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  • Development and Characterization of a Closed-Head Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Model

    Alverson, Katelyn; Clinical Laboratory Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-12)
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and places an enormous economic burden on both families and health care systems that provide support for survivors. The majority of TBI cases are deemed mild (mTBI) and go undetected due to the less discernable signs and symptoms. However, there is increasing evidence that mTBI can lead to detrimental chronic consequences. Unfortunately, the mTBI research field is still in its infancy. We set out to develop a model of closed-head mTBI that recapitulated mTBI in the clinic. Using a murine controlled cortical impact model, we show no structural damage, increased edema, behavioral deficits, cell death and decreased synapses in the acute time after the mTBI. We also evaluated the chronic behavioral changes from two weeks to three months post TBI. All in all, our mTBI model showed significant cellular changes, but did not give robust chronic behavioral results. A secondary outcome of our study was the evaluation of a potential therapeutic: remote ischemic conditioning (RIC). Acutely, RIC improved edema, behavioral outcomes, cell death, and synapse loss. Overall, our study does identify key areas that should be recapitulated in further development of the model: no structural damage, little to no edema, cell death and decreased synapses, and behavioral changes. This model also requires further investigation into the chronic consequences of mTBI as well as the use of RIC.
  • In Vivo Pilot Study: Effect of Dehydration/Rehydration on Upper Anterior Tooth Color Change

    Britton, Eduardo; Nappi, A; Cao, T; Shepherd, K; Department of General Dentistry, Dental Hygiene, Department of Restorative Sciences (Augusta University Libraries, 2019)
    Isolation of tooth structure during fabrication of a bonded, direct, resin-based restoration is essential to optimizing its potential for long-term clinical success. Failure to protect etched enamel and bonding agents from contamination by saliva results in inadequate and unpredictable interfacial bonding of the restorative composite, potentially leading to marginal discoloration, open margins, recurrent decay, or ultimately to restoration loss or failure. A consequence of tooth isolation during placement of direct, esthetic restorative resins is the dehydration of enamel surfaces that will not be coated with saliva, and will, over time, lose water that has penetrated into the outer enamel layers (will dehydrate). The longer the tooth isolation time, the greater will be the subsequent loss of water from enamel. Presence of this water in enamel helps to provide for a stable tooth color. In teeth, the observed tooth color is the result of internal light penetration and interaction with tissues below the surface. Enamel is a translucent material, passing a great majority of transmitted light to fall on the more opaque and yellow-colored tissue underneath of it: dentin. In the hydrated state, enamel is more translucent than in its dehydrated state. The white opaque appearance of dehydrated enamel can be of great clinical concern, once a rubber dam has been removed, and the treated teeth with newly placed restorations are observed. Usually, because of the opaque, white nature of recently dehydrated enamel, there is an initial mismatch between an esthetic restoration just placed and its surrounding, remaining enamel. Patients are normally forwarded of this consequence, and are advised that a period of time needs to pass before the surrounding enamel becomes rehydrated, and more translucent (less opaque), before its pre-isolated color returns to a natural state. It is hoped that, at that time, the new restoration will perfectly match the color characteristics of the remaining enamel, and the recent replacement will not be visible at all, but will instead optically blend in without notice. However, prior to that time, there are definitely distinct color differences between a recently placed resin restoration and its surrounding tooth structure. To date, little-to-no information is available on the rate at which a clinician or patient can expect isolated enamel to return to its pre-isolated color, and when to expect this esthetic blending to occur.
  • Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor as a Prognostic Factor for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Du, Helen; Koranteng, Patience; Stuart, Ansley; Sloan, Gloria; Weintraub, MJ; Cannon, Joseph; College of Allied Health Sciences - Clinical Laboratory Sciences (2017-03-10)
    Breast cancer is the “malignant proliferation of epithelial cell lining the ducts or lobules of the breast” (1). Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Insulin-like growth factors are potent mitogens that have a role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of IGF-1R is thought to cause an increased risk in tumor metastasis and tumorigenesis. The aim of this project is to conduct a systematic review of IGF-1R expression in breast cancer and its relationship to patient survival. Our hypothesis is that increased insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression leads to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
  • Human vs Machine: A Systematic Review of Automated Bead-Based Multiplex Immunoassay Performance

    Charles, Mosa; Gao, Jie; Jiang, Jingyuan; Cannon, Joseph; Sloan, Gloria; Stuart, Ansley; Weintraub, MJ; College of Allied Health Sciences - Clinical Laboratory Sciences (2017-03-10)
    Autoimmune diseases are important contributors to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Researchers have identified more than 20 subtypes of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), which are the hallmark of autoimmune diseases (1). Reliable, rapid ANA tests with acceptable sensitivity and specificity are in high demand for the timely diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases (2,3). The gold standard for ANA detection is manual indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with Hep-2 cells. This method is highly sensitive but has several flaws. It relies heavily on highly skilled morphologists which may lead to reader bias, and increased inter-laboratory variation (2,4). This study is a systematic review of the currently available multiplexed systems (i.e., Bioplex 2200, AtheNA Multi-Lyte ANA and FIDIS Connective 10) that might serve as alternative methods for detection of ANAs in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases (5).