• The Differential Roles of PI3K P110 Isoforms in Regulating CD4 T Cell Subset Polarization

      Webb, Mason James; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (5/12/2017)
      Class IA phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinases, or PI3K’s, are one of the earliest bottlenecks for T cell receptor signaling transduction, without which phosphorylated phosphatidylinositides cannot be generated and the T cell activation cascade becomes impaired. Of the catalytic class IA PI3K subunits, there are three isoforms designated as p110α, p110β, and p110δ. The Khleif laboratory has discovered that these catalytic subunits display unique roles in T regulatory cells and non-polarized activated CD4+ T cells. This thesis aims to determine what differential control these p110 isoforms have upon distinct polarized CD4+ T cell subsets.
    • Primary Tumor-Induced Immunity Is Suppressed By Surgery-Induced Inflammation In The Presence Of Residual Tumor Cells

      Piranlioglu, Raziye; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      It is widely thought that tumor cells disseminate from a primary site into the circulation during the early stages of tumor development. However, the fate of these early disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) has been elusive. By utilizing the murine mammary tumors, 4T1 and EMT6, in a syngeneic mouse model, we show that both tumors disseminate into secondary organs but only 4T1 tumors are able to generate metastasis. In contrast, EMT6 primary tumors induce an anti-tumor response that leads to elimination of DTCs. This anti-tumor immunity is CD8+ T cell-dependent and provides long-term immunity. Furthermore, the mice are free of DTCs within a couple of days when primary tumors are completely resected and they reject subsequently injected tumors, whereas mice with residual tumors following surgery show enhanced local recurrence and outgrowth of DTCs at metastatic sites; this effect may be explained by elevated levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This increase is accompanied by an accumulation of immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the spleen and lungs, the main target organ for metastasis. Moreover, the infiltration of a granulocytic subset of MDSCs (gMDSCs) leads to a decrease in a subset of T cells that have a role in long-term immunity. Our goal for this study is to elucidate how immune components of distant organs affect the fate of DTCs and the role of surgery induced-inflammation in generating a pre-metastatic niche. Our studies may also provide a molecular explanation of improved overall survival in breast cancer patients following complete resection of primary tumors with negative margins.