• THE ROLE OF KYNURENINE, A TRYPTOPHAN METABOLITE THAT INCREASES WITH AGE, IN MUSCLE ATROPHY AND LIPID PEROXIDATION)

      Kaiser, Helen E.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Loss of mobility and independence are risk factors for falls and mortality, and drastically reduce the quality of life among older adults. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying loss of muscle mass and strength with age (sarcopenia) are not well-understood; however, heterochronic parabiosis experiments show that circulating factors are likely to play a role. Kynurenine (KYN) is a circulating tryptophan metabolite that is known to increase with age and is implicated in several age-related pathologies. Here I tested the hypothesis that KYN contributes directly to muscle loss with aging. Results indicate that that KYN treatment of mouse and human myoblasts increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) two-fold, and significantly increased lipid peroxidation enzymes. Small-molecule inhibition of the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), an endogenous KYN receptor, in vitro did not prevent KYN-induced increases in ROS, and homozygous Ahr knockout in vivo did not protect mice from KYN-induced stress, suggesting that KYN can directly increase ROS independent of Ahr activation. In vivo, wild-type mice treated with KYN had reduced skeletal muscle strength, size, and increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Old wild-type mice treated with 1MT, a small molecule that suppresses KYN production by IDO1, showed an increase in muscle fiber size, peak muscle strength, and oxidative stress. Protein analysis identified mitochondrial lipid peroxidation as a downstream mechanism that is increased upon KYN treatment. Lipid peroxidation enzymes increased with KYN have been shown to produce H2O2 outside of the electron transport chain. Our data suggest that IDO inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the attenuation of sarcopenia and possibly other age-associated conditions associated with KYN accumulation such as bone loss and neurodegeneration.