• A 20 Year Period On The Supreme Court’s Decisions Concerning Search and Seizure

      Augustin, Rudson; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2015-12)
      This thesis evaluates the past rulings of the United States Supreme Court in order to determine whether or not a shift occurred within the area of search and seizure since September 11, 2001. Fifty-six cases are used to evaluate a possible shift—28 cases pre-September 11th and 28 cases post-September 11th. September 11th is chosen because that is when the debate between privacy and security began. The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act) is used to analyze the aesthetics of the ongoing debate. This research examines the directionality of the decisions based on ideology to determine if there is a shift in the court’s rulings after September 11th. A t-test is used in order to evaluate the pre- and post-September 11th cases. The differences between the two time periods indicate that there is no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-September 11th. This result matters because it demonstrates that September 11th has no noticeable effect on the Supreme Court’s rulings regarding search and seizure.
    • Aggression and Competition in Captive Western Lowland Gorillas and Their Wild Counterparts

      Dixon, Megan K.; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2015-12)
      Studies of behavior in wild and captive Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations have exposed patterns of aggressive and affiliative behavior within family groups. Studies such as those of Stokes (2004), Stoinski et al., (2009), Robbins et al., (2004), as well as others have shown the types of situations, dominance patterns, and social dynamics that lead to aggressive and affiliative behaviors between individuals. This study examined the gorillas of Habitat Three, particularly the adult females, housed in Zoo Atlanta to see the types of aggressive behaviors exhibited, the situations they occur in, and the patterns of this population, looking for similarities and differences to observations of wild gorilla populations. Descriptive analyses show noncontact aggression occurs more frequently than contact aggression within this population. Results of one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) show there is no significant difference in the amount of aggression concerning the conditions of food presence and proximity to the silverback. More data is needed to retest these conditions within Zoo Atlanta’s population. The present paper also compares the behaviors, specifically aggressive and affiliative, of this family group to research regarding wild western lowland gorilla groups.
    • An Analysis of the Economy of Greece

      Mack, Michaela; Department of Mathematics (Augusta University, 2018-05)
    • Anion Monitoring of Rae's Creek by Ion Chromatography

      Walton, Amberly; Department of Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University, 2018-12)
      Golf courses generally require large amounts of fertilizer to maintain their course appearance. Fertilizer is a source of phosphate- and nitrogen-based compounds. These compounds can have negative effects on aquatic life if there are large amounts introduced to the surface water. The effect of a golf course on anion concentrations in Rae’s Creek was studied using ion chromatography. Over the course of one year, the following anions were tracked: nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, bromide, and chloride. The concentrations of the anions were high enough to allow quantitative measurements and changes were observed, but the concentrations remained below EPA guidelines for streams.
    • Aquatic Therapy Strength Training Benefits for the Leg Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy

      Quick, Elizabeth; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2015-05)
      The purpose of this thesis is to track the aspects and results of applying aquatic therapy strength training exercises to children with cerebral palsy and determine whether or not the therapy is beneficial for leg strengthening in comparison to a usual physical therapy clinical setting. The experiment was carried out twice a week, for 12 weeks. Two groups of six children with cerebral palsy participated in the experiment, in which they were administered leg strengthening exercises.
    • Are NFL teams getting the most out of their wins? The Efficiency of Year End Revenues of Ten NFL Teams

      Gonzales, Savanna; Department of Management and Marketing (Augusta University, 2018-05)
      Major sports have taken over many prominent industries in today's world. With the economic impact of athletics comes its evolution from a spectator event into a business. Each team in the major leagues is now not only pressured to produce winsbut as a business, they must also bring in revenue. This means that efficiencyof funds is a vital goal of team managers and financial specialists. Thisresearch projectexaminesthe effects of various factors on year-end revenues for the top ten most valuable teams in the National Football League. Through the use of a DEA model that analyzes such inputs as income, team record and stand out players we areable to determine how efficiently each team is performing based on their revenues, or the output. Of the 10 teams studied, 5 were deemed efficient while 5 were deemed inefficient.Teams that didnot see successful revenue reports were analyzed based on their weaknesses and offered recommendations on which to improve where efficient teams were used a comparison. Ultimately, the goal of this research is to identify factors to improve revenue efficiency across the league as a whole by looking at the top performing teams (or best practices).
    • The Art of Conservation: The Federal Duck Stamp

      Harris, Kirstyn; Department of History, Anthropology, & Philosophy (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Duck Stamp Act into law in 1934. The Duck Stamp Act states that any waterfowl hunter over the age of 16 years old must buy a Federal Duck Stamp and that the sales from the stamp go to the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund. In the beginning, the government selected an artist to paint the stamp. After a few years of debates, there was a proposal to form the Federal Duck Stamp contest in which anyone could participate. This is the longest-running government controlled contest in the United States.
    • Assessing Local Parks For Their Infrastructure Availability And Use Along With Physical Activity Levels Of The Local Children

      Shabu, Elizabath; Department of Kinesiology (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      This research project assessed public park physical activity infrastructure use in Richmond and Columbia Counties. Prior research has shown that children not only enjoy outdoor time, but also consider parks as a place for socializing. Furthermore, research has shown that playground time positively impacts children’s imagination. The playground also aids in the physical fitness of children by offering interactive experiences that can add to the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity a day. Park assessments were conducted utilizing the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) Tool and found that overall, parks in both counties were well taken care of. Additionally, there was a wide variety of amenities available to utilize. There were some areas of concern in the parks, however, including cigarette buds, alcohol containers, trash, and cracked sidewalks. In both counties, parks were observed to see how much children utilized the playground equipment. Observations concluded that the majority of children utilized the different variety of equipment, with the swings and slides being the most common. In conclusion, this presentation will describe the diversity of amenities, challenges in maintenance, and the overall use of public parks in both Richmond and Columbia Counties.
    • The association between fitness, metabolic levels, and cognitive performance in an older population

      Dojack, Amanda; Department of Kinesiology (Augusta University, 2018-05)
    • Bisphenol A (BPA) Contamination in Yellow-Bellied Sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta)

      McDavid, Kayla; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2017-05)
      Bisphenol A, also known as BPA, is a chemical that is recognized for being in a variety of consumer products, particularly to make plastic food containers and drink bottles (Makinwa, 2015). It was estimated in 2011 that about 5.5 million metric tons of BPA have been consumed globally (Flint, 2011). This is cause for alarm because it is classified as moderately toxic to aquatic life by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Flint, 2011). BPA can negatively affect gene expression and hormone pathways. It is also known for triggering sex changes during embryonic stages in turtles and caiman (Flint, 2011). A major source of BPA is littering of plastics, which enter ponds and wetlands and may become incorporated into the food web of aquatic species (Campani, 2013). When plastic products degrade, BPA is leached into the soil and can potentially flow into neighboring waterways (Makinwa, 2015). Animals acquire BPA through direct ingestion of plastic particles or through consuming plants or animals that have accumulated BPA. Previous research has shown that Bisphenol A acts as an endocrine disruptor on painted turtles, caiman, fish, and amphibians (Jandegian, 2015). It mimics the hormone estrogen, which at sufficient concentrations, may cause developing male embryos to produce female reproductive tissue. Snails have been observed to undergo “superfeminization” when exposed to about 1 μg/L (Flint, 2011). This superfeminization caused “additional female organs, enlarged sex organs, and oviduct deformities” (Flint, 2011). There is evidence that Bisphenol A causes feminization in most animals that have been studied, although the mechanism has yet to be found (Krüger, 2005). Turtles are often used as environmental indicators because they are omnivorous and tend to be long-lived. Their longevity makes them more likely than short-lived species to bioaccumulate toxins.If BPA concentrations are high in turtles, then it is likely that humans have absorbed a certain amount that may contribute to unknown biological consequences. Research has shown that there are links between this contaminant and the rates of cancer development, obesity, and the probability of a child developing neurological problem when exposed. According to the analysis of 315 urine samples “93% of people had detectable levels of BPA” (Kinch, 2015). The objective of my research was to quantify BPA concentrations in Yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta) and their habitat. Blood samples were collected from the subcarapacial or dorsal coccygeal vein of each turtle captured. Additionally, soil samples were taken at the edge of the water. Study Areas Blood samples were collected from 9 turtles trapped at Reed Creek Park. Additional samples were collected from 22 turtles from Brick Pond Park. Reed Creek Park is in Martinez, Georgia (33.53375598, -82.08555523) (Google maps, 2016). Brick Pond Park is in North Augusta, South Carolina (33.4874273, -81.9786814) (Google maps, 2016). Ten soil samples were collected at each location. The soil samples were analyzed for BPA quantities and compared with the amounts of BPA that were recorded from the blood samples taken from the captured turtles. [Introduction]
    • Blurred Lines within the Music Industry: A Different Perspective ofCopyright Law and Sampling in the Digital Age

      Wingate, Montrel; Department of History, Anthropology, & Philosophy (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      This thesis focuses on the relationship of music and law. Throughout, the debated question is: should the laws of copyright be redefined? The case Williams v. Bridgeport Music, Inc., which focuses on the songs "Blurred Lines" by Robin Thicke and "Got to Give It Up" by Marvin Gaye is the trial central to this thesis. Following a brief history of sampling, Williams v. Bridgeport Music, Inc. is reexamined, challenging the substantiality of the evidence presented. The court proved that the songs have similarities on the surface, yet there is a notable structural difference among the songs. A proposed solution is given, advocating a revision of copyright laws and a substantive similarity test with emphasis on the expert listener rather than the lay listener.
    • Boobi: An Eight-Part Teleplay

      Garcia, Jasmine; Department of Communications (Augusta University, 2017-12)
    • Cash Flow Pattern Analysis of Fraud and Non-Fraud Firms: A Comparison and Contrast

      Runger, Shannon; Knox School of Accountancy (Augusta University, 2016-05)
      Companies may exhibit one of eight possible cash flow patterns on their Statement of Cash Flows. By pair-matching 30 firms that were known to have issued fraudulent financial statements with 30 non-fraud firms of similar size and industry, a comparison and contrast of the cash flow patterns can be made and the results analyzed. In my research, I examine and analyze the cash flow patterns of fraud and non-fraud firms as reported on the Statement of Cash Flows to determine whether or not the patterns provide some indication of fraudulent activity. I hypothesize that the fraud firms would be more likely to show a cash flow pattern during the year prior to fraud that indicated the firm was struggling and that alternatively, the pattern during the fraud year would be one that indicates a firm is stable and profitable. My findings not only do not support this hypothesis, they also indicate that this method of cash flow pattern analysis does not provide a reliable indication or prediction of fraudulent activity.
    • CBD Analysis in Oils and Foods

      Foley, Joanna; Department of Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Cannabidiol (CBD) has become a very prominent topic in the medical community and popular marketplace because of its widespread consumer use. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other similar molecules can be present in commercial CBD products, so testing is necessary to determine the presence of the CBD. Existing methods of analysis for CBD oils are only known on GC-FID (gas chromatography – flame ionization detector) and these methods are not optimal for the wide variety of commercial CBD products available. Thus, a GC-MS (mass spectroscopy) method, based on a published GC-FID method, was created to optimize the detection of CBD because not only separation but also identification can be obtained. This method can be applied to a wide variety of foods, gummies, and other items that may contain CBD and similar molecules. The method has been optimized by varying GC column temperature, and sample preparation, to find a balance between analysis time, analyte detection, and resolution for the various types of cannabinoid molecules present in commercial CBD oil samples. The optimized method was able to determine that a 1:3 ratio of oil to solvent gave optimal signal of all CBD oils tested. The optimized method was then tested on a variety of commercial and self-prepared CBD edibles to determine that CBD was still present and was not degraded into THC.
    • Characterization of 5HT1B and 5HT7 using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

      Adams, Elizabeth; Department of Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      GPCRs play a major role in cell signaling through their interactions with heterotrimeric G proteins. In conventional models of GPCR-G protein coupling, agonist binding promotes a conformational change within the receptor, which then associates with G proteins, facilitating the exchange of GDP for GTP. GTP-bound G proteins dissociate from the receptor and exert their effects on downstream signaling molecules. Previous studies suggest that serotonin 5HT7 receptors associate with Gs heterotrimers prior to agonist binding, and that 5HT7-Gs complexes dissociate after the G protein is activated. Here we study this unconventional mode of coupling using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between luciferase-tagged 5HT7 receptors and Gs heterotrimers labeled with Venus. Our results confirm that 5HT7 receptors interact with inactive (GDP-bound) Gs heterotrimers in the absence of an agonist, and that this interaction is stabilized by the inverse agonist methiothepin. Stimulation with the endogenous agonist serotonin (5HT) decreased BRET between 5HT7 receptors and Gs, indicating that the activation of the receptor leads to 5HT7-Gscomplex dissociation. Interestingly, Gs activation was not required for complex dissociation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that 5HT7 receptors couple to Gs heterotrimers via an unconventional mechanism involving ligand-sensitive complexes of receptors and inactive Gs.
    • Characterization of a Cyclic Peptide (ADO5) as a Novel Inhibitor of the Hsp90 Chaperoning Machine

      Fang, Wayne; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Protection of oncogenic proteins is the foundation of many hallmarks of cancer. Based on this, hsp90 inhibitors have emerged as a potentially potent strategy for cancer treatment. The clinical efficacy of the earlier Hsp90 inhibitors remains unsatisfactory, in part due to their induction of heat shock response and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cancer cells. To identify alternative therapeutic agents without these effects, we have developed a cell-free high-throughput screen (HTS) platform based on the folding of progesterone receptor (PR) by the core components of the Hsp90 chaperoning machine. During our initial screening of 175 natural products from North African medicinal plants, we discovered the cyclic peptide AD05 as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor. AD05 has shown a powerful antitumor activity against various cancer cell lines including HeLa, Hs578T, MDA-MB231, MDA-MB453, E0771, THP1, and U937. Western blot analysis revealed that AD05 destabilizes Hsp90 client proteins without inducing heat shock response as indicated by lack of upregulation of Hsp70, Hsp40 and Hsp27. Remarkably, AD05 does not induce apoptosis but rather triggers autophagy in various cell lines.
    • Characterization of Potential Proton Sensitive G Protein-Coupled Receptors

      Nam, Alisha J.; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane-bound receptors that can stimulate an intracellular signaling pathway following activation by a ligand. According to the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) database, GPR4, GPR65, and GPR132 are Class A orphan GPCRs with protons reported as their putative endogenous ligand. Because these receptors are currently understudied, the purpose of our study was to investigate the interactions between GPR4, GPR65 and GPR132 and G protein subtypes (Gαs, Gαi, Gαq, and Gα12) as a function of pH. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), we studied the coupling between luciferase-tagged GPR receptors and fluorescent protein (Venus)-tagged heterotrimeric G proteins in response to changes in proton concentration. We found that all three receptors responded to pH changes. Upon extracellular response to pH changes, the receptors activate different G protein subtypes and thus, different signaling pathways: GPR4 activates all four G protein subtypes but has the strongest activation with Gαs; GPR65 activates all four subtypes; and GPR132 activates Gαi and weakly activates Gαq and Gα12. Identifying these receptors as true proton sensors leads the way in understanding the role they play in maintaining acid-base homeostasis and will be critical for the development of novel drugs combatting acidbase related disorders, such as ulcers and reflux esophagitis.
    • The Chinese Dream: The Confluence of Realism and Confucianism

      Laufer, Brittney; Department of English and Foreign Languages (Augusta University, 2014-12)
      In 2012, Xi Jinping became General Secretary, President, and the Chairman of The Central Military Commission in China. Since his start as the head of China, Mr. Xi’s speeches have referenced a nebulous concept called the “Chinese Dream.” While the “Chinese Dream” is in the early stages of its development and realization, it still offers a glimpse of what China’s international relations will strive to become. Xi Jinping has said, “The Chinese spirit brings us together and builds our country together. To create the Chinese Dream we must unite all Chinese power. As long as we stay united, we will share the opportunity to make our dreams come true” (Moore 2013, para. 8-9). These words call to mind Confucian ideals of self-improvement, community, and cooperation; furthermore, the call for “Chinese power” brings to mind the theory of realism in international relations, which emphasizes power and strength on the international level.This thesis will argue that Xi’s “Chinese Dream” is a theme that aims to increase China’s economic and military power as a regional hegemon, to establish China’s prestige as a global power surpassing the United States, and to reaffirm the legitimacy of the state and Communist Party through Confucian-based nationalism. China’s dream will ultimately upset the current status quo, and other states need to recognize this.