Iryna; Chemistry and Physics; Lebedyeva, Iryna; Augusta University (2/2/2020)
      Metronidazole, is an antibiotic used in the treatment of many bacterial and parasitic infections. This antibacterial agent has been shown to have a variety uses upon its development. Metronidazole is derived synthetically from Azomycin, a natural antimicrobial antibiotic produced by actinobacteria such as Norcadia mesenterica, Sterptomyces eurocidicus and proteobacrteria Pseudomonas fluorescens used to treat anaerobic parasitic and bacterial infections. Solid drugs are not as effective in the body because they are not solube enough to allow for effectve release into circulation making it hard for the body to absorb. However, ionic liquids can be used to improve drug delivery, efficay and development. Ionic liquid compositons are typically made up of at least two different ions with atleast one kind of cation and one kind of anion. In this project ionic liquid compositions containing metronidazole as positively charged ion and acesulfame as counterion have been synthesized. To explore the brain-penetrating ability of tryptamine, we have created its conjugates with beta-alanine, glucine and gabapentin. These ionic and conavelnt conjugates represent existing drugs with improved properties such as palatability and lipophilicity.
    • The Yellow Wallpaper: Obsessions, Compulsions, and Psychotic Episodes (Delusions)

      Morel, Nicole; Sadenwasser, Tim; College of Science and Mathematics; English and Foreign Languages; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (12/13/2019)
      The Yellow Wallpaper is a short-story which takes place in 1885 about the perspective of a middle-class woman who has been diagnosed with Neurasthenia. The symptoms of Neurasthenia were often described as having, "headaches, indigestion, depression, and anxiety" (The Nerves of Men and Women,2007, para. 6). Her husband who was a practicing physician implemented the most common treatment for this illness: The Rest Cure. This treatment comprised of complete bed rest, air, and absolutely no form of activity (Neurasthenia Cures for Women, 2007). This diagnosis was later discredited by the medical community. In this paper, I display how his enforcement of this treatment escalated his wives' mental health. From examining the texts provided by the novel, this essay will create a diagnosis of the possible psychological disorder the main character was driven into. Specifically, her husband may have induced an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with an acute delusion episode. Afterwards, there will be an analysis on two other sources which will support this psychological diagnosis. The results display how The Rest Cure may have induced a psychological complication.
    • Schizoaffective disorder depressive type in "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Gilman

      German, Lindsey; Sadenwasser, Tim; English and Foreign Languages; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (12/10/2019)
      Charlotte Gilman's short story "The Yellow Wallpaper" is a literary work of empowering women and serves to explore the human psyche upon women in the 19th century. The author wanted to create a story that brought people"s attention to the rest cure treatment, and how it was not beneficial for the mind. It actually has detrimental effects on one"s mind, because the rest cure isolates that person in a room with nothing to do but to essentially "go crazy." Therefore, the author wanted to warn people about this form of treatment through the downward spiral of the narrator's mental health in the story. In my presentation, I will use other literary references and descriptions given from the short story to show the audience evidence of the narrator's behavior with the character diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder depressive type. To do this, I plan on discussing the criteria of the diagnosis from the DSM-V and how these criteria are met in the short story. This criterion includes a major depressive episode and schizophrenic symptoms. She displays her depressive mood within the story by crying all day at nothing. She displays her schizophrenic symptoms when she experiences delusions, hallucinations, and social withdrawal. I also plan on discussing how the sociocultural factors involving the rest cure treatment given to the narrator and her relationship with her husband further diminishes her mental health. This mental instability that she experiences causes much distress in her life to the point where she could not take it anymore.
    • Diagnosis of Mental Illness in the Narrator of Charlotte Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" Using the DSM-5

      Fang, Wayne; Sadenwasser, Tim; Biological Sciences; English and Foreign Languages; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (12/10/2019)
      Charlotte Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" explores mental illness, freedom, and the faults of the rest cure by exploring the life of a wife who has been diagnosed with neurasthenia. With this story Gilman describes an increasingly common practice during her time, and how problematic it was for the individuals who were diagnosed. Through the wife's narration, Gilman shows how many women felt trapped since they were forced to undertake the rest cure due to one-sided relationship dynamics. Using this narrative of the wife's deteriorating mental health, Gilman argues for equality in relationships as well as better treatments for mental health. In this presentation, I will use the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as well as other scholarly sources to diagnosis the wife's mental illness. To do this, I will take the wife's narration and compare it to diagnostic criteria as presented in the DSM-5. By examining the narrator's thoughts and actions I will be able to examine the progression of her mental illness. Examining the wife's mental health can show how many women of her may have felt trapped. This in turn can explain how many women faced unequal power dynamics in their marriages.
    • Case Competition

      TBD; TBA; TBA; Augusta University (11/20/2019)
      The third Augusta University Case Competition, sponsored by the Hull College of Business, is a competition for student pairs to analyze a given business situation and advise the business's key decision-makers of the merits of their recommended course of action through a written memo. Topics include business processes, internal controls, and ethics. The top five student teams will proceed to a poster display and an in-person presentation to a panel of judges made up of local professionals in the accounting and finance fields. The top team will be named March 6, 2020, and (as discussed with Dr. Patel) the information will be provided for inclusion in the PKP Conference booklet and schedule.
    • Development of Defined Culture Conditions For Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells

      Shaikh, Arika; Eroglu, Ali; College of Science and Mathematics; Department of Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine; Eroglu, Dr. Ali; Augusta University (1/4/2020)
      Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent and capable of differentiating into various cell lineages. While MSCs have commonly been isolated from bone marrow for treatment of numerous diseases, alternative sources including adipose tissue and Wharton’s Jelly (WJ), an extra-embryonic umbilical cord tissue rich from hyaluronic acid (HA), are under study for establishment of safer, less invasive procedures. Typically, WJ-MSCs are cultured in undefined media containing fetal bovine serum, of which use has been associated with different complications, including transmission of infectious agents and induction of immunologic reactions. To facilitate clinical applications, this project aims to develop chemically defined and safe culture conditions for human WJ-MSCs. The hypothesis is that undifferentiated growth of WJ-MSCs will be supported by an HA-based extracellular matrix and fortified DMEM/F12 supplemented with macromolecules, antioxidants, and growth factors. This hypothesis will be tested by comparing the growth kinetics and plasticity of WJ-MSCs cultured under conventional undefined and defined conditions. WJ-MSCs will be isolated via either the “enzymatic digestion” or “tissue explant” methods from human umbilical cords. They will then be phenotyped by evaluating the expression of relevant markers using a MSC phenotyping kit and placed into one of six different culture media groups for experimental testing.
    • Portrayal of Mental Illness in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell-Tale Heart"

      Shaikh, Arika; Sadenwasser, Tim; College of Science and Mathematics; Pamplin College; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (1/4/2020)
      Edgar Allan Poe's "The-Tell Tale Heart" delves into the human psyche as it entails the story of an unnamed narrator who tells the tale of the murder he commits. Undergoing an emotional rollercoaster of pleasure and guilt, Poe's protagonist maintains his claim to sanity and a sense of reality. Poe articulates many tone and rhythm changes to create a sense of tension representing the narrator's mental condition. Throughout the narrative, the narrator struggles to reassure that there is nothing wrong with him and that he is completely normal. Exploring the themes of madness, guilt, and a false sense of reality, Poe's narrator suffers from a sense of false narrative, a trait characteristic of schizophrenia. In addition, the narrator demonstrates episodes of delusions, auditory hallucinations, diminished emotional responses, and significant disturbances to his normal routine which all allude to schizophrenia. I will utilize the DSM-5 criteria, literary criticisms, and other publications to show the audience the schizophrenic nature of Poe's narrator. I plan on discussing the DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia and demonstrating how the narrator meets those criteria in several circumstances. Utilizing vivid imagery and a scattered style, Poe explores the mental depths of a man suffering from schizophrenia.
    • Characterization of a Cyclic Peptide AD05 as a Novel Inhibitor of the Hsp90 Chaperoning Machine

      Fang, Wayne; Lu, Sumin; Jilani, Yasmeen; Debbab, Abdssamad; Chadli, Ahmed; Debbab, Abdssamad; Biological Sciences; Chadli, Ahmed; Augusta University; Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf (1/31/2020)
      Protection of oncogenic proteins is the foundation of many hallmarks of cancer. Based on this, hsp90 inhibitors have emerged as a potentially potent strategy for cancer treatment. The clinical efficacy of the earlier Hsp90 inhibitors remains unsatisfactory, in part due to their induction of heat shock response and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cancer cells. To identify alternative therapeutic agents without these effects, we have developed a cell-free high-throughput screen (HTS) platform based on the folding of progesterone receptor (PR) by the core components of the Hsp90 chaperoning machine. During our initial screening of 175 natural products from North African medicinal plants, we discovered the cyclic peptide AD05 as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor. AD05 has shown a powerful antitumor activity against various cancer cell lines including HeLa, Hs578T, MDA-MB231, MDA-MB453, E0771, THP1, and U937. Western blot analysis revealed that AD05 destabilizes Hsp90 client proteins without inducing heat shock response as indicated by lack of upregulation of Hsp70, Hsp40 and Hsp27. Remarkably, AD05 does not induce apoptosis but rather triggers autophagy in various cell lines.

      Hitchens, Samantha; Saul, Bruce; Biological Sciences; Saul, Bruce; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have a destructive impact across the world. The variety of cultures affected make the development of more effective and diverse management methods vital. Although wild pigs are often hunted with dogs, this method is not suitable or legal in all areas. Considering this, and pigs highly developed sense of smell, the following hypothesis was developed: Can a natural scent function as a satisfactory pig repellant? To test our hypothesis, we attracted wild pigs into areas baited with corn, and performed separate trials by adding hair from four different mammal species (dog, cat, horse and coyote). Our experimental design forced pigs to interact with the hair before consuming the bait. Trail cameras monitored each location over a five month period and wild pig behaviors were recorded. The presence and absence of pigs throughout the study trials was analyzed and compared with images captured during the control trials (corn only). Image totals were evaluated to determine if the hair prevented pigs from entering any areas, and the duration of any absences was noted. The results supported our hypothesis that a natural scent (dog hair) can decrease wild pig activity and potentially serve as a repellant.

      Cantenot, Marie; Medcalfe, Simon; Hull College of Business; Medcalfe, Simon; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      People cut meat out of their diet for three reasons: health, environmental and animal suffering. Some even go as far as following a vegan diet, a type of vegetarian diet that excludes meat, eggs, dairy, and all other animal-derived products. Many vegetarian and vegan groups believe the production of meat is unethical and unsustainable and therefore aim to abolish the industry through the boycott of all animal products. This raises the question of how this lifestyle may have a true impact on meat, eggs and dairy prices. This research aims to explore the interrelationship between the rise of vegetarianism and veganism and the changes in beef, pork, chicken, eggs and dairy prices. The data will be the monthly percentage of vegetarians/vegans in the U.S. and the prices for beef, poultry and pork, eggs and dairy from January 2014 until May 2018, controlling for other factors that affect these prices. The results from regression analysis will show whether the increasing number of vegetarians and vegans has an impact on the prices offered by the meat, egg and dairy industry.
    • Can fast fashion be sustainable and still be profitable?

      Miralles, Eva Miro; Medcalfe, Simon; Hull College of Business; Medcalfe, Simon; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Fast fashion is the approach to designing, creating, and marketing clothing that emphasizes making fashion trends quickly and available to consumers. It is destroying the world we live in, creating a big opportunity cost for society, because it is the second largest polluter after the oil industry. Can the giants of fast fashion keep earning the amount of money they earn if they start complying with the best environmental regulations and sustainable practices? Economic theory suggests that if consumers demand higher ethical practices from fashion companies then profits will rise. However, if these practices increase costs then profits will fall. The 2019 Ethical Fashion Report published by Baptist World Aid Australia gives grades to 130 fashion companies according to five different ethical management practices. This data is used to determine how fashion companies� profits vary with different metrics of ethic and sustainable practices and which have the biggest impact on profit.
    • Early Extubation in Infancy and Early Childhood Following Heart Surgery: outcome analysis and predictors of failure

      Esquivel, Raquel; Geister, Emma; Crethers, Danielle; Weatherholt, Danalynn; Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Munoz, Gustavo; Polimenakos, Anastasios C.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy; Department of Surgery; Polimenakos, Anastasios C.; et al. (1/31/2020)
      Fast-track (FT) strategies and early extubation (EE), when feasible, can have beneficial effect on clinical outcomes. Despite positive findings in adult cardiac surgery studies, EE procedures have not been rigorously evaluated in the pediatric cardiac populations. We sought to determine feasibility and clinical outcomes of EE in infancy and early childhood following congenital heart surgery (CHS), as well as identify predictors of failure and highlight cost implications related to FT. A retrospective chart review of children ?6 years old who underwent CHS at the Children�s Hospital of Georgia from January-December 2017 was performed. EE was defined as successful removal of the endotracheal tube in the operating room or upon arrival in intensive care unit (ICU). Multivariate analysis was used to compare peri-operative data, identify the predictors of EE failure, and assess total hospital cost. Of the 64 patients reviewed, mean hospital length of stay (LOS) was 6.97+/-4.1 days in EE compared to 21.78+/-13.45 days in non-EE (p�< 0.0001). There was a near 3-fold cost increase failing EE/fast track which impacted total hospital cost for EE compared to non-EE patients (p�<0.0001, mean: $51419.913 sd= 23,196.203). Deployment of FT strategy with EE is safe and feasible following CHS during infancy and early childhood. Proper customization and implementation, through patient modifiable variables, can have powerful impact on cost-containment.
    • Investigating Signaling Pathways Involving the HCA Receptor Family

      Saj, Dalia; Spencer, Angela; Okashah, Najeah; Lambert, Nevin; Biological Sciences; Chemistry and Physics; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; Spencer, Angela; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Increasing obesity rates have put the American population at higher risk for developing obesity-related medical conditions such as hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes. The hydroxycarboxylic acid (HCA) receptor family is a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed in adipose tissue and function as metabolic sensors, making them potential pharmaceutical targets in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. The HCA receptor family consists of the HCA1, HCA2, and HCA3�receptors, which are activated by hydroxycarboxylic acids such as lactate and 3-hydroxybutyric acid. We utilized bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to study agonist-induced coupling of luciferase-tagged HCA receptors to Venus fluorescent protein-tagged G protein heterotrimers or arrestins. Our results indicate that the three HCA receptors couple to the Gi/o�subfamily of G proteins. The data additionally confirms a lack of coupling to the other G protein subfamilies (Gs,�Gq,�and G12), and lacks evidence of arrestin recruitment to HCA receptors. Overall, our study highlights the use of BRET as a powerful tool for analysis of GPCR signaling and demonstrates its possible use for future studies to determine the potency of potential drugs targeting HCA receptors as a therapy for health-related problems such as obesity.
    • Characterization of Proton Sensitive G protein-Coupled Receptors

      Nam, Alisha; Okasha, Najeah; Spencer, Angela; Lambert, Nevin; Biological Sciences; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; Chemistry and Physics; Spencer, Angela; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane-bound receptors that can stimulate an intracellular signaling pathway following activation by a ligand. According to the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) database, GPR4, GPR65, and GPR132 are Class A orphan GPCRs with protons reported as their putative endogenous ligand; however, these receptors are currently understudied. After confirming whether these receptors are pH-sensitive, the purpose of our study was to investigate the interactions between GPR4, GPR65 and GPR132 and G protein subtypes (G?s, G?i, G?q, and G?12) upon stimulation with an acidic solution. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), we studied the coupling between luciferase-tagged GPR receptors and fluorescent protein (Venus)-tagged G proteins in response to pH changes. Data indicated that all three receptors responded to pH changes. Upon extracellular response to pH changes, the receptors activate different G protein subtypes and thus, different signaling pathways: GPR4 activates G?i, G?q, and G?12; GPR65 activates all four subtypes; and GPR132 activates G?i�and weakly activates G?q, and G?12. Identifying these receptors as true proton sensors leads the way in understanding the role they play in maintaining acid-base homeostasis and will be critical for the development of novel drugs combatting acid-base related disorders.

      Thomas, Eyana; Lian, Eric; Roberts, Kimberly; Young, Lufei; Biological Sciences; Department of Medicine; College of Nursing; Georgia Highlands College; Young, Lufei; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Patients with diabetes are two to four times more likely to die from cardiac diseases than other without this diagnosis. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is known to improve the physical functioning, reduce risk factors in cardiac patients with diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate if cardiac patients with comorbidity of diabetes had improved physical functioning (measured by six-minute walk test [6MWT]) and reduced risk factors (measured reduced fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, overweight, fat composition) after the cardiac rehabilitation program. A retrospective observational cohort longitudinal study using secondary data from electronic medical records was conducted. Clinical data were collected from the individual cardiac treatment plan form used by a cardiac rehabilitation center. Among 93 patients, improvement in physical functioning (i.e.: six-minute walk distance, and METs) was significant (p-value = <.01). This was done by comparing pre and post 6MWT scores.

      Kumar, Aria (Arundhati); Appel, Joanna; Wyatt, Tasha; College of Science and Mathematics; Department of Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine; Appel, Joanna; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Neuroanatomy requires students to acquire, assimilate, and apply knowledge of complex neuroanatomical structures. Three-dimensional (3D) physical models and computer-aided digital models are effective in promoting the development of neuroanatomical spatial representations. However, what remains unclear is exactly which tools benefit students the most. This study investigates whether there is a relationship between individuals' spatial abilities and their neuro-spatial knowledge, and to determine whether learning neuroanatomy is enhanced using one of three instructional tools. The spatial aptitude of undergraduate medical students enrolled in neuroanatomy was measured by tests previously validated as predictors of visual-spatial abilities, and a spatial aptitude profile was generated for each student. Students were given a pretest designed to assess critical spatial skills within the context of applied-neuroanatomy. Following the pretest, students attended a learning session where they interacted with one of three learning tools: a) 3D printed neuroanatomical models, b) 3D virtual neuroanatomical models, or c) hands-on deep-brain dissection. Effectiveness of each tool on student learning was evaluated by posttest. Preliminarily, all three instructional tools proved effective when assessing percentage change in pretest:posttest scores. Data is under analysis to determine if there exists an interplay between individual students' spatial abilities and the effectiveness of each learning tool.

      Gaw, Victoria; Glenn, Manderrious; Cannon, Jennifer; Biological Sciences; Cannon, Jennifer; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic chemical belonging to a larger group of fluorotelomers. These compounds have been used in the production of both industrial and consumer products as surfactants and are environmentally persistent pollutants. While the long-term effects of PFOA are largely unknown, there is increasing evidence suggesting it to be an endocrine disruptor. Studies have shown that PFOA binds to and activates peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), which can regulate the expression of other genes and receptors. Previous experiments in our lab demonstrated that PFOA treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells (an ER?-positive cell line) decreased expression of ER? mRNA and protein, and decreased cell viability by ~20% within 48h of treatment compared to DMSO controls. However, these cells were treated in the absence of fetal bovine serum (FBS).� When we repeated these experiments without serum withdrawal, we initially noted a tendency towards increased proliferation in MCF-7 cells treated with 50�M and 100�M PFOA at both 24h and 48h compared to control. To further examine the role of ER? in this PFOA-induced proliferation, we carried out additional experiments in MCF-7 cells along with experiments in another ER?-positive cell line, T47D, as well as an ER?-negative cell line, MDA-MB-23.
    • The Evolution of Art Therapy and Proposed Future Application

      Owen, Connor; Johnson, Edgar; Art and Design; Communication; Johnson, Edgar; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      The goal of this thesis is to describe the evolution of Art Therapy into the practice it is today and propose a future alternative use. Currently, Art Therapy is applied to a variety of populations and purposes with abundant research to support its efficacy. However, there is a gap in research on Art Therapy for college-aged students. Art Therapy may be a viable alternative stress-management tool for mental health providers on college campuses and could mean more participation from students in the available counseling resources and ultimately a reduction in the likelihood of the students reaching a crisis. By analyzing prior research on Art Therapy for other populations this thesis offers justification for its future use on the college campus.
    • The Perception of "The Invisible Empire of The Ku Klux Klan" as a Benevolent Secret Society from 1915 to 1965

      Typhair, Dillon; McClelland-Nugent, Ruth; History, Anthropology, & Philosophy; McClelland-Nugent, Ruth; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      This paper looks at the history of Americans' changing attitudes toward the Ku Klux Klan. It contributes to the scholarships on Civil War history and domestic terrorism through the case of the KKK. The journalist Edward Pollard's book, The Lost Cause: a new Southern history of the War of the Confederates (1867), influenced generations of Americans both South and North by writing a revisionist history of the Civil War painting confederates as rebels who should still fight to maintain white supremacy. This belief in this "lost cause" led many Americans, in the South especially, to support and have positive attitudes toward the KKK. However even as the Klan claimed to support the ideals of the lost cause, their actions often undermined their claims of benevolence and of the upholding of Southern value. The Klan especially after its revival post-WWI terrorized through violent acts anyone they deemed not "pure American." Today, it is unlikely the Klan will ever be regarded as positively as it once was even if similar hate groups still plague our society.