• Alpha-Tocopherol as an Ergogenic Factor in the Guinea Pig

      Allen, Hugh Clement; Department of Anatomy (1968-06)
    • Alterations in Articular Cartilage of the Rabbit Mandibular Condyle Following Surgical Induction of Anterior Disc Displacement: Light and Electron Microscopic Immunocytochemistry Using Colloidal Gold Conjugates

      Choi, Won-Seok; Department of Oral Biology (1996-05)
      The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that surgical induction of anterior disc displacement (ADD) in the rabbit craniomandibular joints (CMJ) will lead to degenerative osteoarthritic changes detectable a t the molecular, subcellular and cellular levels in the articular cartilage of the rabbit mandibular condyle. Ultrastructural features of the normal rabbit mandibular condyle were compared to those of experimental condyles a t two weeks following induction of ADD. The quantities of type-VI and -IX collagens, as well as the components of proteoglycans, such as chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S), k e ra tan sulfate (KS) and link protein (LP) were measured using immunogold labeling technique at the light and the electron microscopic levels. The right joint of each of 20 rabbits was exposed surgically, and all discal attachments were severed except for th e posterior attachment. The disc was then displaced anteriorly and sutured to the zygomatic arch. The left joint served as a sham -operated control. Ten additional joints were used as non­ operated controls. Deeply anesthetized rabbits were perfused with 2% buffered formalin two weeks after surgery. The mandibular condyles were excised and decalcified in ethylenediam inetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Paraffin embedded tissues were sectioned a t 5 (im for light microscopic study, while water-soluble plastic embedded sections were used for electron microscopy. Sections were incubated in monoclonal antibodies directed against C4S, C6S, KS and LP, and in polyclonal antibodies against type-VI and -IX collagens. After incubation in the appropriate colloidal gold conjugated secondary antibodies, tissue sections were studied with light and electron microscopes. In addition, immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed using paraffin sections, and the PCNA indices of control and experimental condyles were determined. Pathological alterations were obvious in the experimental condyles, and appeared to be characteristic osteoarthritic changes. These include cartilage neovascularization, chondrocyte clustering, vacuolation, loss of extracellular matrix next to the membranes of chondrocytes, and an increase in num ber of apoptotic chondrocytes. Increased num bers of PCNA-positive cells in the osteoarthritic cartilage of the experimental group indicated a n active chondrocytic proliferation. Ultrastructural changes in injured chondrocytes included increased amounts of RER and Golgi, suggesting an increase in the synthesis and secretion of possibly degradative enzymes with a decrease in the normal secretory products. The results of th e immunocytochemistry using colloidal gold conjugates both a t the light and electron microscopic levels showed statistically significant depletion of C4S, C6S, KS, LP, type-VI collagen and type-IX collagen in the osteoarthritic cartilage (P < 0.05). The reduction of binding molecules such as LP, type-VI and type-IX collagens suggest a possible mechanism for the observed loss of integrity of the extracellular matrix. It is concluded that surgical induction of ADD in the rabbit CMJ leads to molecular, cellular and extracellular alterations in the articular cartilage of the mandibular condyle similar to those described previously in hum an ADD and in osteoarthritis of other synovial joints. The results of this study provide evidence that the loss of the shock absorber function of the disc, and the exposure of the condyles to overloading may cause the injured chondrocytes to secrete degenerative cytokines as indicated by the loss of proteoglycans, binding collagens and LP. These molecular changes are expressed a t the subcellular and cellular levels as osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease.
    • Amyloid Peptide-a7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interactions: Implications For Cytoprotection In Vitro

      Li, Xinyu D.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2006-11)
      Brain deposition of (3-amyloid peptide 1-42 (A(31 -42)-containing senile plaques has been a consistent finding in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the link between Apl-42 and neuronal degeneration remains unclear. It has been reported that AP peptides bind with selectivity to a l nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (a7nAChRs), in both healthy and Alzheimer’s Diseased brain tissues. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the functional inhibition of oc7nAChRs induced by Api-42, both in systems in vitro and in vivo. Initially, differentiated PC-12 cells were preloaded with fura 2-AM and intracellular free Ca2+ levels were determined by fluorescent imaging. Nicotine-induced Ca2+ signals were inhibited by pretreatment with the a7nAChR-selective antagonists, abungarotoxin (BTX) and methyllycaconitine (MLA). Nicotine induced Ca2+ influx was also blocked by pretreatment with 100 nM Api-42. In the same model, nicotine produced a concentration-dependent increase in cell viability in differentiated PC-12 cells that underwent nerve growth factor (NGF) withdrawal for 24 hr. The cytoprotective action of nicotine was efficiently antagonized by co-treatment with a7nAChR antagonists. A concentration-dependent inhibition of the cytoprotective action of nicotine also was produced by co-treatment with Apl-42 (1-100 nM). Also in differentiated PC-12 cells, nicotine induced a concentration-dependent increase in cell surface Trk A receptor expression. This increase was almost completely reversed by a7receptor-selective antagonists, and by co-treatment with Api-42. In in vivo studies with rats, intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of choline, a selective a7nAChR agonist, produced transient, but dose-dependent pressor responses and prolonged decreases in heart rate. Icv pretreatment with BTX and MLA significantly inhibited the cardiovascular responses to subsequent injection of choline. Pretreatment with the Api-42 also significantly inhibited the choline-induced cardiovascular changes suggesting that the peptide can block an oc7nAChR-mediate response in vivo. Nicotine also was administered to rats by direct injection into a lateral cerebral ventricle. Estimation of Trk A expression in necropsied brain tissues revealed significant increases in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. These increases were significantly inhibited in rats co-treated with a-bungarotoxin or with Api-42. The data derived from these in vitro and in vivo experiments support the hypothesis that low physiological concentrations of AP peptides inhibit the function of a7nAChRs, thereby contributing to the loss in neuronal viability that accompanies Alzheimer’s disease.
    • AN EXPLORATION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS' PERSPECTIVES ON PARTICIPATING IN A PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROGRAM

      Cason, Natalie Michelle; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Children who lack prosocial skills and exhibit social-emotional deficiencies tend to have more behavior problems in school. Chronic behavior problems negatively affect students’ academics, attendance, and ability to develop relationships. Aggression, bullying, and mental health problems have also been linked to social-emotional deficiencies. Children’s prosocial skills and emotional intelligence correlate to children’s social-emotional competence. The researchers investigated students’ perspectives of their experiences with and their perception of the impact a prosocial behavior intervention, Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2012), had on their behavior through focus groups and field observations. Participants were consenting and assenting second through fifth-grade students who were identified through the behavior RTI process in Rural County. Researchers also analyzed quantitative, descriptive data from a Skillstreaming Student Checklist, to investigate how students self-rated their own prosocial skills. The researchers found that the participants were able to identify prosocial skills but did not always choose to apply the prosocial skills they learned to social situations with teachers and peers. All participants communicated positive feelings towards the intervention and liked having the opportunity to escape and process their emotions. Many felt it provided them with tools they could recall and apply to their school settings. Students emphasized the importance of relationships in relation to their behavior, and students interpreted their relationships based on attributes of fairness and care. In discussion of findings, research supported the importance of relationship between teachers and students and supported the finding that students often know prosocial skills and expectations in the school setting but choose their behavior based on the relationship between the student and the teacher. Keywords: prosocial intervention, elementary students, behavioral challenge, school discipline, prosocial skills, emotional intelligence, social-emotional competence, social-emotional learning, RTI, PBIS, Skillstreaming, student perspectives
    • AN EXPLORATION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON PARTICIPATING IN A PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROGRAM

      Aycock, Jeana; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Children who lack prosocial skills and exhibit social-emotional deficiencies tend to have more behavior problems in school. Chronic behavior problems negatively affect students’ academics, attendance, and ability to develop relationships. Aggression, bullying, and mental health problems have also been linked to social-emotional deficiencies. Children’s prosocial skills and emotional intelligence correlate to children’s social-emotional competence. The researchers investigated students’ perspectives of their experiences with and their perception of the impact a prosocial behavior intervention, Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2012), had on their behavior through focus groups and field observations. Participants were consenting and assenting second through fifth-grade students who were identified through the behavior RTI process in Rural County. Researchers also analyzed quantitative, descriptive data from a Skillstreaming Student Checklist, to investigate how students self-rated their own prosocial skills. The researchers found that the participants were able to identify prosocial skills but did not always choose to apply the prosocial skills they learned to social situations with teachers and peers. All participants communicated positive feelings towards the intervention and liked having the opportunity to escape and process their emotions. Many felt it provided them with tools they could recall and apply to their school settings. Students emphasized the importance of relationships in relation to their behavior, and students interpreted their relationships based on attributes of fairness and care. In discussion of findings, research supported the importance of relationship between teachers and students and supported the finding that students often know prosocial skills and expectations in the school setting but choose their behavior based on the relationship between the student and the teacher. Keywords: prosocial intervention, elementary students, behavioral challenge, school discipline, prosocial skills, emotional intelligence, social-emotional competence, social-emotional learning, RTI, PBIS, Skillstreaming, student perspectives
    • AN EXPLORATION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON PARTICIPATING IN A PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROGRAM

      Ocak, Lauren A. W.; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Children who lack prosocial skills and exhibit social-emotional deficiencies tend to have more behavior problems in school. Chronic behavior problems negatively affect students’ academics, attendance, and ability to develop relationships. Aggression, bullying, and mental health problems have also been linked to social-emotional deficiencies. Children’s prosocial skills and emotional intelligence correlate to children’s social-emotional competence. The researchers investigated students’ perspectives of their experiences with and their perception of the impact a prosocial behavior intervention, Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2012), had on their behavior through focus groups and field observations. Participants were consenting and assenting second through fifth-grade students who were identified through the behavior RTI process in Rural County. Researchers also analyzed quantitative, descriptive data from a Skillstreaming Student Checklist, to investigate how students self-rated their own prosocial skills. The researchers found that the participants were able to identify prosocial skills but did not always choose to apply the prosocial skills they learned to social situations with teachers and peers. All participants communicated positive feelings towards the intervention and liked having the opportunity to escape and process their emotions. Many felt it provided them with tools they could recall and apply to their school settings. Students emphasized the importance of relationships in relation to their behavior, and students interpreted their relationships based on attributes of fairness and care. In discussion of findings, research supported the importance of relationship between teachers and students and supported the finding that students often know prosocial skills and expectations in the school setting but choose their behavior based on the relationship between the student and the teacher. Keywords: prosocial intervention, elementary students, behavioral challenge, school discipline, prosocial skills, emotional intelligence, social-emotional competence, social-emotional learning, RTI, PBIS, Skillstreaming, student perspectives
    • AN EXPLORATION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON PARTICIPATING IN A PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROGRAM

      Lott, Joe Henry; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Children who lack prosocial skills and exhibit social-emotional deficiencies tend to have more behavior problems in school. Chronic behavior problems negatively affect students’ academics, attendance, and ability to develop relationships. Aggression, bullying, and mental health problems have also been linked to social-emotional deficiencies. Children’s prosocial skills and emotional intelligence correlate to children’s social-emotional competence. The researchers investigated students’ perspectives of their experiences with and their perception of the impact a prosocial behavior intervention, Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2012), had on their behavior through focus groups and field observations. Participants were consenting and assenting second through fifth-grade students who were identified through the behavior RTI process in Rural County. Researchers also analyzed quantitative, descriptive data from a Skillstreaming Student Checklist, to investigate how students self-rated their own prosocial skills. The researchers found that the participants were able to identify prosocial skills but did not always choose to apply the prosocial skills they learned to social situations with teachers and peers. All participants communicated positive feelings towards the intervention and liked having the opportunity to escape and process their emotions. Many felt it provided them with tools they could recall and apply to their school settings. Students emphasized the importance of relationships in relation to their behavior, and students interpreted their relationships based on attributes of fairness and care. In discussion of findings, research supported the importance of relationship between teachers and students and supported the finding that students often know prosocial skills and expectations in the school setting but choose their behavior based on the relationship between the student and the teacher.
    • An Iterative Procedure to Select and Estimate Wavelet-Based Functional Linear Mixed-Effects Regression Models

      Lundeen, Jordan Sarah; Biostatistics (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      Actigraphy is the continuous long-term measurement of activity-induced acceleration by means of a portable device that often resembles a watch and is typically worn on the wrist. Actigraphy is increasingly being used in clinical research to measure sleep and activity rhythms that might not otherwise be available using traditional techniques such as polysomnography. Actigraphy has been shown to be of value when assessing circadian rhythm disorders and sleep disorders and when evaluating treatment outcomes. It can provide more objective information on sleep habits in the patient's natural sleep environment than using the patient's recollection of their activity or a written sleep diary. We propose a wavelet-based functional linear mixed model to investigate the impact of functional predictors on a scalar response when repeated measurements are available on multiple subjects. The advantage of the proposed model is that each subject has both individual scalar covariate effects and individual functional effects over time, while also sharing common population scalar covariate effects and common population slope functions. An iterative procedure is used to estimate and select the fixed and random effects by utilizing the partial consistency property of the random effect coefficients and selecting groups of random effects simultaneously via the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) penalty function. In the first study of its kind, we compare multiple functional regression methods through a large number of simulation parameter combinations. The proposed model is applied to actigraphy data to investigate the effect of daily activity on Hamilton Rating of Depression Scale (HRSD), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Reduced Morningness- Eveningness Questionnare (RMEQ) scores.
    • An Analysis of Diabetes Predictors and Diagnostic Tests in a Sample of African Americans at Risk for Diabetes

      Williams, Lovoria B.; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (2011-05)
      Recently the ADA and International Expert Committee (IEC) endorsed HbA1C for diagnosis of glucose states. Concerns exists regarding discordance between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1C; the committees do not agree on the HbA1C cut-point for diagnosis of sub-diabetic states; and the HbA1C may be more sensitive in AAs. A secondary data analysis of the Fit Body and Soul (FBAS) sample (n = 393) was conducted. FPG and HbA1C values were classified by the current ADA and the IEC HbA1C criteria. A risk factor analysis was also conducted. Results indicate different subject classification based on choice of diagnostic test and criterion used. Subjects classified as normoglycemic based on ADA FPG, ADA HbA1C and IEC HbA1C criterion were (78.9%; 30.7%; 55%) of the sample, respectively. Sub-diabetic state was (18.1%; 55.9%; 31.5%), respectively. Diabetes was (3%; 13.4%; 13.4%), respectively. Moderate correlation exists between HbA1C and FPG (Pearson’s r = 0.63 p < 0.001); there is only slight to fair agreement between ADA HbA1C and ADA FPG classifications and IEC HbA1C and ADA FPG classifications; Cohen’s Kappa = 0.127; 0.234 (p < 0.001), respectively; McNemar’s Chi Square (χ23df = 182.8; 81.54 p < 0.001) respectively. Significant predictors of HbA1C by linear regression were waist circumference (WC) and age; FPG predictors were age, WC and family history of diabetes. The risk factor analysis indicated poor agreement with either diagnostic test.
    • Analysis of Folate Transport Proteins in the Mammalian Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Characterization and Localization of Folate Receptor Alpha and Reduced-Folate Transporter-1

      Bridges, Christy C.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2000-11)
      The purpose of these studies was to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of folate transport in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
    • An analysis of gentamicin resistance in staphylococcus aureus

      Wood, David Oliver; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1977-09)
    • Analysis of the distal 5' region of the bovine and human C [gamma] P17 gene

      Maxoos, Sepehr Steven; Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1995-12)
    • Analysis of the major histone fractions in the SV40 replicative form nucleoprotein complex

      MacGregor, John P.; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1977-06)
    • Androgen Effects on Follicular Atresia and Ovulation

      Bagnell, Carrol A; Department of Endocrinology (1983-03)
    • Androgenic Maintenance of Rat Penile Erection

      Reilly, Christopher M.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (1997-06)
      Prior studies from this laboratory, using untreated-castrated rats (CASTRATE) and testosterone-treated castrated rats (TESTO), have shown that the magnitude of the intracavemosal pressure increase during erection is androgen dependent. Studies from this and other laboratories have also presented evidence suggesting that penile erection is mediated principally by nitric oxide (NO). The present report was designed to confirm that androgens maintain the availability of cavemosal NO, and to determine if this androgenic action is exerted at the genomic level modulating the expression of the neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene. The results showed that administration of supplemental L-arginine failed to augment the erectile response in either group, suggesting that substrate availability is not a cause o f the reduced response in CASTRATE animals. Inhibition of NO synthesis with a nitro-arginine competitive inhibitor of NOS resulted in strong inhibition of erection in both TESTO and CASTRATE rats. When given in conjunction with ganglionic stimulation to induce erection, the NO releasing drug, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), increased intracavemosal pressure in CASTRATE but not in TESTO rats suggesting a deficiency of the available NO in CASTRATE animals. Finally, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated that mRNA levels for the enzyme nNOS in the penis were greater in TESTO animals than in CASTRATE rats. These results support the hypothesis that androgens mediate the erectile response in the rat penis by stimulating the expression of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase, thus maintaining an adequate supply of NO.