• Effect of clomiphene citrate on adrenal function

      Roper, Bobby Kenneth; Department of Endocrinology (1965-06-05)
    • The effect of control on patients' perceptions of noise in an intensive coronary care unit

      Rhodes, Ellen V; School of Nursing (1988-08)
      The purpose of this study was to ascertain if perception of control was effective in reducing noise annoyance in the Intensive Coronary Care Unit (ICCU) setting. The sample consisted of 30 adult subjects admitted to a 16"!"'bed ICCU in a rural 275 b.ed hospital in the southeastern United States. A Noise Annoyance Questionnaire (NAQ) was the instrument utilized to measure noise annoyance. The randomized post-test only experimental design tested the following hypothesis: Patients who are issued earplugs as a means' to control noise will score lower on a scale measuring annoyance to noise in the ICCU than will patients who are not issued earplugs. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=15) or control group (n=15). Experimental group participants were issued earplugs with instructions for their use and applicati.on. At 24 hours post-ICCU discharge, all patients were asked to complete the NAQ. The t-test for independent means revealed no significant difference (R =.06). in the mean noise annoyance scores between the groups; therefore, the hypothesis was rejected. This finding indicates that in this study, the total noise annoyance scores from participants receiving earplugs did not differ from the scores of participants who did not receive earplugs. S.ince the nursing intervention (offering earplugs to ICCU patients) was not effective in this sample of patients, other nursing interventions need to be explored as a measures of control of noise annoyance.
    • Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone on Ovulation in the Immature Female Rat

      Black, John Bryant; Department of Endocrinology (1969-06)
      One of. the most common cause~ bf infertility and associated reproductive .disorders encouritered in medicine and in ~eterinary "practice is the c·ystic ov·ary. The precise factors causing the development of ovarian cysts are ill under~tood brit the delicate balance which exists bet\veen the pituitary and .the gonad is involved. In addition, excessive.androgen production frequently results in similar cystic changes ~pppled ~ith ovulatory ·faiiure. J.Jong term administration of DBA to immature female· rats resulted in one precqcious ovulation followed by ovulatory failure and cystic ovarian changes. Discontinuation of the androgen pro~uced. a ~eries of irregular cycles followed by the resumption of normal cyclic estrus. After the first several days of treatment gon~dotrophin levels remained tonic, indicating that the initial effect of the androgen occurred soon after axial exposure. This possibility was investigated with a series of short ter~ experiments in which 60 mg/kg of DHA was· administered to immature female rats beginning on day twenty..,.seven of age. Precocious ovulation was observed both in animals with and without PHS priming. Gonadotrophin values remained tonic in the DHA + PMS groups, however, a significant pituitary depletion of LH was found .prior to ovulation when DHA was given alone. Inhibition of ovulation iri the DHA + PMS group by sodium-phenobarbital indicatedthat endoienous gonadotrophins were involved even though no depletion could be demonstrated. In "this case tonic glandular .levels must be taken as evidence of increased hypophyseal synthesis. Although present assay methods do not allow an overly specific pi~-pointing of androgen action at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, they do indicate a disruption in nor~~l rhythmic activity. It is reasonable that this disruption is sufficient to cause ovulatory failure and cystic ovarian modification.
    • The effect of ethylene glycol analogs on mechanical properties of moist, demineralized dentin matrix

      Callison, Terry E.; School of Graduate Studies (2002-05)
      This study evaluated the effect of ethylene glycol analogs on the modulus of elasticity (E) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of moist, demineralized dentin matrix. · Six "I" beam and fifty-two hourglass shaped specimens cut from dentin discs (0.5mm thick) were demineralized in 0.5M EDT~ yielding dentin matrix specimens used to measure E and UTS, respectively A universal microtensile testing machine measured the E and UTS of specimens immersed in distilled water, ethylene glycol, 2-methoxyethanol, and ·I,2-dimethoxyethane. The E and UTS values were compared with. the Hoy's solubility parameters for hydrogen bonding (oh), polar (op), an~ dispersive forces (od) of these solvents. Analysis indicated significant (p~<0. 00 I) relationships among the solvents for both E and UTS; and that oh is the most significant (p<0.05) solubility parameter. Water (highest oh) produced the lowest E and UTS. 1,2-Dimethoxyethane (lowest oh) produced the highest E and UTS. The results support our hypothesis that E and UTS of moist, demineralized dentin is inversely proportional to oh of applied solvents.
    • Effect of Hand Strength on Handwriting Pyrformance: An Investigation

      Vigneri, Mary R.; School of Graduate Studies (2003-12)
      The purpose of this stu~y was to determine if a relationship exists between hand strength and handwriting performance among early elementary age children. This study was designed to test the effects of a hand-strengthening program on handwriting performance among children entering first and second grade. The 19 children were tested on grip and pin~h strength, visual motor skills, and handwriting performance at the beginning and at the end of the trial period. The ~hildren were· divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group participated in functional age-appropriate resistive fine motor tasks three times a week over a seven-week period. No significant changes in strength, handwriting performance, or visual motor skills were obtained in the treatment group or the control group. However there were improvements in subjective areas not included in this study' s outcome measures.
    • Effect of Homocysteine on Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cell Function

      Jin, Liming; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (2001-05)
      Hypothesis: In hyperhomocyst(e)inemic states, oxidative stress resulting from elevation of homocyste(e)ine levels leads to a decrease in L-arginine transport activity and a decrease in intracellular L-arginine availability. This will in turn limit NO production and increase superoxide production from eNOS. Therefore, the oxidative stress will be increased in endothelial cells, which may eventually lead to endothelial dysfunction and predispose to atherothrombosis. SPECIFIC AIMS 1. Characterize the cationic amino acid transport systems in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). 2. Examine the effect of HCY on L-arginine transport over time. 3. Determine the influence of oxidative stress, which is produced by HCY, on L-arginine transport. 4. Determine the effect of HCY on endothelial cell membrane potential. 5. Determine effect of HCY on expression of the transport protein CAT-1. 6. Determine the effect of HCY on eNOS activity, eNOS protein levels and NO formation. 7. Determine the effect of HCY on the production of 3-nitro-tyrosine, a marker for production of peroxynitrite. 8 . Determine the effect of HCY on vascular responses to acetylcholine.
    • The effect of hospital preparation on anxiety and fear levels of school-age children

      Wallom, Lynne; School of Nursing (1987-09)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a hospital preparation program in the reduction of anxiety and fear in school-age children. A quasi-experimental design was us~d •. This study found that the videotaped. preparation program (Appendix F) did not produce significantly lower anxiety and medical fear levels in children viewing the videotape when compared to children who -did. not view the videotape. The results further suggest that there is a positive relationship between anxiety and fear of medical experiences in school-age children who are hospitalized. Children in this study who reported a high degree bf anxiety also tended to report high fear levels at all times. The Pearsori prciduct' moment technique was used to determine cor~~lations for selected variables~- A two-way repeated measures multiple analysi~ of variance procedure was used to examine changes in the children's fear and anxiety over time during hospitalization. The significant level for the rejection of the ·hypotheses· for this: study.was .05.
    • Effect of injectate temperature and volume on measurement of thermodilution cardiac output values in surgical intensive care patients

      Hunley, Pamela Goolsby; School of Nursing (1990-04)
      The standard thermodilution methoq of measuring cardiac output (CO) at the bedside poses several problems: 1)- It exposes selected· patients. (pediatric and cardiac-compromised) to the risk of volume overload. 2) The use of -iced temperature injectate is more expensive, time-consuming and cumbersome. Th~ purpose.of this study was to compare the effects of two dtffering temperature ranges and volumes of injectate on co measurements. The null hypotheses were: 1) There will be no differences in the CO values obtained with room temperature (RT) injectate (21-25°C) and icedtemperature (IT) injectate (0-5°C)~ 2) There will be no differences in the co values obtained with reduced vo.lume (EV) of injectate (3 cc) and standard volume of ·injectate (5 . cc) . Four sets of co measurements were collected from a nonprobability sample of 23 adult males and females in the surgical intensive care unit. Results were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficients and ANOVA. No significant· differences were found for temperature (E = .246, 2 = .625), volume (E = .111, 2 = .742) or interaction of temperature and volume (E = .120, 2 = .284). Results suggest that RT and RV injectate can be employed to accurately measure co by thermodilution.
    • The Effect of Instructor Mindset on Student Motivation and Self-Efficacy

      Restrepo, Leigha; Department of Psychological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-07)
      Dweck’s theory of mindset proposes two different mindsets a person may have: fixed or growth (Dweck, 2007). A person with a fixed mindset believes intelligence is fixed and a person with a growth mindset believes that they can improve their intelligence with effort (Dweck, 2007; Murphy & Dweck, 2016). The present study was designed to examine the effect of an instructors’ apparent mindset on the expectations of success and persistence in STEM disciplines among students. Students were presented with sample syllabi that portrayed an instructor with either a fixed or growth mindset and completed questionnaires and a short, written reflection to measure their perception of mindset, self-efficacy, and motivation. Results of this study revealed that students expected a higher grade, reported more academic self-efficacy, and had a positive perception of the instructor after reading the growth syllabus. Overall, Black students reported more academic self-efficacy than White students and reported more academic self-handicapping after reading the growth syllabus. Students reported that the attributions (gender, minority, status, effort/ hard work, luck, difficulty of the course, intelligence/ ability) contributed more to their grade in the class after reading the growth mindset syllabus than the fixed syllabus, with difficulty of the course and intelligence/ ability significantly contributing to their perceived grade in the class after reading the fixed syllabus. The mindset portrayed by an instructor can have an impact on the student through a decrease in their overall academic performance. Examining the different ways in which a change in the mindset that is portrayed can help to increase student motivation and expectations.
    • The Effect of leucite crystallization and thermal history on thermal expansion measurement of dental porcelains

      Khajotia, Sharukh S.; School of Graduate Studies (1997-07)
      Objectives. Measurement of thermal expansion in glassy· materials is complicated by thermal history effects. The purpose of this research was to determine whether the occurrence of structural relaxation in glassy materials, such as dental porcelains, and changes in porcelain leucite content could interfere with the accurate measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion during the thermal expansion measurement itself Methods. In a randomized design, thermal expansion specimens were fabricated using six commercial body porcelains and the leucite-containing Component No. 1 frit (Weinstein et al. patent, 1962), and subjected to one of the following heat treatments: a single heating run at 3 °C/min in a .conventional dilatometer followed by air quenching; three successive low-rate heating and cooling thermal expansion runs at ' 3°C/min in a conventional dilatometer; or three successive high-rate heating and cooling th~rmal expansion runs at 600°C/min in a laser dil~tometer. The remaining specimens were left untreated and served as controls. Potential changes in porcelain leucite content were monitored via quantitative X-ray diffraction. Thermal expansion data for each run over a- temperature range of 25-500°C and the_ leucite content of all specimens were subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance. Results. The thermal expansion coefficient measured on first slow heating was significantly lower than the values for succeeding low-rate heating and cooling runs in au· materials (p < 0.001). The high-rate thermal expansion coefficient obtained on first heating was not significantly different from the values · of succeeding heat and cool runs in all materials (p > 0.05). No significant. effect of dilatometer thermal treatments on leucite content (p > 0.05) was shown for all materials studied using both dilatometers. Significance. The. crystallization of additional amounts of leucite during thermal expansion runs can be ruled out as a possible interference in the determination of the thermal expansion coefficient of dental porcelain. Conventional dilatometer measurements exhibited structural relaxat1oh during the first heating run, as evidenced by the significant difference between the first heating and subsequent runs, while the laser dilatometer measurements were not affected by this thermal history effect. Therefore, high-rate dilatometry provides a more accurate thermal expansion measurement that is free of interference from structural relaxation and additional leucite crystallization.
    • The Effect of Leucite Crystallization and Thermal History on Thermal Expansion Measurements of Dental Porcelains

      Khajotia, Sharukh S.; Department of Oral Rehabilitation (1997-07)
      Objectives. Measurement of thermal expansion in glassy materials is complicated by thermal history effects. The purpose of this research was to determine whether the occurrence of structural relaxation in glassy materials, such as dental porcelains, an changes in porcelain leucite content could interfere with the accurate measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion during the thermal expansion measurement itself. Methods. In a randomized design, thermal expansion specimens were fabricated using six commercial body porcelains and the leucite-containing Component No. 1 frit (Weinstein et al. patent, 1962), and subjected to one of the following heat treatments: a single heating run at 3°C/min in a conventional dilatometer followed by air quenching; three successive low-rate heating and cooling thermal expansion runs at 3°C/min in a conventional dilatometer; or three successive high-rate heating and cooling thermal expansion runs at 600°C/min in a laser dilatometer. The remaining specimens were left untreated and served as controls. Potential changes in porcelain leucite content were monitored via quantitative X-ray diffraction. Thermal expansion data for each run over a temperature range of 25-500°C and the leucite content of all specimens were subjected to repeated measures analysis o f variance. Results. The thermal expansion coefficient measured on first slow heating was significantly lower than the values for succeeding low-rate heating and cooling runs in all materials (p < 0.001). The high-rate thermal expansion coefficient obtained on first heating was not significantly different from the values of succeeding heat and cool runs in all materials (p > 0.0S). No significant effect of dilatometer thermal treatments on leucite content (p > 0.05) was shown for all materials studied using both dilatometers. Significance. The crystallization of additional amounts of leucite during thermal expansion runs can be ruled out as a possible interference in the determination of the thermal expansion coefficient of dental porcelain. Conventional dilatometer measurements exhibited structural relaxation during the first heating run, as evidenced by the significant difference between the first heating and subsequent runs, while the laser dilatometer measurements were not affected by this thermal history effect. Therefore, high-rate dilatometry provides a more accurate thermal expansion measurement that is free of interference from structural relaxation and additional leucite crystallization.
    • EFFECT OF MATRIX-BOUND BISPHOSPHONATES ON MONOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION AND OSTEOCLAST FUNCTION

      Abraham, Pheba; Abraham, Pheba; Department of Oral Biology (5/1/2017)
      This study was to explore the effect of local, matrix-bound bisphosphonates to monocytedifferentiation and osteoclast function in vitro. Experiments were designed using osteoassay plates. Cell-viability, differentiation, resorption pits and gene expression were analyzed to see the effect of matrix-bound BPs on monocyte differentiation and osteoclast function. EDTA was used as a chelating agent to remove the bound BPs. There was a dose dependent response in the differentiation and resorption pits. With chelation, there was increase in differentiation, resorption pits and increase in the calcium and PYD in the supernatant. Thus, matrix-bound Bisphosphonatesare biologically active and they inhibit monocyte differentiation and osteoclast function. Thereby removal of this matrix-bound drug can rescue osteoclast differentiation and function.
    • The effect of memory skills instruction on memory and self-esteem in persons fifty to seventy years of age

      Johnston, Linda W; School of Graduate Studies (1986-12)
      This study examined the effect of a mneumonics oriented memory skills improvement course on.memory functioning and self-esteem in a sample, ~f 31 older adults (mean age = 63.4). Subjects in the experim~ntal group (n=15) participated in six hours of structured small group memory instru~tion, while .th~. control group (n=16) receivea no memory instruction. Analysis of covariance of pre- and post-instruction mean scores for the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale revealed·a significant increase in both memory (p=.Ol} and self-esteeci (p=.04) in the experimental group;: no significant improvem~nt on either measure was seen in the control group, nor was a significant correlation demonstrated between memory and self-esteem. The results of this study indic~ted· that a mneumonics oriented course of memory instruction can provide an· effective nursing intervention to assist the elderly in coping with some of the effects of memory loss associated with normal aging.
    • Effect of mentoring relationships on professional socialzation of the pre-licensure clinical nurse leader graduate

      Gazaway, Shena Borders; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (5/8/2017)
      The professional socialization of a nurse begins during their education experience and continues throughout their career as they acquire new roles and responsibilities. For pre-licensure clinical nurse leader graduates (PLCNLGs), the challenge is to meld the ideals learned during their education experience with the protocols and regulations necessary to practice successfully in their first professional nursing position. While all novice nurses experience difficulty with professional socialization, PLCNLGs have an additional stressor due to the prevailing belief that a Master’s-prepared nurse should be an expert nurse clinician before assuming the title of Clinical Nurse Leader. No matter their educational program, early professional socialization helps all newly licensed nurses, identify with the profession and provide a philosophical foundation with which to build a dynamic career. Mentoring is a low-cost strategy that may help achieve early professional socialization. Mentors provide the necessary support, career lifeline, and professional guidance during the PLCNLG’s transition from student to independent clinician. A positive mentoring relationship creates a trusted partner and confidant who eases the negative feelings associated with this transition process. Nursing research is needed to establish the best mentoring strategy to support the PLCNLG’s professionalism and career trajectory since differences exist in the foundation underlying each mentoring relationship. This study used a mixed methods longitudinal design with two instruments, the Nurses Professional Values Scale-Revised (NPVS-R) and the Nurses Role Conceptions Instrument (NRCI), plus focus groups to examine the impact formal and informal mentoring relationships had on the professional socialization of PLCNLGs. Participants were recruited from the pre-licensure Clinical Nurse Leader program nursing program of a large university located in the southeastern portion of the United States. Phase I data collection took place on campus just before graduation (n=69), nine months later the participants were approached to participate in the Phase II portion of data collection. A final sample of 22 participants completed Phase II with six of them participating in the focus groups. Using a one-way ANOVA, statistically significant differences were not found between the types of mentoring (formal, informal, both, none) and NPVS-R or NRCI bureaucratic and professional role orientation. However, a significant difference was seen with the service role discrepancy and mentoring relationship. Focus group results led to the development of a conceptual model which supports the manner in which mentoring impacted the professional socialization process of PLCNLGs. The integrated quantitative and qualitative results provided evidence that participants were greatly impacted by mentoring relationships. These relationships were established on trust and with people who were willing to help them grow in their nursing role. Participants reported increased confidence, comfort, and competence in their nursing role due to the actions of their mentors. The results of this study added critical knowledge regarding the professional socialization process from the perspective of the PLCNLG. The mixed method integrated approach highlighted how mentoring impacted this socialization process when quantitative analysis did not produce statistically significant results. Nurse executives and leaders should use this research to establish goals for employing mentors and successfully cultivating best practice for pairing mentors and mentees to decrease PLCNLG employment dissatisfaction and turnover.
    • Effect of Metformin on Oral Implant Healing in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

      Inouye, Kimberly Ann; Department of Oral Biology (2011-04)
      In dentistry today, endosseous implants have become a generally favorable treatment option for edentulous spaces in the oral cavity because of proven biocompatibility, potential for esthetics, and good long term prognosis.(1) However, there are risk factors to consider that may affect and impair the osseointegration of an implant. A possible risk factor is type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance at the target tissue site and progressive destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that ultimately results in prolonged periods of hyperglycemia.(2) When the serum glucose levels were persistently high, it was shown to impair bone metabolism and thus, has the potential to impair implant osseointegration.(3)
    • The Effect of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism on Ischemic Infarct Size

      Rigsby, Christiné Spring; Department of Physiology (2006-12)
      Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States, where approximately 88% of stroke occurrences are ischemic in origin. Hypertension is a primary risk factor for stroke. Elevated aldosterone levels have also been identified as a risk factor for stroke, as patients with primary aldosteronism incur increased incidences of cardiovascularrelated pathologies than do patients with essential hypertension. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that mineralocorticoid (aldosterone) receptor (MR) activation can induce deleterious vascular remodeling and, conversely, blockade of the MR with spironolactone reduces cerebral infarct size in male spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). It is known from studies in SHRSP that cerebral vessel structure is directly related to infarct size. We hypothesized that chronic spironolactone treatment would alter cerebral vessel structure. Six-week-old male SHRSP were treated with spironolactone for six weeks and passive vessel structure was analyzed using a pressurized arteriograph. Spironolactone treatment prevented cerebral vessel remodeling. From a clinical standpoint, many patients present with pre-existing vascular damage; therefore, we hypothesized that chronic MR antagonism would reverse existing vascular damage. Twelve-week-old male SHRSP were treated as described above. Interestingly, spironolactone treatment partially reversed existing cerebral vessel remodeling. Recent analysis of data from the Framingham Heart Study show that females may be more sensitive to the effects of aldosterone, but few studies looking at MR blockade have been performed in females. Similar ischemic stroke and vascular analysis studies were performed in 12-week-old female SHRSP. Contrary to the male studies, MR antagonism, using spironolactone or eplerenone, did not reduce damage from ischemic stroke or improve vessel structure. MR protein expression was evaluated in cerebral arteries collected from 12-week-old male and female SHRSP using Western blot analysis. Surprisingly, female SHRSP had increased MR expression, compared to male SHRSP. These novel studies uncover an apparent sexual dimorphism in the actions of MR antagonists and expression of the MR in SHRSP. The action of the MR antagonists may be influenced by differential MR expression and this could help to explain the sex difference observed.