• The Cytotoxic Effects Of Novel Persin Analogues on a Breast Cancer Cell Line

      Jones, Keri Leigh; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2015-12)
      Roberts et al. (2007) and Butt et al. (2006) previously found that persin, a compound isolated from avocado leaves, can induce apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in mammary epithelial cells of lactating mice in vivo and in certain human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. It has also been found that at higher doses, persin is cardiotoxic in mice and causes necrosis in mammary glands of lactating mammals (Oelrichs, 1995). Therefore, compounds with reduced mammary gland necrosis and cardiotoxicity but with the apoptotic effects of persin on breast cancer cells could be potential chemotherapeutic agents. Six novel analogues of persin have been synthesized to test their effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells. Cells cultured from each cell line were treated with each analogue at varying concentrations to determine potential cytotoxic doses. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was determined by a commercially available Cell Proliferation Assay. Compounds that were significantly cytotoxic were tested for apoptotic activity using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three compounds were found to be cytotoxic to both cell lines, whereas the others had little to no impact on cell viability.
    • The Exploration of Apoptotic Pathways in MCF-7 Cells in Response to PFOA

      Cannon, Jennifer D.; Smith, April; Peloquin, Rachel; Gillen, Laura; Urizar, David O.; Department of Biological Sciences (2017-03)
      Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widely-used fluoropolymer that has been identified as potentially harmful in high concentrations. Previous experiments conducted in MCF-7 breast cancer cells have shown that 50μM and 100μM PFOA decreases estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) mRNA and protein, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) mRNA, and causes a 25% decrease in cell viability within 48h of treatment. It is hypothesized that the decreased levels of ER and PPAR leads to apoptosis in these cells. Experiments are currently underway using the Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay (Promega) to determine if this is the mechanism by which PFOA decreases viability in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, a Qiagen® RT2 Profiler 96-Well PCR Apoptosis Array is being performed to determine the effect that PFOA has on 84 apoptotic genes and begin to provide some insight into the mechanisms of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. It is anticipated that anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2, known to be regulated by ER , will be decreased in PFOA-treated MCF-7 cells.
    • Perfluorooctanoic acid reduces viability and gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 cells

      Smith, April; College of Science and Mathematics (2015-10-09)
      Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an endocrine disrupting compound found in food, water, clothes, and other consumer products. It is known to accumulate in the environment and can be taken up through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. It has a half-life of nearly four years in humans. PFOA has been shown to bind and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are transcription factors found in mammalian cells. PPARs regulate numerous cellular activities, including proliferation and differentiation. Several studies have suggested crosstalk between PPARs and estrogen receptors (ERs). This study aimed to examine the effects of PFOA on cell viability and on PPAR and ER gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The results showed a decline in cell viability after 48h of PFOA treatment. In addition, 24h of treatment with PFOA led to a significant decrease in PPARα and ERα, but not PPARβ, PPARγ, or ERβ. Begin Time: 28:30 End Time: 50:40
    • Phytochemical Investigation and Anticancer Evaluation of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) Berries

      Capito, Jason E.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.; Panda, Siva S.; Department of Chemistry & Physics (2017-03)
      Cancer of the prostate (CaP) is the most common non-skin cancer in American men. As the disease recurs over several years in a significant fraction of patients, it is a good target for chemoprevention. If began early, preventive agents may enhance the survival and quality of the patients’ life profoundly such that the disease, even if not completely eliminated, may pose little threat to life. Recurrent CaP following radiation therapy, surgery or both is incurable at present. All studies reported to date state that conventional chemotherapy is used with limited effect, prolonging life between 2 and 4 months. Many aromatic tropical plants contain a rich assortment of secondary metabolites that are evolved to protect and preserve the nutrients from bacterial, fungal and insect infestations. These include alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols, terpenes and terpenoids. Several compounds with pharmacological activities have been isolated from fresh leaves of Pimenta dioica (Family: Myrtaceae; alternate name: Jamaican pepper) and the dried, unripe berries, known as allspice, are marketed as an edible spice. Allspice, which tastes like a blend of cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon and pepper, is a common flavoring compound in Asian, Middle Eastern and Jamaican cuisines. In this study, the bioassay, isolation and phytochemical investigation of active component from the aromatic berries of Pimenta dioica (allspice) were carried out. Potential antitumor activities of allspice extract and a compound purified from the extract were tested against prostate and breast cancer cell lines.