• Evaluation results of an innovative pilot program to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables in Cobb County, GA

      Woodruff, C Rebecca; Shipley, Rebecca; Brown, Agnes F.; Coleman, Anne-Marie; Munoz, Jennifer; Honeycutt, Sally; Hermstad, April K; Loh, Lorna; Kegler, Michelle C.; Emory University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      Background: This abstract describes a public health practice initiative called the Farm Fresh Market (FFM) and presented pilot evaluation results. Methods: The FFM, developed by Cobb and Douglas Public Health, the McCleskey-East Cobb Family YMCA, and Cobb2020, sold low-cost fruits and vegetables to families living in the 30168 zip code of Austell, Georgia. The evaluation focused on documenting to what extent the FFM reached its intended population and increased perceived access to fresh fruits and vegetables among customers. A convenience sample of 100 returning FFM customers completed self-administered, written intercept surveys at the end of the 2014 market season. Results: The market served customers from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Most customers strongly agreed that the FFM made it easier (69%) and less expensive (79%) for them to buy fresh fruits and vegetables and easier for them (63%) and their families (64%) to eat a healthy diet. Most customers reported that they ate more vegetables (65%) and fruit (55%) as a result of shopping at the FFM and reported high levels of satisfaction with all aspects of the FFM. Conclusions: The results suggest that the FFM served customers from the local area and that the FFM may have increased perceived access to healthy food options among customers. Community-level interventions to increase access to healthy foods may play an important role in chronic disease prevention.
    • Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

      Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.; Emory University; Georgia Regents University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      ABSTRACT Background: Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods: We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results: To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions: Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.
    • Promoting policy and environmental change in faith-based organizations: Organizational level findings from a mini-grants program

      Hermstad, April K; Arriola, Kimberly; Clair, Shauna; Honeycutt, Sally; Carvalho, Michelle; Cherry, Sabrina; Davis, Tamara; Fraizer, Sheritta; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle C.; et al. (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      Background: High rates of heart disease, cancer, and stroke exist in rural South Georgia, where Emory’s Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network provided mini-grants and technical assistance to six faith-based organizations to implement policy and environmental changes to promote healthy eating (HE), physical activity (PA), and tobacco use prevention (TUP). Drawing from a Social Ecological Framework, we hypothesized that church members would perceive an increase in messages, programs, and the availability of facilities to support HE, PA, and TUP over a 1-year period. Methods: Members (N=258) completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed perceptions of the existing church health promotion environment relative to HE, PA, and TUP policies, as well as their eating behavior and intention to use PA facilities at church at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results: Members at three of the six churches perceived increases in delivery of HE messages via sermons, church bulletins, and food labels, and increased availability of programs that support HE (p<0.05). Members at four churches reported increases in healthy foods served and decreased unhealthy foods served at three churches over the 1-year period (p<0.05). Of the five churches that implemented changes to promote PA, members at two churches perceived increases in healthy PA messages (p<0.05) and those at three churches perceived increased PA facilities (p<.05). One of two churches that implemented TUP policies, according to responses of members, had an increase in messages on smoking, (p<0.05). Conclusions: Community mini-grants may be a viable mechanism for promoting environmental change supporting HE, PA, and TUP policies in church environments.
    • Trends in cancer incidence rates in Georgia, 1982-2011

      Yoo, Wonsuk; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lillard, James; Georgia Regents University; Emory University; Morehouse College (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      Background: Although data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End results (SEER)-affiliated cancer registry are accessible to the public, there is a shortage of published research describing cancer incidences for White, Black, and other residents in Georgia. The objective of this research is to provide an overview of the trends in incidence of cancer in Georgia. Methods: Incidence data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 program, supported by the National Cancer Institute, spanning the years 1982 to 2011. To assess trends over time, age-adjusted cancer incidence rates relative to the 2000 Standard US population and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated using SEER*Stat software. Results: In Georgia, cancer incidence rates for women increased from 365.1 per 100,000 in 1982 to 404.2 per 100,000 in 2011, with an overall APC of 0.3% (95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.4), but, for men, cancer incidence rates showed a slight decline from 528.0 per 100,000 in 1982 to 513.7 per 100,000 in 2011 (APC of 0.2%, 95% CI: -0.6 to 0.1). For Black, White, and Other (Asian/Pacific Islanders/American Indians) females, there were increases in incidence in this period, with APC values of 0.6, 0.4, and 0.3, respectively. For all males and for Black and White males, there were overall decreases in incidence, with APC values of -0.2. For Other males, however, the APC value was -0.9. Conclusions: In Georgia, increases in cancer incidence rates occurred during 1982-2011 among the female population and within various racial groups in this population, but there was relative stability in incidence rates among the male population, except for Other males.