• Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

      Gutin, Bernard; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Le, Anh H.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Dong, Yanbin; Georgia Institute for Prevention of Human Diseases and Accidents (2011-06-16)
      Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA). One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4â 7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%), dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3â 6 METs) and vigorous PA (>6 METs). BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01) and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction) as age increased (P<0.01). After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05). In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01). When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.
    • The Relationship Among Predisposing and Enabling Factors or Barriers in Nurses Provision of Tobacco Control Interventions

      Daniel, Sandra D.; Georgia Prevention Institute (2003-05)
      The control o f tobacco use. the single most preventable cause o f disease in the U.S., is a national health priority. An estimated 70% o f smokers desire to quit; however, only 7% who quit remain abstinent one year later. It is recommended that all clinicians assess and document smoking status as the fifth vital sign. There is a demand for nurses, comprising the largest discipline of health care providers, to systematically incorporate tobacco control clinical practice guidelines in their practice as a means to lower tobacco related disease morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity o f knowledge on (a) the extent to which RNs deliver tobacco control interventions, (b) their educational preparation in tobacco control, and (3) factors that are associated with nurses tobacco control interventions. The purpose o f this study was to determine the relationship among predisposing factors and enabling factors or barriers in recently licensed registered nurses’ delivery of tobacco control interventions. The Educational and Ecological Assessment phase o f Green and Kreuter's PRECEDE-PROCEED Model served as the theoretical framework underpinning this study. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was utilized. RNs who received initial licensure in Georgia during 1999.2000. and 2001 were sampled utilizing a probability sampling method, stratified random sampling, to obtain a sample size o f approximately 10% o f the population within each year of licensure. The final sample consisted o f 468 participants. Findings indicated nurses’ performance in tobacco control interventions (ask. advise, assess, assist, arrange) was low, with the average score being only 37%. Thirty-percent o f RNs provided no tobacco control interventions. The majority had received no clinical experiences in smoking cessation techniques (78%) or tobacco prevention (70%). Univariable analyses found attitudes, beliefs in the importance o f tobacco control, tobacco education, extent o f education in tobacco cessation techniques, use o f clinical practice guideline, perceived importance of tobacco policy, prevention interventions, and peer barriers were significantly associated (p<.05) with nurses delivery o f tobacco control interventions. Multiple regression analyses utilizing a general linear model found attitudes, belief in importance o f tobacco control, tobacco education, prevention interventions, peer barriers, and institution barriers (negative correlation) accounted for significant variances (p<.05) in the tobacco control intervention scores.
    • Screening using alanine aminotransferase may overestimate prevalence of fatty liver in overweight black children

      Davis, Catherine L.; Pollock, Norman; Elam, Rachel; Zhu, Haidong; Bassali, Reda; Patel, Priya; Elmore, Stephen; Vos, Miriam; Department of Pediatrics; Department of Radiology; et al. (2014)
    • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Ethnic Differences in Arterial Stiffness and Endothelial Function

      Alvarez, Jessica A.; Gower, Barbara A.; Calhoun, David A.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Dong, Yanbin; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Scholl, Jenni; Ashraf, Ambika P.; Georgia Institute for Prevention of Human Diseases and Accidents (2012-05-15)
      Background: Vitamin D reportedly influences vascular function, which is worse in African Americans (AAs) relative to European Americans (EAs). It is not clear if ethnic differences in 25(OH)D mediate differences in vascular function. This study examined the relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with indicators of vascular function among healthy, young AA and EA adults.