The 20th Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference is an opportunity for all undergraduate students of Augusta University (Summerville and Health Sciences campuses) to showcase their scholarly and artistic endeavors. The conference will be held on Wednesday, March 13, 2019 on the Summerville campus. For more information visit http://www.augusta.edu/honorsocieties/pkp/conference-abstract.php.

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Recent Submissions

  • Effects of Withholding Cell Phones on Students' Autonomic Arousal, State Anxiety, and Test Scores

    Recinos, Manderley; Streets, Hannah; Gaffney, Jasmine; Department of Psychological Sciences; Johnson, Michelle; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Approximately 85% of Americans aged 18-29 have smartphones. Many people report that they get agitated when their phones are not immediately accessible.1,2Researchers studying the links between phone use and academic performance have focused on their disruptive nature (e.g., texting). No research has examined the effects of withholding phones during testing on test performance. The objective of this study was to assess whether withholding phones during testing affected students state anxiety, skin conductance (SC), and test scores. State anxiety is situationally determined, transitory, and associated with autonomic nervous system activation. SC (sweat gland secretions) is an index of sympathetic nervous system activation. We expected higher levels of self-reported state anxiety, higher levels of SC, and lower test performance among students who had their phones withheld compared with students who kept their phones. Eighty-six students participated. There were three conditions: phones withheld but kept in the same room as testing condition (n= 31), phones withheld but sequestered in a different room (n= 28), and control where students were not separated from their phones (n= 27). One-way MANOVA revealed no differences between the groups in state anxiety, SC or test scores. Data did reveal interesting trends we would like to discuss.
  • SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF ALU REPEATED ELEMENTS FOR PRIMATE PHYLOGENETIC TREE CONSTRUCTION

    Sood, Nitish; Mehra, Mehul; Department of Biological Sciences; University of California Berkeley; Bates, Christopher; Mittal, Anav; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Phylogenetic tree construction can be a particularly challenging and time-intensive process. This study employs a novel computational approach to phylogenetic tree construction, using the Alu repeating element, a SINE. Repetitive elements including Short and Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs/LINEs) have successfully been applied as accurate tools for phylogenetic analysis, as they are predominately unidirectional and homoplasy-free. However, previous analysis of phylogenetic relationships using these repeating elements has been limited to a small number of isolated repeats among relatively few organisms. As a highly repetitive sequence, the Alu element and its associated subfamilies can provide detailed analysis on evolutionary divergence among species in the Order Primates. This study identified shared sequences as Alu repeating elements that were conserved in both location and base-pair sequence between the primate genomes of interest. These shared sequences, derived from the Genome Library at the University of California San Diego, were analyzed to construct individual phylogenetic trees for each of the 49 Alu subfamilies. As this method solely requires the sequence analysis of available primate genomes, this serves as a cheaper and more time-efficient approach to phylogenetic tree construction for the Order Primates relative to biochemical and anatomical analysis.
  • ADIPOSE HDAC9 DELETION PROTECT AGAINST DIET INDUCED OBESITY IN MICE THROUGH REGULATING ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    Hassan, Nazeera; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of Medicine; College of Allied Health Sciences; Kim, Ha Won; Weintraub, Neal; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Our group has previously identified histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) as a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, and its expression levels were elevated in diet induced obese (DIO) mice.� We also reported that global HDAC9 deletion protected mice against DIO through promoting beige adipogenesis. Here, we hypothesized that adipose HDAC9 correlate with human obesity similar to murine models, and its deletion is sufficient to protect against DIO. To test this hypothesis we crossed HDAC9 floxed mice with adiponectin-cre mice to generate adipose-specific HDAC9 knockout mice (AdipCre-HDAC9), which exhibited 30% less weight gain when fed high fat diet compared to control despite increased food intake, in association with increased energy combustion & O2 consumption, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, unlike global HDAC9 deletion, this was not associated with increased beige adipogenesis nor increase in brown adipose tissue function. Interestingly, AdipoCre-HDAC9 mice fed normal chow diet didn�t exhibit altered energy expenditure nor weight differences when compared to littermate controls. These finding suggest that adipose HDAC9 regulate energy expenditure in response to high fat diet and can be a promising therapeutic target to combat obesity.
  • SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF THE COMBINATION OF ERLOTINIB & EXO2 ON HEAD AND NECK CANCER

    Thakkar, Parth; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of Oral Biology; Teng, Yong; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    More than 90% of head and neck cancer is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma1 (HNSCC). Currently, the treatment involves modern surgery, conventional chemotherapy, and radiation. However, targeting, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to prove advantageous for patient survival. EGFR activation leads to cell cycle progression. Blocking the EGFR by an antibody results in the inhibition of the receptor, therefore inhibition of cell proliferation. This makes EGFR a prime target for anticancer therapy, specifically with tyrosine kinase inhibitors being looked at as a possible form of inhibition. The goal of this project was to hopefully use small molecule inhibitor EXO2 and an EGFR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Erlotinib, in a synergistic manner to fight against HNSCC. This study was done using cell cultures, MTT assay�s and western blot techniques, with cell cultures being done using the H6 cell line. The results from this study were found to be a preliminary success and will pave the way for future experiments in this area.
  • AN EXAMINATION OF MORAL PANICS: HOW THE FEAR OF SATANISM AFFECTED TABLETOP ROLE PLAYING

    Williams, Travis; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of Communication; Department of Anthropology & Philosophy; Johnson, Edgar; McClelland-Nugent, Ruth; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Moral panics around youth entertainment have been an occurrence as long as culture has been established. As long as youth entertainment has values that can be seen as going against the established values of the preceding generation, a moral panic could take place. The purpose of this research was to analyze how moral panics centered on youth entertainment begin and gain traction. To do this, the research was focused on the 1980s moral panic around tabletop roleplaying games, specifically�Dungeons & Dragons. By tracing the origin of the moral panic to the fear of cults and occult from the 1970s, we can find more context as to why some individuals believed that role playing games could cause adolescents to use the games as a style of dangerous escapism or as a gateway to the occult. To further understand this moral panic, an analysis of some of the major detractors of role playing games was done, as well as researching the role the media played in cultivating the moral panic. With a greater understanding on how moral panics begin and gain traction, this research can be used to compare and contrast other moral panics around youth entertainment.
  • DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF HYBRID CONJUGATES AS POTENTIAL ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS

    Littlefield, William E; Wade, Margaret; Makkanal, Tina; College of Science and Mathematics; Department of Chemistry and Physics; Panda, Silva; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are major challenges despite all the steps taken to control or cure. New drug development with high efficacy/selectivity for infectious diseases is a point of interest for many researchers. It has reported that tuberculosis is one of the ten major causes of death in the world. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is another major concern in bacterial and fungal infections. The present study deals with the development of new conjugates of pyrazinoic acid and isoniazid linked via an amino acid. The synthesized conjugates show promising and interesting results against a variety of microbial strains, tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Molecular modeling studies were used for understanding and validation of the experimental data.
  • EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF AETOKTHONOS HYDRILLICOLA EXTRACT ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN C6 CELLS

    Ward, Kayla; Department of Biological Sciences; Wiley, Faith; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Aetokthonos hydrillicola, a species of cyanobacteria, has colonized an invasive species of hydrilla in the lakes of the Southeastern United States. This cyanobacterium is suspected to cause Avian Vacuolar Myclinopathy (AVM). AVM is a neurological disease that affect birds. Bald eagles and American coots have been primarily studied and known to be affected by AVM. Symptoms of AVM consist of brain lesions, loss of basic motor skills, and the disease often leads to death. Extracts of A. hydrillicola are toxic to C6 cells, and this cell line is used as a model to examine the mechanism of toxicity. The aim of this research project is to understand the role of oxidative stress in A. hydrillicola cytotoxicity and determine if antioxidant compounds may protect the cells. Common oxidative stress inhibitors, Gingko biloba extract and selenium, have been tested in different concentrations in order to determine if oxidative stress is present and preventable. These compounds did not prevent toxicity in the C6 cells exposed to the cyanobacterial extracts. The presence of oxidative is currently being further investigated using a 2-7 dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay, which indicates the presence of reactive oxygen species.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSGENIC ZEBRAFISH MODEL FOR INVESTIGATION OF THE FUNCTION OF MICROGLIA

    Sura, Survasha; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of Biochemical and Molecular Biology; Georgia Cancer Center; Rajpurohit, Surendra K; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Zebrafish have emerged as a powerful model organism for elucidating the development and function of microglia. Generation of new transgenic reporter lines and imaging tools strengthen the zebrafish model in microglia study�in-vivo. The aim is to develop a novel compound transgenic line to study the inflammatory process mediated by NF-kB in microglia cells. This novel compound transgenic line will establish a new model for microglia study. To generate the novel compound zebrafish transgenic model for microglia, we are crossbreeding microglia transgenic line zebrafish (Tg(mpeg1:mCherry) with the NF-kB Tg(6xNFkB:EGFP) transgenic progeny. We first generate a heterozygous F1 progeny which will be bred to generate an F2 homozygous progeny. Once the F1 progeny of the Microglia-NfkB transgenic line is developed, they will be crossbred to develop the Homozygous compound transgenic line. Fluorescent Microscopy will be used to screen the larvae generated from the breeding events. By developing the compound transgenic line, we are optimizing microglia isolation and sorting methodology by using the related antibodies as the marker. The NF-kB microglia transgenic line will provide a unique platform for drug screening to address microglial based ailments, thus furthering the understanding and treatment of human disease.
  • VACCINE PROLIFERATION IN THE FACE OF PUBLIC SCRUTINY

    Sripathi, Nishita; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of History, Anthropology & Philosophy; Turner, Wendy; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Each newly conceptualized vaccine has faced the same arguments over the last two centuries. A detailed examination of these several vaccines and their influences on the public will hopefully provide a better understanding of why the same arguments against vaccines continuously come up, even though each vaccine becomes widely used and celebrated. I supported my analysis by examining modern vaccine case studies and how those results may or may not skew the public reaction. By focusing on these two areas of research, I tried to understand the reasons behind persisted vaccine apprehension, even though there have been multiple and well-supported conclusions that vaccines are essential to a healthy human population. Perhaps by understanding the public�s fear, I can one day suggest alternate methods of vaccine �roll out� and introduction to the public.
  • PIPER NIGRUM IN ALZHEIMER'S AND COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Jones-Asgill, Michael; Department of Kinesiology and Health Science; College of Nursing; Langley-Brady, Dawn; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Every 65 seconds, someone in the U.S develops Alzheimer's dementia. Alzheimer's is a chronic brain disorder affecting approximately five million Americans. Alzheimer's is an irreversible form of dementia that progressively worsens memory and simple cognitive abilities. There is no known cure for Alzheimer's. Current treatment includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches (e.g. aromatherapy). Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils from aromatic plants and is being explored in cognition studies.Piper nigrum or black pepper has cognitive-enhancing properties. The purpose of this project was to review the literature regarding the use of black pepper in Alzheimer's. PubMed, CINAHL, Ovid Medicine, and ProQuest databases were searched for peer-reviewed journal articles written in English and published since 2014 with the following keywords: Cognitive, essential oil,Piper nigrum, aromatherapy and Alzheimer's. Nine articles were found that met the literature review criteria three animal and six human studies. These studies established the effectiveness of black pepper essential oil for both improving function and reducing cognitive decline. These studies may open doors for aromatherapy research in Alzheimer's. Despite efficacy, the preferred administration method (inhalation or topical) is unclear.Piper nigrum essential oil can potentially change Alzheimer's patients disease trajectory and should be further studied.
  • PROFILING G PROTEINS USING BIOLUMINESCENCE RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER

    Farooq, Maheen; Department of Chemistry and Physics; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology; Spencer, Angela; Lambert, Nevin; Okashah, Najeah; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    GPCRs are receptors that act in signal transduction pathways via guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Extracellular ligands act on GPCRs resulting in activation of one or more G protein subtypes (Gs, Gi/o, Gq/11 and G12/13) affecting the concentration of intracellular second messenger molecules ultimately altering cellular function. Cellular responses to external signals are typically studied indirectly by measuring concentration changes in second messengers. However, this approach can be problematic as many GPCRs can activate multiple G protein subtypes, and many second messenger pathways engage in crosstalk. To address this issue, we used Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) to directly measure coupling between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) receptors and different G protein family subtypes. We co-transfected cells with plasmid DNA encoding the 5-HT2B or 5-HT4 receptors fused to the bioluminescent protein nanoluciferase (NLuc) as well as plasmid DNA containing G protein subtypes fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. In BRET assays, we found that mGsq couples to 5-HT2B and mGscouples with 5-HT4 in response to 5-HT activation. These results are consistent with the literature. Interestingly, initial studies suggest that activated 5-HT4 shows secondary coupling to mGsi highlighting the potential novel signaling pathways that can be elucidated using this technique.
  • EVALUATION OF CANIS HAIR AS A POTENTIAL WILD PIG REPELLENT ON COWDEN PLANTATION, JACKSON, SC

    Hitchens, Samantha Rae; Department of Biological Sciences; Hull College of Business; Saul, Bruce; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) continue to have a destructive impact across the world. The uncontrolled spread of these intrusive animals has affected many cultures, making it important to develop management methods across many locales. Wild pigs are often hunted with dogs; however, this method may not be suitable or legal in all areas impacted by this animal. In consideration of this fact, along with the knowledge that pigs have a highly developed sense of smell, led us to the hypothesis: Can a natural scent function as a satisfactory pig repellant? Based upon our past testing trials of potential scents in the Savannah River swamp near Jackson, SC, dog hair appeared to have a potential effect. We designed this experiment to attract wild pigs into an area baited with corn, and subsequently applied dog hair to the same area. Trail cameras were used at study locations to observe the normal patterns of wild pigs before and after dog hair applications. We analyzed our data by noting the presence and absence of pigs throughout our study trials. Image totals were also examined to determine if the dog hair dissuaded the pigs from entering the area. Our results supported our hypothesis.
  • EFFECT OF GABAERGIC NEURONS IN SUSCEPTIBLE VERSUS RESILIENT MALE RATS TO PTSD

    Dixon, Rachel; Mandavilli, Rohan; Department of Phychological Sciences; Department of Biological Sciences; Departmetn of Pharmacology & Toxicology; Bunting, Kristopher M; Alexander, Khadijah; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological disorder that can occur after a traumatic event. Individuals with PTSD exhibit extreme anxiety and learning and memory difficulties. Once exposed, 12-35% develop PTSD with women twice as likely to be affected than men. Our goal is to discover underlying mechanisms to prevent PTSD, as we investigate the relevance of glutamic acid decarboxylase positive (GAD+) neurons on susceptible (SUS) and resilient (RES) male rats. SUS and RES phenotypes were assessed using the highly advanced RISP protocol to reveal susceptibility to a PTSD-like phenotype. The increase of GAD+ cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) informs us that more GABAergic neurons are present, which can cause inappropriate recall. We will be examining if there is a difference in the number of GAD+ cells in the RES versus SUS male rats. To investigate, we used cryosectioned brains from SUS or RES rats. The brains were stained using immunohistochemistry to isolate the GAD+ neurons in the mPFC and were counted. The results of this experiment will be determined and examined at a later date closer to our presentation. We expect to see a SUS male rats to have a higher number of GAD+ neurons.
  • THE MECHANISM OF INVERSE AGONISTS ON HISTAMINE RECEPTORS, HISTAMINE RECEPTOR H1, AND HISTAMINE RECEPTOR H2

    Patel, Shrey P; Department of Phychological Sciences; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology; Lambert, Nevin; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    The experiment discusses the role of inverse agonist binding to receptors and how its effect cell signaling. The specific receptors that was focused on in the project was histamine receptor H1 (HRH1) and histamine receptor H2 (HRH2) which are types of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Both receptors are activated when a ligand, specifically a histamine molecule, which binds to the receptor and activates the signaling pathway within the cell. The main protein within the signaling pathway is the G-protein which helps the cascade effect of the signal to other molecules. G-proteins are activated through GTP. An inverse agonist works like an agonist but will have an opposite end effect within the cell. It was originally thought that inverse agonist works the same way as an agonist to recruit a GTP and activate a G-protein for signaling. The experiment being tests tries to explain the opposite that the inverse agonist could activate the protein without GTP and continue to have its effect on the cell. Human embryonic cells were transfected with plasmids that contain sequences for the receptors and the G-protein, which were also tagged with a fluorophore to measure any bioluminescence with interaction of G-protein and the receptor when the ligands binds. From collecting data from the bioluminescence effect, it shows that there is an interaction a receptor and G-protein complex when the inverse agonist is bound.
  • ECOTOXICOLOGY OF YELLOW-BELLIED SLIDERS (TRACHEMYS SCRIPTA) AND MUSK TURTLES (STERNOTHERUS ODORATUS) IN NATURAL WETLANDS

    Hammesfahr, Rachel; Department of Biological Sciences; Cromer, Robert; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Glyphosate is one of the active ingredients in many different herbicidal products such as Roundup. Preliminary research has suggested that glyphosate is a possible endocrine disruptor, can cause developmental defects, and is a potential carcinogen. Due to its potential harmful effects on different organisms, we seek to monitor the levels of glyphosate in wetland areas. This will be done by analyzing samples from two commonly found indicator species, the yellow-bellied slider turtle,�Trachemys scripta, and the musk turtle,�Sternotherus odoratus. Research will be done on turtles caught at Reed Creek Nature Center and Brick Pond Park. Physical measurements will be taken, and blood will be drawn from each turtle. Analysis of the glyphosate levels in the blood samples will be completed using a glyphosate ELISA kit. While this research will not prove that glyphosate has harmful effects on the turtles, it will quantify the amount of the chemical present. If there are high concentrations, this will indicate a need for more research on how glyphosate affects different organisms so long-term effects on the environment can be estimated.
  • DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF QUINOLONE-TRIAZOLE CONJUGATES AS POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS

    Honkanadavar, Hitesh H; Tran, Queen; Department of Chemistry and Physics; Panda, Silva; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Quinolones are one of the most important synthetic antibacterial agents have been widely used in the treatment of diverse infections including urinary tract, respiratory and bone joint as well as sexually transmitted diseases, prostatitis, pneumonia, and acute bronchitis. However, quinolone resistance increases towards many Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Molecular conjugation has been known for the rational design of new biologically active entities by fusion of compounds and/or pharmacophores recognized and derived from known bio-active molecules. The present study directs towards the construction of novel quinolone-triazole conjugates and investigation of their antimicrobial properties. The detail results will be discussed at the conference.
  • EFFECTS OF VITAMIN D3 DEFICIENCY, VITAMIN D RECEPTOR KNOCKOUT, AND DIABETES ON CORNEAL EPITHELIAL NERVE DENSITY

    Vick, Sarah; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy; Lu, Xiaowen; Watsky, Mitchell; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    It is estimated that 41.6% of the US population suffers from vitamin D deficiency, with Blacks (82.1%) and Hispanics (69.2%) at even greater risk�Vitamin D deficiency can be caused by a variety of sources and given the wide range of causes, it is important to understand what measures this population might take to proactively prevent greater harm, or to reverse harm that might have already occurred. This project is designed to test the general hypothesis that Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates preexisting primary corneal pathologies. Previous research has established that the corneal epithelium in diabetic mice heals at a faster rate than the epithelium in diabetic vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout (KO) mice. It is known that within diabetic mice, the corneal nerve density is decreased. However, it is unknown how VDR KO mice or vitamin D deficient with diabetes will affect corneal nerve density. In order to identify variabilities within the nerves that indicate slow wound healing, the mouse corneas will be collected, stained for confocal microscope observation, and analyzed through image processing to determine nerve density.
  • THE SUBLETHAL EFFECTS AND BIOACCUMULATIONS OF 17-ALPHA-ETHNIYL ESTRADIOL IN LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS

    Ogun-Semore, Kikelomo; Department of Biological Sciences; Wiley, Faith; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    Freshwater sources are subject to contamination from toxic compounds and other harmful materials through improper sewage cleanup and pollution. Ethinyl estradiol (EE), a synthetic, steroidal estrogen used in contraception, is present in varying concentrations across freshwater sources worldwide. EE is also classified as an endocrine disruptor that is known to interfere with the endocrine system. Endocrine disruptors can create adverse effects on bodily systems and have been found to affect behavioral patterns, enzymatic activity levels, and estrogen receptor levels. Preceding data has found that EE exposure leads to an increase in mortality, a decrease in offspring, and changes in reproductive morphology among freshwater invertebrates. The objective of this study was to observe the sublethal effects and bioaccumulation of ethinyl estradiol in Lumbriculus variegatus. Data collection on experimental endpoints, including reproduction rate, segment regrowth of L. variegatus, have been collected. The bioaccumulation of EE within L. variegatus was observed through sediment testing and an ethinyl estradiol ELISA. The data collected from this experiment contributes to information available on the effects of low-dosage endocrine disruptor concentrations on freshwater organisms. The effects of EE and its bioaccumulation could be extrapolated to include bioaccumulation of EE in organisms of higher trophic levels, including vertebrates.
  • YOUR NEIGHBOR'S APPROACH: LOOKING AT VARIOUS MEDICAL SYSTEMS WITHIN THE AUGUSTA AREA

    Boomer, Houlton; Department of History, Anthropology & Philosophy; Bratton, Angela; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    This research focuses on how the health care system one is used to using effects ones ability to seek and receive care in another System. Specific examples used within the study are the Western Medical System, The Traditional Chinese Medical System, and African American Root medicine. The study was done with interviews to health care providers and with surveys to citizens of the Augusta area. Unfortunately the data collected proved inconclusive with regards to the research question. However it did reveal a great deal of information about the patient population in the area, namely the tendency to remain with a single system with regards to health and the role of financial constraints in choice of healthcare system.
  • IS EXERCISE THE BIGGEST INFLUENCER OF HAPPINESS? RESEARCHING HOW INFLUENTIAL EXERCISE IS IN COMPARISON TO OTHER VARIABLES IN DAILY LIFE

    Collins, Megan; Department of Sociology, Criminal Justice & Social Work; Davies, Kim; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
    There have been multiple studies that indicate that there is a relationship between exercise and happiness. In this research, I test whether exercise is the strongest factor when compared to other common variables in a person's life for predicting happiness. Using the 2012 General Social Survey (GSS) data, I test several different variables in order to determine which of them has the strongest correlation with a person's general happiness. The 2012 GSS consisted of 4,820 respondents that ranged in age from 18 to 89. Using logistic regression, I compare the variables of sex, marriage, age, frequency of exercise, employment, and income and found that exercise has a positive relationship with a person's general happiness and that is the most strongly correlated variable. Other variables were also found to be significant and will be discussed in the poster.

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