• GET THEM HERE: KEEP THEM HERE: A STUDY OF THE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION OF BLACK STUDENTS AT GREENWOOD UNIVERSITY

      Hodges, Jamel Antwon; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Greenwood University, a Predominantly White Institution (PWI), has had difficulty recruiting Black students and retaining them throughout their undergraduate careers to graduation. Research shows the significant link between students’ perceptions of belonging and satisfaction at a university and their retention at that university. Race on a college campus is complex and requires intentional efforts to understand within the framework of higher education. The aim of this study is to determine specific causes that explain why Black students are not being recruited and retained at the same rate as their non-Black peers at Greenwood University. In doing so, the authors employed a mixed methods approach in which they conducted interviews from Black second and third year students, as well as faculty and staff, to explain the responses gathered from a recent Campus Climate Survey. A focus group of students also highlighted factors that impact the recruitment and retention of Black students. Among the responses received, factors such as support, connection, and representation among Black faculty and staff were shown to have a strong impact on Black students’ feelings of belonging, thus in many cases, their retention at Greenwood University. Based on the findings, it is recommended that universities prioritize intentional incentives to provide specialized support services and “spaces” for its students and to grow the numbers of faculty and staff who represent all of their institution’s student body. Keywords: enrollment, recruitment, retention, Black students, faculty, staff, Predominantly White Institution (PWI), Historically Black College or University (HBCU), Higher Education, Administrators
    • GET THEM HERE: KEEP THEM HERE: A STUDY OF THE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION OF BLACK STUDENTS AT GREENWOOD UNIVERSITY

      Green, Garrett; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Greenwood University, a Predominantly White Institution (PWI), has had difficulty recruiting Black students and retaining them throughout their undergraduate careers to graduation. Research shows the significant link between students’ perceptions of belonging and satisfaction at a university and their retention at that university. Race on a college campus is complex and requires intentional efforts to understand within the framework of higher education. The aim of this study is to determine specific causes that explain why Black students are not being recruited and retained at the same rate as their non-Black peers at Greenwood University. In doing so, the authors employed a mixed methods approach in which they conducted interviews from Black second and third year students, as well as faculty and staff, to explain the responses gathered from a recent Campus Climate Survey. A focus group of students also highlighted factors that impact the recruitment and retention of Black students. Among the responses received, factors such as support, connection, and representation among Black faculty and staff were shown to have a strong impact on Black students’ feelings of belonging, thus in many cases, their retention at Greenwood University. Based on the findings, it is recommended that universities prioritize intentional incentives to provide specialized support services and “spaces” for its students and to grow the numbers of faculty and staff who represent all of their institution’s student body. Keywords: enrollment, recruitment, retention, Black students, faculty, staff, Predominantly White Institution (PWI), Historically Black College or University (HBCU), Higher Education, Administrators
    • "Get Them Here: Keep Them Here: A Study of the Recruitment and Retention of Black Students at Greenwood University"

      Fisher, Jocelyn Stamps (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Greenwood University, a Predominantly White Institution (PWI), has had difficulty recruiting Black students and retaining them throughout their undergraduate careers to graduation. Research shows the significant link between students’ perceptions of belonging and satisfaction at a university and their retention at that university. Race on a college campus is complex and requires intentional efforts to understand within the framework of higher education. The aim of this study is to determine specific causes that explain why Black students are not being recruited and retained at the same rate as their non-Black peers at Greenwood University. In doing so, the authors employed a mixed methods approach in which they conducted interviews from Black second and third year students, as well as faculty and staff, to explain the responses gathered from a recent Campus Climate Survey. A focus group of students also highlighted factors that impact the recruitment and retention of Black students. Among the responses received, factors such as support, connection, and representation among Black faculty and staff were shown to have a strong impact on Black students’ feelings of belonging, thus in many cases, their retention at Greenwood University. Based on the findings, it is recommended that universities prioritize intentional incentives to provide specialized support services and “spaces” for its students and to grow the numbers of faculty and staff who represent all of their institution’s student body. Keywords: enrollment, recruitment, retention, Black students, faculty, staff, Predominantly White Institution (PWI), Historically Black College or University (HBCU), Higher Education, Administrators
    • Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Expression And Function In The Developing And Neonatal Mouse

      Maddox, Dennis M; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics (2001-06)
      (First Paragraph) In the mouse, there are two distinct genes that encode isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad). The G adl gene encodes the larger isoform that has a molecular mass of 67 kilodaltons and is termed "Gad67" (Erlander et al., 1991; Bu et al., 1992). The Gad2 gene encodes the other isoform that has a molecular mass of 65 kilodaltons and is termed "Gad65" (Erlander et al., 1991; Bu et al., 1992). These two isoforms are often co-expressed in GABAergic neurons (Feldblum et al., 1993; Esclapez et al., 1994; Katarova et al., 2000). The isoforms differ in subcellular localization, with Gad67 being found mainly in the soma and Gad65 being found mainly in axon terminals (Kaufman et al., 1991). Additionally, the two isoforms of Gad differ in their affinity for the required cofactor pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) (Kaufman et al., 1991). By catalyzing the decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid, the Gad enzymes are the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (Barker et al., 1998).
    • GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS, CHONDROITINASE, AND MOLECULAR SUBTYPES IN BLADDER CANCER

      Morera, Daley S; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      There is a need for novel prognostic biomarkers and targeted treatments in bladder cancer (BC), even more so for muscle-invasive disease (MIBC). Discovery of molecular markers to predict outcome in BC patients may lead to identification of impactful therapeutic targets. The hyaluronic acid (HA) family of molecules and distinct molecular subtypes have both been investigated as potential prognostic markers. HA family and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, such as CD44, have been implicated in driving aggressiveness of disease; however, a chondroitinase enzyme that cleaves chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans has not been identified in any eukaryotic system. We evaluated molecular markers of BC and the first known eukaryotic/human chondroitinase, that we identified, for their ability to predict clinical outcome in patients, and for their roles as drivers of disease. We also investigated the anti-tumor effects of HA synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU), a non-toxic orally bioavailable supplement. This study demonstrates that transcript levels of HA family members can predict metastasis and poor survival in BC patients. HA- family expression also correlated with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers β -Catenin, Twist, Snail, and E-Cadherin. HA signaled through its receptors CD44/RHAMM and the PI3-K/AKT axis. 4MU targeted HA signaling, inhibiting proliferation and motility/invasion, inducing apoptosis in vitro, and preventing tumor growth in vivo. We discovered that a previously unidentified splice variant of HYAL-4 was elevated in bladder tumors. We named this variant "V1". Our studies showed that V1 had chondroitinase activity, cleaved chondroitin-6-sulfate from CD44, and consequently increased CD44 secretion. In vivo, V1-expressing urothelial cells formed muscle-invasive tumors and V1-expressing cancer cells developed metastatic tumors. Evaluation of the prognostic significance of the molecular subtypes of MIBC that were recently identified by other groups, showed the subtypes to have little to no predictive ability for clinical outcome in multivariate analyses that included standard clinical parameters. Consistently, clinical parameters such as histopathologic tumor grade, T-stage, and lymph node status, outperformed the molecular subtypes. Contrarily, V1 levels could independently predict metastasis and survival with high efficacy, suggesting that focusing on V1 as a functional biomarker may be a better strategy to improve clinical outcome of BC patients.
    • Gonadotrophin secretion by the isolated pituitary

      Greeley, George Horace; Department of Endocrinology (1974-09)
    • GPR109A as a Link Between Gut Flora and Colonic Health

      Cresci, Gail A.; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2009-11)
      Hypothesis: The bacterial fermentation product butyrate, produced from undigested dietary polysaccharides by the normal colonic microbiota, is a ligand for GPR109A and plays an active role in epithelial biology and function in the intestinal tract. According to this hypothesis, the normal colonic microbiota promote intestinal and colonic health, and GPR109A provides a link between the gut flora and colonic/intestinal health. Aim 1: Study the expression and subcellular localization of GPR109A in intestinal epithelial cells in mice and humans. Aim 2: Compare the expression of GPR109A in the intestinal tract between control mice and germ-free mice. Aim 3: Investigate the physiologic functions of GPR109A in intestinal and colonic epithelial cells.
    • GPR109A as a link between gut flora and colonic health

      Cresci, Gail A.; School of Graduate Studies (2009-11)
    • A Grounded Theory Study o f Pain Management Behaviors in Nurses Caring for Preverbal Children

      Noviello, Sheri R.; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (2006-05)
      A qualitative study using the grounded theory method was used to explore factors that affect nurses’ pain management decision-making when caring for children between the ages o f 0 and 3 years. This study was approved by the Human Assurance Committee at Medical College o f Georgia prior to the collection of data. The sample consisted of eleven nurses who were employed at three different hospitals in the southeastern part of the United States. Theoretical sampling was the basis for the selection o f participants after the first two interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and were subjected to open and axial coding. The constant comparative method was used during data analysis to identify a core category and related concepts. The basic social process that emerged is engaging in tactics o f pain management. This process contained two other processes: assessing fo r pain and managing a pain episode. Intrinsic factors that affected assessing fo r pain included knowing the territory, personal attributes o f the registered nurse (RN), being a parent, and being connected. Extrinsic factors that affected engaging in tactics o f pain management included workload and culture o f the hospital. The process of managing a pain episode included five phases: eliminating other sources o f discomfort, judging pain, comforting, medicating, and letting go.
    • Growth conditions influence expression of the staphylococcus aureus collagen receptor

      Clark, Bret Alan; Department of Immunology and Microbiology (1995-04)
    • he effects of selected inhibitors on electron transport in neisseria gonorrhoeae

      Kenimer, Elizabeth Anderson; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1976-03)
    • he relationship between self-concept and locus of control on tobacco use among rural black and white preadolescents: a comparative study

      Smith, Teresita Maria; School of Graduate Studies (2003-03)
      This study investigated the relationships among demog·raphic variables- of grade, age, gender, and race; self-_concept related to home, school,. and peer; and internal and external locus of control on tobacco use among rural BJack and White preadolescents using a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 666 preadolescents •in grades 4 and 5, ages 8 through 12, and enrolled in public schools in east central Georgia. Five elementary schools met the inclusion criteria of being located in a rural county with a population < 25,000, and also with > 50% Black student enrollment. Individual classrooms were randomly selected in 3 of the-schools. All fourth and fifth graders were selected in the other 2 schools. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, t test, and 6 . . logistic regression. Independent variables were self-concept and locus·of control. The dependent variable was tobacco use as being use or never use. The 54-item self-report survey was compri_sed of 4 brief scales: the Student Information Data . Form; the. Hare Self-Este.em Scale; the Nowicki-Strickland Children's Locus of Control. Scale; and the Tobacco Use Self-Report. Data were collected during Fall 2002 and involved 2 steps: (1) Explanation of the study and th~opportunity to participate were provided to the students (parental consent and child assent forms were obtained fro~ those agreeing to participate), and (2) data collection was ·conducted using_ the self-report survey form.· The study.found that tobacco use.rs totaled 9.2°/o' of the sample, which was gre.ater than the· rural norm of 4.2% to 5%. The sample of Black participants was _ large, s·1. 7%, as compared to previous studies with 0% to 20%, an~ was representative of the population. Those who used tobacco 'were more likely to be ' . boys (OR= 2.66, p = ~0005); have low:home sel.f-concept s.core (OR=. 0.91, p = .0003); have low school self-concept score (OR= 0.91, p < .0001 ); and have external locus of control (OR·= 2.05, p = .008) than those who did not use tobacco. Further studies· are recommended that may identify other contributing factors of tobacco use among rural preadolescents, such as diet, exercise, health, and sociodemographic variables.
    • Health disparities in acute outcomes of life-threatening injur

      NeSmith, Elizabeth Grooms; School of Graduate Studies (2007-12)
      Health disparities have been documented in nearly all-leading causes of death. It is unknown if health disparities also exist in acute outcomes of lifethreatening injury. The overall research question for this dissertation was, "Do health disparities exist in acute outcomes of life-threatening injury?". Three studies were conducted: a state of science, a validity study, and a descriptive study. The state of the science showed that only 4 of 352 studies repo'rted disparities, while 3 of 352 studies reported no disparities. The validity study was a retrospective chart review and showed that the instrument used to measure systemic inflammatory response syndrome was valid in predicting intensive care unit length of stay (F = 15.83) p < .0001. Caucasian race also predicted intensive care unit length of stay (F = 9. 7) p = .002. When combined with race, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome instrument explained . more variance (R2 = .15) in intensive care uniflength of stay than either variable alone (F = 7.7) p = .006. The descriptive study utilized the same data set from the validity study, and showed fewer occurrences of systemic inflammatory response syndrofDe in African Americans than in Caucasians (T = 9949.5) p = .04; in adults 30-44 years old than in adults 18-29 (T = 13,654) p = .04; and in ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users (X2 = 7 .85) p = .005. There was less severity of systemic : inflammatory response syndrome in females than in males {T = 7,491.5) p = .03; I / and in marijuana users than in all other substance users (T = 3, 117),P = .02 . . More severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was found among ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users {T = 2,667) p = .0008. Results support that health disparities exist among different patient groups · according to race, age, sex, and substance use for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. More research is needed to determine if these disparities translate to ·increased risk for poor outcomes. _Implications for practice include 1 increased vigilance of different patient groups- based on occurrence and severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
    • Health Disparities in Acute Outcomes of Life-threatening Injury

      NeSmith, Elizabeth Grooms; Department of Nursing (2007-12)
      Health disparities have been documented in nearly all-leading causes of death. It is unknown if health disparities also exist in acute outcomes of life-threatening injury. The overall research question for this dissertation was, “Do health disparities exist in acute outcomes of life-threatening injury?”. Three studies were conducted: a state of science, a validity study, and a descriptive study. The state of the science showed that only 4 of 352 studies reported disparities, while 3 of 352 studies reported no disparities. The validity study was a retrospective chart review and showed that the instrument used to measure systemic inflammatory response syndrome was valid in predicting intensive care unit length of stay (F = 15.83) p < .0001. Caucasian race also predicted intensive care unit length of stay (F = 9.7) p = .002. When combined with race, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome instrument explained more variance (R2 = .15) in intensive care unit length of stay than either variable alone (F = 7.7) p = .006. The descriptive study utilized the same data set from the validity study, and showed fewer occurrences of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in African Americans than in Caucasians (T = 9949.5) p = .04; in adults 30-44 years old than in adults 18-29 (T = 13,654) p = .04; and in ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users (X2 = 7.85) p = .005. There was less severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in females than in males (T = 7,491.5) p = .03; and in marijuana users than in all other substance users (T = 3,117) p = .02. More severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was found among ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users (T = 2,667) p = .0008. Results support that health disparities exist among different patient groups according to race, age, sex, and substance use for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. More research is needed to determine if these disparities translate to increased risk for poor outcomes. Implications for practice include increased vigilance of different patient groups based on occurrence and severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
    • Health Needs of Older Adult Women in the Rural Environment

      Conway, Mary Ann; Department of Nursing (1983-12)
      This study addressed the following research questions: 1). What are the perceived health needs of older warren in the rural environment? 2) Are. there correlations between perceived health needs .and demographic ' ' . . and sociological variables related to. these needs? The descriptive survey utilized a purposive convenience sample of 14 wanen between the I ages of 66 and 79 •. Half were black, half were white. In-hare interviews were c?nducted by the investigator utilizing. a structured . inter...: view questionnaire to collect demographic data and infonnation regarding ·five ·areas of ·health need: . health· condition, functional status,· social interaction, accessibility o~ health care and service· need •. findings revealed that rrore than half the subjects were widowed. Half ·lived alone. ·.The majority ·had inadequate incanes. A relationship between race a.n.d incane, education, self-rated health, life satisfaction, health condition and functional status was noted.. The ma.jority of the health needs. related to physical functioning and chronic' conditions. Blacks and ~ose 75 or over had rrore·chronic conditions, recent illness and physical ·symptoms and used rrore p~escription.drugs than did whites. Blacks and those under 75 reported rrore activity limitations and disability days than whites and those 75 or over. The black ~espo!fdents and. those 75 or over were less healthy than ·the whites and those under 75. The potential for accidental misuse of rredications is increased among this sample as is the possibility of physical· canplications due to inactivity and lack of exercise. A need . for· health educatio:n programs and health prorrotion, maintenance ~d restorative services targeted to this· population ~s noted.
    • Health-Promoting Lifestyles of Women with HIV Disease

      Carr, Rebecca L.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1997-04)
      Women are one of the fastest growing risk groups for HIV infection in the United States, but little is known about how women manage the problems and concerns commonly faced by individuals who are HIV positive. HIV disease results in compromised lifestyles for women as they cope with physiological and psychosocial problems that accompany this disease. The purpose of this focused ethnography was to explore health-promoting lifestyles of women with HIV disease. Research questions guiding this study were: 1) What do women with HIV disease believe they can do to enhance and/or maintain their health after diagnosis? and 2) How do women promote and maintain their health and well-being? Purposive sampling was used to obtain nine European American participants between the ages of 27 and 52 years. These participants were recruited from the southeastern United States. Semi-structured interviews and observation participation were used to obtain data. The majority of participants were interviewed three times. Observation participation occurred during interviews, at conferences, and volunteer group meetings attended by the researcher and the participants. Data analysis was concurrent with data collection enabling the researcher to confirm her interpretations with the participants. Three major themes were identified: 1) Reaching out to others, 2) Searching for meaning, and 3) Buying time. These themes constituted a health-promoting lifestyle that enabled women to adjust to the change in their identity from a healthy person to a person with HIV disease. Initially, women focused on restoring their well-being, but later initiated changes to enhance, maintain, and maximize their health.
    • Health-Promoting Lifestyles of Women with HIV Disease

      Carr, Rebecca Lamb; School of Graduate Studies (1997-04)
      Women are one of the fastest growing risk groups for HIV infection in the United States, but little is known about how women manage the problems and concerns commonly faced by individuals who are HIV positive. HIV disease results in compromised lifestyles for women as they cope with physiological and psychosocial problems that accompany this disease. The purpose of this focused ethnography was to explore health-promoting lifestyles of women with HIV disease. Research questions guiding this study were: 1) What do women with HIV disease believe they can do to enhance and/or maintain their health after diagnosis? and 2) How do women promote and maintain their health and well-being? Purposive sampling was used to obtain nine European American participants between the ages of 27 and 52 years. These participants were recruited from the southeastern United States. Semi-structured interviews and observation participation were used to obtain data. The majority of participants were interviewed three times. Observation participation occurred during interviews, at conferences; and volunteer group meetings attended by the researcher and the participants. Data analysis was concurrent with data collection enabling the researcher to confirm her interpretations with the participants. Three major themes were identified: 1) Reaching out to others, 2) Searching for meaning, and 3) Buying time. These themes constituted a health-promoting lifestyle that enabled women to adjust to the change in their identity from a healthy person to a person with HIV disease. Initially, women focused on restoring their well-being, but later initiated changes to enhance, maintain, and maximize their health. INDEX WORDS: HIV disease, Women, Stigma, Self-in-relation, Health-promoting lifestyle, Health behavior, Health belief
    • Heat shock protein 70 promotes HCC by modulating DNA-damage response, MAPK/ERK signaling and cellular senescence

      Wang, Yan; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2015-10)
      The mechanisms that drive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development are not well understood. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a critical role in protein quality control. The HSP70-mediated response has been implicated in the development of different cancer types, however, the detailed mechanisms by which HSP70 supports tumor progression remains to be investigated. In this research work we observed that HSP70 deletion impairs HCC development by modulating the carcinogen-induced DNA damage response. This results in increased sensitivity to p53-dependent apoptosis, activation of MAPK/ERK negative feedback signaling pathway, and induction of cellular senescence. Inactivation of HSP70 may be a strategy to interfere with signaling pathways that drive liver cancer progression thus offering a therapeutic possibility for human HCC treatment. Note: The research data described in this Ph.D. Thesis are not published. Additional experimental work is needed to verify the data and solidify the mechanistic conclusions of this work before we seek publication of the data in a peer reviewed scientific journal. In light of new data generated from additional studies, we may need to modify or revised our mechanistic conclusions.
    • Heat Shock Protein 70I Promotes Carcinogen-induced Liver Tumorigenesis by Regulating Hepatic Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity

      Cho, Wonkyoung; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2011-12)
      Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the world. The treatment options for HCC, however are very limited. In mice, the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induces HCC, which has been proven to be comparable to human HCC in many key aspects. DEN-induced HCC leads to initial hepatocyte death followed by compensatory proliferation and inflammatory response. The cycles of hepatocyte death and compensatory proliferation eventually lead to genomic mutations and HCC development. The inducible heat shock protein-HSP70 (HSP70i) is overexpressed in a number of malignancies, including liver cancer. Tumor cells have metabolic changes which producing intermediates for cell growth and division. We hypothesize that HSP70i plays a role in HCC development through its control of glucose metabolism. To determine the impact of HSP70i in HCC, we treated a cohort of wild-type and hsp70i-deficient mice using the carcinogen DEN. Tumor development in the liver was examined after 8 months. Results show that the deletion of hsp70i leads to a significant delay in HCC development. DEN-treated hsp70i-/- mice exhibit reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum compared to wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting reduced liver damage in hsp70i-/- mice. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms underlying HSP70i inhibition of tumorigenesis, we performed TUNEL assays to detect hepatocyte death, and Ki67 immunostaining to detect hepatocyte proliferation. As expected, hsp70i-/- mice exhibit a lower level of cell death and lower levels of cellular proliferations compared to wild-type mice. In addition, hsp70i-/- mice exhibit increased glucose consumption as evident by an increase in key enzymes involved in both glycolysis and TCA cycle. Low net glucose production induces lower lipid accumulation. Finally, treatment of DEN-treated wild-type mice with 2-phenylethynesulfonamid (PES), which is an HSP70i specific inhibitor, also delays HCC development. Overall, the alterations in the metabolic pathways in hsp70i null mice appear to contribute to delayed HCC development. Therefore, we conclude that HSP70i can be a powerful therapeutic target for HCC.