• How Does Economic Turmoil Affect Alcohol Consumption?

      Bruker, Augustus; Medcalfe, Simon; Hull College of Business; Medcalfe, Simon; Augusta University (2/4/2020)
      This paper's purpose is to examine the affects that recessive economic periods have on drinking habits in different countries. A recession is a very complex economic event that can affect behavioral patterns, including changes in drinking habits, across countries. The economic factors studied will include changes in median household incomes, unemployment rates, and GDP's of different countries. Alcohol consumption will be broken down into beer, wine, and spirits, which is necessary to the research because different countries may show different trends in what form of alcohol they choose to turn to during a recession. This research is important because it could potentially show a global problem in which society is turning to the dangerous habit of alcoholism to deal with their economic hardships. For the data in my paper, I plan to refer to the World Health Organization's 2018 global status report on alcohol and health. This report has data for all major countries pertaining to how much alcohol they consume per year on average, what types of alcohol the country prefers, and how factors such as age, gender, and race affect drinking in their country. I hypothesize that the public does in fact drink more alcohol during times of economic turmoil.
    • The Spaces They Occupied: Women as the Determiners of Success in the French Revolution

      Stewart, Keturah; English and Foreign Languages; History, Anthropology, & Philosophy; VanTuyll, Hubert; Augusta University (2/3/2020)
      This presentation examines how during the French Revolution, limited by Enlightenment ideals as to their proper place and sphere, women were forced to participate in means outside the system's framework. Vocally and purposefully excluded from the public sphere women nevertheless found ways in which to exert influence and actively participate. I contend that the vehement cries for recognition, inclusion, and equality provided a force against which the Revolutionary leaders were critically able to sharpen and strengthen their ideals and movement. The role of counter-revolutionary women is not only important in the amount of agency women were able to obtain and exert on this alternative side, specifically in the realm of religion, but is of significance for the position it provided in opposition to the movement of Revolutionary women. There is no single moniker or definition one can ascribe to the entirety of women during the period of the French Revolution, there is no single category or demographic, but this presentation will analyze how certain "deviant," "ugly, militant monsters," "ornamental," "helots," and "counter-revolutionaries" made certain the ultimate success of the revolution even in its inherent nature as a Revolution structured against the inclusion of women in the public sphere.
    • Ionic and Covalent Conjugates of Metronidazole and Tryptamine

      Lyons, Dominique; Baako, Precious; Lebedyeva, Iryna; Chemistry and Physics; Lebedyeva, Iryna; Augusta University (2/2/2020)
      Metronidazole, is an antibiotic used in the treatment of many bacterial and parasitic infections. This antibacterial agent has been shown to have a variety uses upon its development. Metronidazole is derived synthetically from Azomycin, a natural antimicrobial antibiotic produced by actinobacteria such as Norcadia mesenterica, Sterptomyces eurocidicus and proteobacrteria Pseudomonas fluorescens used to treat anaerobic parasitic and bacterial infections. Solid drugs are not as effective in the body because they are not solube enough to allow for effectve release into circulation making it hard for the body to absorb. However, ionic liquids can be used to improve drug delivery, efficay and development. Ionic liquid compositons are typically made up of at least two different ions with atleast one kind of cation and one kind of anion. In this project ionic liquid compositions containing metronidazole as positively charged ion and acesulfame as counterion have been synthesized. To explore the brain-penetrating ability of tryptamine, we have created its conjugates with beta-alanine, glucine and gabapentin. These ionic and conavelnt conjugates represent existing drugs with improved properties such as palatability and lipophilicity.
    • The Yellow Wallpaper: Obsessions, Compulsions, and Psychotic Episodes (Delusions)

      Morel, Nicole; Sadenwasser, Tim; College of Science and Mathematics; English and Foreign Languages; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (12/13/2019)
      The Yellow Wallpaper is a short-story which takes place in 1885 about the perspective of a middle-class woman who has been diagnosed with Neurasthenia. The symptoms of Neurasthenia were often described as having, "headaches, indigestion, depression, and anxiety" (The Nerves of Men and Women,2007, para. 6). Her husband who was a practicing physician implemented the most common treatment for this illness: The Rest Cure. This treatment comprised of complete bed rest, air, and absolutely no form of activity (Neurasthenia Cures for Women, 2007). This diagnosis was later discredited by the medical community. In this paper, I display how his enforcement of this treatment escalated his wives' mental health. From examining the texts provided by the novel, this essay will create a diagnosis of the possible psychological disorder the main character was driven into. Specifically, her husband may have induced an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with an acute delusion episode. Afterwards, there will be an analysis on two other sources which will support this psychological diagnosis. The results display how The Rest Cure may have induced a psychological complication.
    • Schizoaffective disorder depressive type in "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Gilman

      German, Lindsey; Sadenwasser, Tim; English and Foreign Languages; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (12/10/2019)
      Charlotte Gilman's short story "The Yellow Wallpaper" is a literary work of empowering women and serves to explore the human psyche upon women in the 19th century. The author wanted to create a story that brought people"s attention to the rest cure treatment, and how it was not beneficial for the mind. It actually has detrimental effects on one"s mind, because the rest cure isolates that person in a room with nothing to do but to essentially "go crazy." Therefore, the author wanted to warn people about this form of treatment through the downward spiral of the narrator's mental health in the story. In my presentation, I will use other literary references and descriptions given from the short story to show the audience evidence of the narrator's behavior with the character diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder depressive type. To do this, I plan on discussing the criteria of the diagnosis from the DSM-V and how these criteria are met in the short story. This criterion includes a major depressive episode and schizophrenic symptoms. She displays her depressive mood within the story by crying all day at nothing. She displays her schizophrenic symptoms when she experiences delusions, hallucinations, and social withdrawal. I also plan on discussing how the sociocultural factors involving the rest cure treatment given to the narrator and her relationship with her husband further diminishes her mental health. This mental instability that she experiences causes much distress in her life to the point where she could not take it anymore.
    • Diagnosis of Mental Illness in the Narrator of Charlotte Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" Using the DSM-5

      Fang, Wayne; Sadenwasser, Tim; Biological Sciences; English and Foreign Languages; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (12/10/2019)
      Charlotte Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" explores mental illness, freedom, and the faults of the rest cure by exploring the life of a wife who has been diagnosed with neurasthenia. With this story Gilman describes an increasingly common practice during her time, and how problematic it was for the individuals who were diagnosed. Through the wife's narration, Gilman shows how many women felt trapped since they were forced to undertake the rest cure due to one-sided relationship dynamics. Using this narrative of the wife's deteriorating mental health, Gilman argues for equality in relationships as well as better treatments for mental health. In this presentation, I will use the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as well as other scholarly sources to diagnosis the wife's mental illness. To do this, I will take the wife's narration and compare it to diagnostic criteria as presented in the DSM-5. By examining the narrator's thoughts and actions I will be able to examine the progression of her mental illness. Examining the wife's mental health can show how many women of her may have felt trapped. This in turn can explain how many women faced unequal power dynamics in their marriages.
    • Case Competition

      TBD; TBA; TBA; Augusta University (11/20/2019)
      The third Augusta University Case Competition, sponsored by the Hull College of Business, is a competition for student pairs to analyze a given business situation and advise the business's key decision-makers of the merits of their recommended course of action through a written memo. Topics include business processes, internal controls, and ethics. The top five student teams will proceed to a poster display and an in-person presentation to a panel of judges made up of local professionals in the accounting and finance fields. The top team will be named March 6, 2020, and (as discussed with Dr. Patel) the information will be provided for inclusion in the PKP Conference booklet and schedule.
    • Development of Defined Culture Conditions For Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells

      Shaikh, Arika; Eroglu, Ali; College of Science and Mathematics; Department of Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine; Eroglu, Dr. Ali; Augusta University (1/4/2020)
      Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent and capable of differentiating into various cell lineages. While MSCs have commonly been isolated from bone marrow for treatment of numerous diseases, alternative sources including adipose tissue and Wharton’s Jelly (WJ), an extra-embryonic umbilical cord tissue rich from hyaluronic acid (HA), are under study for establishment of safer, less invasive procedures. Typically, WJ-MSCs are cultured in undefined media containing fetal bovine serum, of which use has been associated with different complications, including transmission of infectious agents and induction of immunologic reactions. To facilitate clinical applications, this project aims to develop chemically defined and safe culture conditions for human WJ-MSCs. The hypothesis is that undifferentiated growth of WJ-MSCs will be supported by an HA-based extracellular matrix and fortified DMEM/F12 supplemented with macromolecules, antioxidants, and growth factors. This hypothesis will be tested by comparing the growth kinetics and plasticity of WJ-MSCs cultured under conventional undefined and defined conditions. WJ-MSCs will be isolated via either the “enzymatic digestion” or “tissue explant” methods from human umbilical cords. They will then be phenotyped by evaluating the expression of relevant markers using a MSC phenotyping kit and placed into one of six different culture media groups for experimental testing.
    • Portrayal of Mental Illness in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell-Tale Heart"

      Shaikh, Arika; Sadenwasser, Tim; College of Science and Mathematics; Pamplin College; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (1/4/2020)
      Edgar Allan Poe's "The-Tell Tale Heart" delves into the human psyche as it entails the story of an unnamed narrator who tells the tale of the murder he commits. Undergoing an emotional rollercoaster of pleasure and guilt, Poe's protagonist maintains his claim to sanity and a sense of reality. Poe articulates many tone and rhythm changes to create a sense of tension representing the narrator's mental condition. Throughout the narrative, the narrator struggles to reassure that there is nothing wrong with him and that he is completely normal. Exploring the themes of madness, guilt, and a false sense of reality, Poe's narrator suffers from a sense of false narrative, a trait characteristic of schizophrenia. In addition, the narrator demonstrates episodes of delusions, auditory hallucinations, diminished emotional responses, and significant disturbances to his normal routine which all allude to schizophrenia. I will utilize the DSM-5 criteria, literary criticisms, and other publications to show the audience the schizophrenic nature of Poe's narrator. I plan on discussing the DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia and demonstrating how the narrator meets those criteria in several circumstances. Utilizing vivid imagery and a scattered style, Poe explores the mental depths of a man suffering from schizophrenia.
    • How does Industrial Concentration Prepare an Economy for Business Cycle Change?

      Walker, Aaron; Medcalfe, Simon; Hull College of Business; Medcalfe, Simon; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      This analysis will examine the relationship between the business cycle and industry concentrations across Georgia and South Carolina, with employment being the industry measurement of concentration. The concentration measure will be the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). Although typically used to determine market concentration within an industry, this analysis will utilize the HHI to calculate the concentration levels across different industries within the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) of Georgia and South Carolina. Data will be collected over 2004 through 2016 to include prominent business cycle periods. It is hypothesized that highly concentrated MSAs will suffer the impact of recession periods, more than less concentrated MSAs. This research will inform the workforce, residents, and policymakers, of Georgia-South Carolina, with a better understanding of the impact of recessions on their local communities.
    • Developmental Biology of Zebrafish and Integration of Transgenic Lines to Study Microglia in Perspective of Glioblastoma

      O'Keefe, Anabelle; McCartney, Katherine; Kandepu, Umasai; Rajpurohit, Surendra; Biological Sciences; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Rajpurohit, Surendra; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Glioblastoma is a vicious cancer of the brain that is extremely invasive. Our innovative approach to studying glioblastoma utilizes zebrafish as model for scientific study because of their affordable maintenance, transparent body plan during embryo and larval stages, and genomic accessibility. We aim to use zebrafish as an organismal model to study how glioblastoma and microglial cells interact in the neural region. To achieve this, we are developing an all-encompassing in-vivo transgenic and transparent zebrafish modeling system to study microglia function and manipulation in the context of adverse conditions such as glioblastoma and inflammation. Microglia are the resident macrophages found in zebrafish and humans located along the central nervous system in the brain and spinal cord. These cells support the immune system by cleaning any foreign debris. The model will integrate Microglia, NF-kB, and Annexin-5 transgenic lines displaying which genes in the brain are activated via their corresponding fluorescent protein upon the introduction of glioblastoma. Furthermore, a mutant Casper line of zebrafish will introduce a transparent characteristic in adult zebrafish that allows for simpler visualization and observation in the final model. Ultimately, the transgenic model will utilize microglia cells as a mechanism to approach glioblastomas.

      Chakraborty, Ananya; Halder, Bithika; Mondal, Souravi; Gabor Csanyi; Biological Sciences; Vascular Biology Center; Pharmacology and Toxicology; Maria Sabbatini; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a type of exocrine cancer that accounts for almost all cases of pancreatic cancer. Many studies show that chronic pancreatitis (CP), a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is considered as the greatest risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. We found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) in pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) mediate the fibrogenic process in CP. PaSCs are a class of pancreatic cells that, in the stroma surrounding pancreatic cancer cells, are known to facilitate cancer cell invasion. We found that the lack of Nox1 in PaSCs decreased the invasion of three different pancreatic cell lines using two approaches: transwell cell invasion and culture wound closure assays. The lack of Nox1 also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9, which is an enzyme that breaks down the basal lamina, facilitating cell invasion. Using mass spectroscopy, we will assess the extent to which the lack of Nox1 in PaSCs affects the production of pro-migratory and pro-invasive proteins using mass spectroscopy. These results implicate Nox1 inhibitors as a potential therapeutic drug to impede the progression of CP to PDAC.
    • Curcumin Conjugates as Potential Therapeutics for Breast Cancer

      Tran, Queen; Chemistry and Physics; Panda, Siva; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Breast cancer, the target of this study, is one of the most salient forms of cancer in the United States. Among U.S. women, 1 in 8 are diagnosed each year. Current treatment for breast cancer includes dichloroacetic acid (DCA), which is a prescribed for cancer therapy and is primarily effective at a specific high dosage, which leads to side effects such as neuropathy. In a search for an alternative solution with lesser negative effects, curcumin was studied. Curcumin is a component of the turmeric and has an array of health properties including the alleviation of gastrointestinal complications and certain pulmonary diseases and the inhibition of cancer growth. However, curcumin�s main drawback lies in its low bioavailability, thus allowing little to be absorbed into the body upon ingestion. The objective of this study is to design the synthesis for the improvement of DCA as well increased bioavailability of curcumin by conjugating the two components with an amino acid linker in between DCA and curcumin. Prior to synthesis of the amino acid-linked hybrid conjugates, the preceding procedures are standardized. Upon conjugation, it is anticipated that the overall bioavailability would increase, and the effective dosage would decrease, resulting in a potentially more effective breast cancer . The final synthesized compounds will then be analyzed and subsequently studied in breast cancer line cells and animal tests.
    • Implementing the Healthy University Approach to Mental Health at Augusta University

      Jackson, Lauren; Heboyan, Vahe; Best, Candace; Guerrero Millan, Josefa; College of Science and Mathematics; College of Allied Health Sciences; Heboyan, Vahe; Best, Candace; Guerrero Millan, Josefa; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      In University systems, there is a lack of knowledge and understanding of student perceptions and utilizations of campus mental health services. This lack of knowledge can be expanded by evaluating the state of campus mental health services, interviewing clinical staff, and by evaluating the needs of students. The objective of this study is to use Healthy University programming to devise health initiatives to benefit the mental health of students at Augusta University. Student needs will be evaluated by surveying their perceptions and utilizations of campus mental health services. Survey data will be collected anonymously through Qualtrics. Clinical staff at Student Counseling and Psychological Services (SCAPS) will be interviewed privately. The evaluation of SCAPS will be completed by reviewing student utilization data which will be collected by SCAPS in yearly reports. Self-reported student mental health and perceptions of SCAPS will be analyzed by using statistical tests and multivariate regression analyses. With the data collected, health initiatives will be theorized to strengthen SCAPS so that the mental health services provided will continue to benefit Augusta University students and serve their needs effectively.
    • LGBTQ+ College Student's Well-being and Physical Activity

      Nix, Dalanie; Bennett, Hannah; Kinesiology and Health Science; Bennett, Hannah; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Many college students experience a downswing in mental well-being once beginning college. Studies have shown that the mental well-being of many college students are negatively impacted by alcohol consumption, cigarette use, and lower grades. Along with those factors, poor sleep habits were also linked to poor performance and overall well-being of the student. LGBTQ+ college students experience discriminatory stressors, such as bullying, compounded with the stressors of college life which can lead to increased rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts. Physical activity has been shown to improve well-being and depression symptoms. It has also been proven to be as effective as psychological and drug therapies. Many LGBTQ+ college students are turned away from sports due to LGBTQ+ cultural norms, as well as bullying from peers. This project employed a case study narrative approach of LGBTQ+ college students. 5 participants, ranging from 18-21 years of age and various sexual orientations, were interviewed about how physical activity has affected their well-being. We predict that LGBTQ+ college students who participate in regular physical activity will express lower levels of anxiety and depression along with greater levels of well-being.
    • Design, synthesis and computational studies of isoniazid hybrid conjugates as potential antimycobacterial agents

      Thomas, Eyana; Chemistry and Physics; Panda, Siva; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial pathogen caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which generally causes pulmonary infection and is extremely pervasive within the lungs and between subjects. Pyrazinamide (PZA) and isoniazid are first-line anti-tuberculosis prodrug often used in combinational therapy with drugs like ethambutol, streptomycin and/or rifampicin. With prolonged administration of the recommended dose, harmful side effects have been reported: hepatitis, acute hypertension, thrombocytopenia, and gastrointestinal discomfort. To overcome the problem of toxicity and drug resistance, combination therapy has been used which utilizes the simultaneous administration of two or more antibiotics with independent modes of action and different biochemical targets in the bacteria. Recently, the concept of hybrid molecules has been introduced in anticipation that molecules of this type may overcome drug resistance. This multiple target strategy led to the discovery of various bio-effective hybrid molecules. We have synthesized several pyrazinoic acid hybrid conjugates with isoniazid via amino acid linkers with retention of the chiral integrity of the desired products. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral studies. The details of the studies will be discussed at the conference.
    • Delusional Disorder in the Narrator of Maud

      Ravula, Havilah; College of Science and Mathematics; English and Foreign Languages; Sadenwasser, Tim; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Alfred Tennyson's poem, Maud, was written from the perspective of a narrator madly in love with the titular character. The narrator goes through different phases throughout the text during which his interpretations of his surroundings, including his natural and relational environments, change with each passing event. During these changes, the narrator exhibits symptoms of mental disorders, including PTSD, bipolar disorder, and various delusional disorders. The narrator's depressive yet frenzied moods and his obsessive thoughts, the majority of which point to delusional disorder evident in the erotomaniac and persecutory types, begin to push him towards insanity. This presentation aims to delve into each of the symptoms of the narrator and how his delusions distort his interpretations of his relationships. An analysis of the text shows multiple instances in which the narrator shares his intense feelings. The narrator has been scarred by his father's death to such an extent that the beauty of nature around him morphs into a disfigured, bleeding landscape. He loves Maud obsessively; he will do almost anything to be with her. Finally, he loathes her brother for obstructing his relationship with Maud. Eventually, his delusions leave him a tormented individual who cannot find respite from his troubled mind.
    • Characterization of a Cyclic Peptide AD05 as a Novel Inhibitor of the Hsp90 Chaperoning Machine

      Fang, Wayne; Lu, Sumin; Jilani, Yasmeen; Debbab, Abdssamad; Chadli, Ahmed; Debbab, Abdssamad; Biological Sciences; Chadli, Ahmed; Augusta University; Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf (1/31/2020)
      Protection of oncogenic proteins is the foundation of many hallmarks of cancer. Based on this, hsp90 inhibitors have emerged as a potentially potent strategy for cancer treatment. The clinical efficacy of the earlier Hsp90 inhibitors remains unsatisfactory, in part due to their induction of heat shock response and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cancer cells. To identify alternative therapeutic agents without these effects, we have developed a cell-free high-throughput screen (HTS) platform based on the folding of progesterone receptor (PR) by the core components of the Hsp90 chaperoning machine. During our initial screening of 175 natural products from North African medicinal plants, we discovered the cyclic peptide AD05 as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor. AD05 has shown a powerful antitumor activity against various cancer cell lines including HeLa, Hs578T, MDA-MB231, MDA-MB453, E0771, THP1, and U937. Western blot analysis revealed that AD05 destabilizes Hsp90 client proteins without inducing heat shock response as indicated by lack of upregulation of Hsp70, Hsp40 and Hsp27. Remarkably, AD05 does not induce apoptosis but rather triggers autophagy in various cell lines.
    • Feasibility of Reusable Radiochromic Plastics as Dosimeters

      Recht, Maxwell; Inglett, Chase; Hauger, Joseph; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Adamovics, John; Biological Sciences; Chemistry and Physics; Chemistry; Newton, Joseph; et al. (1/31/2020)
      New developments in the field of radiotherapy have created extremely effective and efficient procedures for the treatment of tumors. Such developments require complex radiotherapy systems and plans which have ultimately improved the successfulness of treatments and the options available to patients. However, these advanced treatments present challenges for current dosimetric verification techniques which struggle to keep up. We will be examining radiochromic plastics as a way of addressing this conflict. Radiochromic plastics are synthetic materials whose optical properties change upon absorption of dose. The color darkens when dose is absorbed, and the change in optical density is proportional to the dose absorbed. We examine a formulation which is designed to clear its response slowly after irradiation to determine if the formulation is reusable after it clears. If upon reirradiation the dose response remains linear, then reusability is an option. Our results show that the response remains linear over a range of five irradiations and a timespan of two years, but sensitivity drops around 20% after the first reirradiation and less than that upon further irradiation. The plastics clear at an exponential rate, but the time it took to clear increased after each reirradiation. These results suggest that a long-term reusable dosimeter is possible. Data on a faster clearing formulation will also be presented.
    • Impacts of Cultural Barriers on Healthcare

      Mahoney, Eden; Hayward, Pamela; Pamplin College; Communication; Hayward, Pamela; Augusta University (1/31/2020)
      Civil unrest and the emergence of terrorist groups have caused humanitarian crises in Middle Eastern countries that has led to an influx of Arab refugees and asylum seekers to the United States. This paper explores both the causes and effects of cultural differences and discrimination on healthcare outcomes for Middle Eastern patients in Western cultures. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care providers are often plagued by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values, including contrasting views of family roles in medicine, communication styles, religious beliefs, and attitudes regarding preventative care and illness. These cultural differences combined with increased systemic discrimination since 9/11 have not only created barriers in access to healthcare, but have intensified the need for healthcare in Middle Eastern populations who exhibit higher premature birth rates, increased prevalence of mental health disorders and chronic health conditions including PTSD, hypertension, and Diabetes, and decreased screening and vaccination rates compared to white Americans. The key to bridging the cultural gap between Western medicine and Arab patients and providing quality healthcare that will improve, rather than impede their healthcare lies in cultural understanding through education, relationship-building, and respect.