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Phytochemical Investigation and Anticancer Evaluation of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) BerriesCancer of the prostate (CaP) is the most common non-skin cancer in American men. As the disease recurs over several years in a significant fraction of patients, it is a good target for chemoprevention. If began early, preventive agents may enhance the survival and quality of the patients’ life profoundly such that the disease, even if not completely eliminated, may pose little threat to life. Recurrent CaP following radiation therapy, surgery or both is incurable at present. All studies reported to date state that conventional chemotherapy is used with limited effect, prolonging life between 2 and 4 months. Many aromatic tropical plants contain a rich assortment of secondary metabolites that are evolved to protect and preserve the nutrients from bacterial, fungal and insect infestations. These include alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols, terpenes and terpenoids. Several compounds with pharmacological activities have been isolated from fresh leaves of Pimenta dioica (Family: Myrtaceae; alternate name: Jamaican pepper) and the dried, unripe berries, known as allspice, are marketed as an edible spice. Allspice, which tastes like a blend of cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon and pepper, is a common flavoring compound in Asian, Middle Eastern and Jamaican cuisines. In this study, the bioassay, isolation and phytochemical investigation of active component from the aromatic berries of Pimenta dioica (allspice) were carried out. Potential antitumor activities of allspice extract and a compound purified from the extract were tested against prostate and breast cancer cell lines.