Elattar, Sawsan; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology / Cancer Center (8/7/2018)
      SAWSAN ELATTAR The Tumor Secretory Factor ZAG Promotes White Adipose Tissue Browning and Energy Wasting in Cachexia (Under the direction of SATYANARAYANA ANDE) Cachexia is a complex tissue-wasting syndrome characterized by inflammation, hyper-metabolism, increased energy expenditure and anorexia. Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the significant factors that contribute to energy wasting in cachexia. Tumors secrete an array of secretory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon γ (IFNγ) and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), that have been implicated in altering metabolism and promoting cachexia. Previous studies have demonstrated that ZAG can induce lipolysis; however, whether ZAG plays a role beyond lipolysis remains unclear. Here, by utilizing a cell implantation model, we demonstrate that the lipid-mobilizing factor, ZAG, induces WAT browning in mice. Increased circulating levels of ZAG not only induced lipolysis in the adipose tissues, but also caused robust browning in the WAT. Stimulating white adipose progenitors with ZAG recombinant protein or expression of ZAG in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) strongly enhanced brown-like differentiation. At the molecular level, ZAG stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARƔ) and early B cell factor 2 (Ebf2) expression and promoted their recruitment to the PR/SET domain 16 (Prdm16) promoter, leading to enhanced expression of Prdm16, which determines brown cell fate. In the brown adipose tissue (BAT), ZAG stimulated the expression of PPARƔand peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) and promoted recruitment of PPARƔ to the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) promoter, leading to increased expression of UCP1. Collectively, by promoting WAT browning and by activating thermogenesis in the BAT, ZAG increased body energy expenditure. Overall, our results revealed a novel function of ZAG in WAT browning and highlight that targeting ZAG may have therapeutic applications in humans with cachexia. KEYWORDS: (Cachexia, beige adipocyte, brown fat, adipose atrophy, Zinc-α2-glycoprotein, Ebf2, Prdm16, PPARƔ, UCP1)