Recent Submissions

  • SF12v2 Health Scores for African Americans in a Cluster-randomized Community Trial

    Joshua, Thomas V.; Gavin, Jane T.; Marion, Lucy; Williams, Lovoria B.; College of Nursing
  • Fit Body and Soul: A Randomized Controlled Diabetes Prevention Program in Southeastern African-American Churches

    Williams, Lovoria B.; Garvin, Jane; Marion, Lucy; Dias, James; Joshua, Thomas V.; Sattin, Richard W. (2014-02)
    Aim: The aim of Fit Body and Soul was to test the efficacy and cost utility of a culturally-adapted Group Lifestyle Balance Program, a derivative of the Diabetes Prevention Program, implemented by church health advisors in 20 southeastern US African-American churches, compared to a health education program developed from the topics of the CDC Guidelines for Healthy Americans.
  • Weight Before and After the MOVE! Program

    Garvin, Jane (2014-02)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of weight before and after enrollment in the MOVE!® program at the Charlie Norwood VAMC (CNVAMC) in Augusta, Georgia.
  • Effects on Weight of a Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial of a Faith-based Adaption of the Diabetes Prevention Program within African-American Churches

    Sattin, Richard W.; Williams, Lovoria B.; Dias, James; Joshua, Thomas V.; Marion, Lucy (2014-06)
    Our objective was to determine the effects on weight of a faith-based adaptation of the DPP called Fit Body and Soul (FBAS) compared with health education (HE) conducted in 20 AA churches.
  • Reducing Waist Circumference among African Americans in the Fit Body and Soul Study

    Garvin, Jane; Sattin, Richard W.; Looney, Stephen W. (2014-11)
    This study aimed to determine if waist circumference decreased following the FBAS intervention when compared with the health education comparison group.
  • Anthropometric Predictors of Type 2 Diabetes Among White and Black Adults

    Hardy, Dale S.; Stallings, Davita T.; Garvin, Jane; Gachupin, Francine C.; Xu, Hongyan; Racette, Susan B. (2015-06)
    Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric measures for discrimination of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among White and Black males and females: a body shape index (ABSI); body adiposity index (BAI); body mass index (BMI); waist circumference (WC); waist to height ratio (WHtR); waist to hip ratio (WHR); To identify Youden index cut-points for each anthropometric measure.
  • Very Early Responders, Program Participation, and Weight-Reduction Success with MOVE!®,

    Garvin, Jane; Cota, Karen (2015-11)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of very-early weight- reduction success with the MOVE!® behavioral weight-reduction program, available at the Charlie Norwood Veterans Administration Medical Center, on a) participation in 14 or more sessions within 6 months and b) weight-reduction goal achievement at 6 months.
  • Re-examining Metoclopramide’s Role in Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and/or Vomiting

    Masiongale, Amy; Garvin, Jane; Murphy, Marguerite; Looney, Stephen W. (2015-11)
    Postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) continue to be two of the most undesirable and distressing complications following general anesthesia, affecting 20-30% of all surgical patients and up to 70% of patients with multiple known risk factors. Clinical guidelines recommend identifying PONV prophylactic interventions based on risk score. While the guidelines recommend several antiemetics, metoclopramide was not recommended. However, evidence used to support the guidelines is no longer considered valid. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to re-examine the use of metoclopramide and describe the incidence of subsequent PONV stratified by risk scores among adult ambulatory surgical patients.
  • High-intensity Treatment & Weight Reduction Goal Achievement with MOVE!®

    Garvin, Jane (2015-02)
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine weight reduction and high-intensity treatment at 6 months after enrolling in the local MOVE!® program.
  • Weight Reduction Among Veterans in the MOVE! Program

    Garvin, Jane; Marion, Lucy (2013-02)
    Purpose/Aim: Determine which background and program exposure variables were associated with a 5% weight reduction
  • The Relationship of A Body Shape Index and Body Mass Index with Health-related Quality of Life among African Americans: A Study from Fit Body and Soul

    Garvin, Jane; Williams, Lovoria B.; Joshua, Thomas V. (2013-11)
    Aims: This study aimed to determine if these two measures of obesity (ABSI and BMI) were associated with health-related quality of life in this sample of overweight and obese African-American congregants seeking weight reduction.; Specifically, this study aimed to determine if health-related quality of life explained the variation in ABSI or BMI.
  • Weight Reduction Among Veterans in the MOVE! Program

    Garvin, Jane; Marion, Lucy; Biobehavioral Nursing (2013-03)
    Purpose: Determine which background and program exposure variables were associated with a 5% weight reduction
  • Reaching At-Risk African-American Women for Diabetes Prevention: Fit Body and Soul

    Garvin, Jane; Williams, Lovoria B.; Joshua, Thomas V.; Sattin, Richard W. (2013-05)
    Aims: Describe baseline predictors of diabetes in African American women enrolled in the faith-based diabetes prevention program: Fit Body and Soul (FBAS); Describe retention of the women over the one-year study
  • An Inter-Professional Partnership Model for Care Delivery to Assess Obesity and Related Comorbidities among Hispanic Female Farm Workers & Others

    Cromer, Pamela; Garvin, Jane (2013-05)
    Purpose: To develop and implement an interdisciplinary business partnership to assess the health needs/risks of obesity and other co-morbidity among Hispanic female farm-workers and other commercial horticulture laborers.
  • Partnering With a Formal Program: Expanding the Boundaries of Family Caregiving for Frail Older Adults

    Poole, Deborah K.; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (1999-12)
    Caring for frail older adults at home is an increasingly common lifestyle among American families. A growing array of community-based programs has been developed to assist family caregivers in this endeavor. Certain of these programs are comprehensive in nature and require a particularly close working relationship between the program’s health professionals and the lay caregiver at home. A paucity of literature exists that can act as a guide to formal and informal caregivers within such a context as they strive to develop an effective working relationship. This study used grounded theory methodology to develop a substantive theory of the process by which family caregivers of frail older adults establish and maintain a working relationship with a comprehensive formal caregiving system. The context of the study was a program belonging to the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) network. An initial sample of six primary caregivers of PACE participants was selected. The primary means of data collection was in-depth individual interviews with documents review also being used as a data source. An additional 13 primary caregivers were chosen via theoretical sampling for a total sample size of 19 informants. The method of constant analysis was employed to direct data acquisition and analysis until saturation was complete and the core variable was identified. The basic social-psychological problem identified by informants was termed Helplessness, defines by them as “needing additional help with caregiving.” Partnering with the Program was the basic social-psychological process informants used to relieve their helplessness in caregiving. Partnering with the Program was comprised of three phases: Connecting, Discovering Self, and Transcending Self. The first phase of Connecting represented “the honeymoon phase” of the relationship with the program and was made up of three stages: finding out, “joining up”, and adjusting. Discovering Self, the second phase, had three stages: communicating concerns, evaluating the program’s response, and expecting more. Informants in this phase related with the program in a conflicted manner, wanting to assert their autonomy but realizing their dependence on the program. The final phase, Transcending Self, was also made up of three stages. These stages were monitoring, advocating, and choosing to work it out. The hallmark of the final phase was that informants chose to have a positive, family-like personal relationship with the program staff rather than perpetuate conflict over unmet desires about service provision. This substantive theory provided information heretofore unavailable regarding the trajectory of close healthcare relationships from the perspective of the family caregiver. Implications of the theory related to health and social policy, clinical practice with older adults, and nursing knowledge are made explicit in the final chapter of the report.
  • A Grounded Theory Study o f Pain Management Behaviors in Nurses Caring for Preverbal Children

    Noviello, Sheri R.; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (2006-05)
    A qualitative study using the grounded theory method was used to explore factors that affect nurses’ pain management decision-making when caring for children between the ages o f 0 and 3 years. This study was approved by the Human Assurance Committee at Medical College o f Georgia prior to the collection of data. The sample consisted of eleven nurses who were employed at three different hospitals in the southeastern part of the United States. Theoretical sampling was the basis for the selection o f participants after the first two interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and were subjected to open and axial coding. The constant comparative method was used during data analysis to identify a core category and related concepts. The basic social process that emerged is engaging in tactics o f pain management. This process contained two other processes: assessing fo r pain and managing a pain episode. Intrinsic factors that affected assessing fo r pain included knowing the territory, personal attributes o f the registered nurse (RN), being a parent, and being connected. Extrinsic factors that affected engaging in tactics o f pain management included workload and culture o f the hospital. The process of managing a pain episode included five phases: eliminating other sources o f discomfort, judging pain, comforting, medicating, and letting go.
  • An Interdisciplinary Team Approach to Decision-making About the Use of Psychotropic Medication for Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Natvig, Deborah A.; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (1993-05)
    The purpose of this study was to examine a decision-making model for developing psychotropic medication plans for individuals w ith mental retardation. The study examined relationships among medication knowledge, acceptance of the interdisciplinary team (IDT) process, leadership, consensus, and the quality of the psychotropic medication plan. The study w as conceptualized using Henderson's Model for Nursing. Henderson (19 6 6 ) identified the nurse as an active participant on the IDT who helps plan and implement care designed to m eet the needs of the individual. T w o hundred eight (N = 208) team members from 4 9 interdisciplinary psychotropic medication review teams participated in th e study. Team s from all four large regional Intermediate Care Facilities for the M entally Retarded (ICFs/MR) in one southeastern state participated. Multiple regression and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to test the hypotheses. The first hypothesis, that consensus would be predicted by medication knowledge, acceptance of the IDT process, and leadership w as partially supported. Leadership w as a significant predictor of consensus. The second hypothesis, that the quality of the psychotropic medication plan would be predicted by medication knowledge, acceptance of the IDT process, and leadership was not supported. The third hypothesis, which added consensus to the model, did not explain any additional variance in the quality of the psychotropic medication plan. As part of this study, The Psychotropic Review for Interdisciplinary Decisions and Evaluation (PRIDE) scale w as developed to assess the quality of psychotropic medication plans. Several threats to statistical conclusion validity were identified, which may have Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. affected the results of the study. These included: small sample size, lack of independence of teams, low variability of responses to instruments, and multicollinearity. Psychotropic medication plans from some ICFs/MR were superior to those produced by others. Characteristics of the ICFs/MR, such as, the amount of guidance given to teams through written guidelines and policy, and the degree of administrative support reflected through availability of staff to participate in the review process, may have been the most significant factors influencing the quality of psychotropic medication plan produced.
  • Evidence for the Escalation of Domestic Violence in 911 Call Records

    McClellan, Ann C.; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (2002-03)
    This study was a population-based, retrospective, cohort study that examined the trajectory of domestic violence within individual households as reported via emergency 911 calls. A contextual, multi-level, geographically-referenced model was used to explain the relationships among neighborhood level factors, social disorganization indicators; household factors, number of previous episodes and total number of calls; and the escalation of domestic violence, the interval between calls and the level of severity of episodes, within individual households. The neighborhood data were derived from 1990 U.S. census data. Data on the number of domestic violence calls from individual households, the interval between each call, and the level of severity of the episode were derived from the 1997 emergency 911 database of a large southeastern city in the U.S. The pattern of recurrent calls from individual households was examined. Each emergency 911 call in the sample was coded for a set of variables. Associations among neighborhood variables that included economic status, family structure, racial composition, residential mobility, and structural density and the two outcome measures were examined. To estimate the effects of the neighborhood variables, the emergency 911 calls were linked to their respective census tracts using street addresses. Data were analyzed using a hierarchical approach. Evidence was found for the escalation of domestic violence. The number of days between consecutive episodes of violence decreased as the number of episodes of violence within a household increased. The severity of episodes of violence also increased with each subsequent episode of reported violence from the household. The proportion of female-headed householders with children in a neighborhood, a measure of family structure, was related to both the initial call interval and severity of the initial episodes of violence in households. There was significant unexplained variation among households within neighborhoods for both outcome measures. Further, neighborhood social disorganization was related to the rate of domestic violence in neighborhoods. Emergency 911 call data could provide a promising source of data for a domestic violence surveillance system, especially when linked to other data sources such as official police records.
  • Health Disparities in Acute Outcomes of Life-threatening Injury

    NeSmith, Elizabeth Grooms; Department of Nursing (2007-12)
    Health disparities have been documented in nearly all-leading causes of death. It is unknown if health disparities also exist in acute outcomes of life-threatening injury. The overall research question for this dissertation was, “Do health disparities exist in acute outcomes of life-threatening injury?”. Three studies were conducted: a state of science, a validity study, and a descriptive study. The state of the science showed that only 4 of 352 studies reported disparities, while 3 of 352 studies reported no disparities. The validity study was a retrospective chart review and showed that the instrument used to measure systemic inflammatory response syndrome was valid in predicting intensive care unit length of stay (F = 15.83) p < .0001. Caucasian race also predicted intensive care unit length of stay (F = 9.7) p = .002. When combined with race, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome instrument explained more variance (R2 = .15) in intensive care unit length of stay than either variable alone (F = 7.7) p = .006. The descriptive study utilized the same data set from the validity study, and showed fewer occurrences of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in African Americans than in Caucasians (T = 9949.5) p = .04; in adults 30-44 years old than in adults 18-29 (T = 13,654) p = .04; and in ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users (X2 = 7.85) p = .005. There was less severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in females than in males (T = 7,491.5) p = .03; and in marijuana users than in all other substance users (T = 3,117) p = .02. More severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was found among ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users (T = 2,667) p = .0008. Results support that health disparities exist among different patient groups according to race, age, sex, and substance use for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. More research is needed to determine if these disparities translate to increased risk for poor outcomes. Implications for practice include increased vigilance of different patient groups based on occurrence and severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

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