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dc.contributor.authorCojoc, Dan
dc.contributor.authorDifato, Francesco
dc.contributor.authorFerrari, Enrico
dc.contributor.authorShahapure, Rajesh B.
dc.contributor.authorLaishram, Jummi
dc.contributor.authorRighi, Massimo
dc.contributor.authorDi Fabrizio, Enzo M.
dc.contributor.authorTorre, Vincent
dc.contributor.editorMei, Lin
dc.date.accessioned2012-10-26T16:26:34Z
dc.date.available2012-10-26T16:26:34Z
dc.date.issued2007-10-24en_US
dc.identifier.citationPLoS ONE. 2007 Oct 24; 2(10):e1072en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.pmid17957254en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0001072en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10675.2/538
dc.description.abstractDuring neuronal differentiation, lamellipodia and filopodia explore the environment in search for the correct path to the axon's final destination. Although the motion of lamellipodia and filopodia has been characterized to an extent, little is known about the force they exert. In this study, we used optical tweezers to measure the force exerted by filopodia and lamellipodia with a millisecond temporal resolution. We found that a single filopodium exerts a force not exceeding 3 pN, whereas lamellipodia can exert a force up to 20 pN. Using metabolic inhibitors, we showed that no force is produced in the absence of actin polymerization and that development of forces larger than 3 pN requires microtubule polymerization. These results show that actin polymerization is necessary for force production and demonstrate that not only do neurons process information, but they also act on their environment exerting forces varying from tenths pN to tens of pN.
dc.rightsCojoc et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_US
dc.subjectResearch Articleen_US
dc.subjectBiophysicsen_US
dc.subjectNeuroscienceen_US
dc.subjectBiophysics/Experimental Biophysical Methodsen_US
dc.subjectCell Biology/Cytoskeletonen_US
dc.subjectDevelopmental Biology/Neurodevelopmenten_US
dc.subjectNeuroscience/Neurodevelopmenten_US
dc.titleProperties of the Force Exerted by Filopodia and Lamellipodia and the Involvement of Cytoskeletal Componentsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC2034605en_US
dc.contributor.corporatenameDepartment of Neurology
dc.contributor.corporatenameCollege of Graduate Studies
refterms.dateFOA2019-04-09T21:01:17Z
html.description.abstractDuring neuronal differentiation, lamellipodia and filopodia explore the environment in search for the correct path to the axon's final destination. Although the motion of lamellipodia and filopodia has been characterized to an extent, little is known about the force they exert. In this study, we used optical tweezers to measure the force exerted by filopodia and lamellipodia with a millisecond temporal resolution. We found that a single filopodium exerts a force not exceeding 3 pN, whereas lamellipodia can exert a force up to 20 pN. Using metabolic inhibitors, we showed that no force is produced in the absence of actin polymerization and that development of forces larger than 3 pN requires microtubule polymerization. These results show that actin polymerization is necessary for force production and demonstrate that not only do neurons process information, but they also act on their environment exerting forces varying from tenths pN to tens of pN.


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