• AKAP350 Targets to the Golgi Apparatus Where it Interacts with CLIC5B and CIP4/S

      Shanks, Ryan; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2002-03)
      A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are defined by their ability to scaffold PKA, but their function depends upon their targeting of PKA and other scaffolded signaling proteins to specific subcellular compartments. We have investigated one AKAP, AKAP350, which can scaffold a number of protein kinases and phosphatases at the centrosome and the Golgi apparatus. The AKAP350 gene is multiply spliced to create three carboxyl terminal splice variants which we have designated AKAP350A, AKAP350B and AKAP350C. Immunocytochemistry in HCA-7 cells demonstrated that AKAP350A was localized specifically to the Golgi apparatus. GFP-fusion proteins representing the carboxyl terminus of AKAP350A identified a carboxyl terminal region responsible for the Golgi apparatus targeting of AKAP350A. Yeast two-hybrid analysis was utilized to screen a rabbit gastric parietal cell library with a 3.2kb segment of AKAP350 (nucleotides 3611-6813) which is weakly homologous to pericentrin. This screen yielded two positive clones representing rabbit chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) and rabbit Cdc42 interacting protein 5 (CIP5). Further yeast-two hybrid binary analysis determined that CLIC1 and CIP5 bound to AKAP350 through adjacent domains located with in the PHR. CLIC1 belongs to a family of proteins which all contain a high degree of homology in their carboxyl termini, and this conserved domain is responsible for several CLIC family member’s ability to bind AKAP350. We isolated the human homologue of bovine p64, CLIC5B, from an HCA-7 colonic adenocarcinoma cell cDNA. A splice variant of CLIC5, the predicted molecular weight of CLIC5B corresponds to the molecular weight of a major CLIC immunoreactive protein in HCA-7 cells. Immunocytochemistry determined that CLIC5B colocalized with AKAP350 at the Golgi apparatus. Yeast-two hybrid binary analysis determined that the final 120 amino acids of CLIC5B interacted with AKAP350. Furthermore, expression of a GFP-fusion protein containing the final 120 amino acids targeted to the Golgi apparatus in HCA-7 cells. CIP5 contains high homology to the human protein Cdc42 interacting protein 4 (CIP4). Yeast-two hybrid binary analysis determined that the first 117 amino acids of both human CIP4 and CIP5 interacted with AKAP350. Immunocytochemistry in HCA-7 cells determined with an antibody recognizing CIP4 and CIP5 localized to the Golgi apparatus. These results suggest that AKAP350 associates with CLIC proteins and CIP4/5, and these proteins interact with the AKAP35A splice variant at the Golgi apparatus.
    • AKAP350: A Centrosome Associated Scaffold Protein

      Schmidt, Hank; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2000-06)
      A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are recognized as key components of compartmentalization and transduction in intracellular cAMP signaling. They allow localization of the Type II c AMP-dependent protein kinase to specific subcellular domains, effectively positioning the enzyme near its substrate to await activation by cAMP. The role of AKAPs as protein scaffolds allows binding of multiple enzymes, regulatory molecules, and structural elements, functioning as a virtual platform for modulation of specific cellular events (i.e. membrane channel activity, receptor clustering). We have cloned a novel 350 kDa AKAP (AKAP350) from human gastric cDNA, and identified partial clones in human lung and rabbit parietal cells. The genomic region containing AKAP350, found on chromosome 7q21, is multiply spliced, producing at least three distinct AKAP350 isoforms as well as yotiao, an NMDA receptorassociated protein. We identified three unique AKAP350 C-termini (AKAP350A, -B, and -C) resulting from alternative splicing of the 3' end of the gene. AKAP350 is associated with centrosomes, as well as with the cleavage furrow during anaphase and telophase by immunocytochemistry. Polyclonal antibodies to individual AKAP350 Cterminal splice variants demonstrate tissue dependent combinations of centrosomal and non-centrosomal distribution. In the polarized HCA-7 colon cell line AKAP350A is purely non-centrosomal while AKAP350B and -C are centrosomal. Anti-AKAP350C is limited to mitotic cells, suggesting that this isoform may be expressed only at entry into M phase. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a rabbit parietal cell library identified a novel TACC (Transforming Acidic Coiled coil Containing) protein family member as a ligand of the final pair of arginine residues in the AKAP350A splice variant. A GFP fusion with the novel AKAP interacting protein verified co-localization with AKAP350 at the centrosome exclusively during mitosis. Microinjection of dividing sea urchin embryos with GST fused to the AKAP interacting protein arrested cell division. Therefore, the AKAP350 protein scaffold may function as a large docking station, providing kinase / phosphatase signals for coordination of cytoskeletal dynamics as well as cell division.
    • Alpha-Tocopherol as an Ergogenic Factor in the Guinea Pig

      Allen, Hugh Clement; Department of Anatomy (1968-06)
    • Alterations in articular cartilage of the rabbit mandibular condyle following surgical induction of anterior disc displacement: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry using colloidal gold conjugate

      Choi, Won-Seok; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 1996-05)
      The purp?se ; ~f this study ~as to test the hypothesis that surgical ' . induction of anterior .disc displacement (ADD) in the rabbit craniomandibular . , .. '' .. · jo~nts (CMJ) will lead to degenerative osteoarthritic changes detect,~ble at the molecular, subcellular and cellular levels in the articular cartilage of the rabbit mandibular condyle. Ultrastructural features of the normal rabbit mandibular condyle were com pared to those of experimental condyles at two weeks· following i~duction of ADD. The quantities of type-VI and -IX collagens, as well· as the components of proteoglycans, such as .chondroitin-4~sulfate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S), keratan s-u~fate (KS) and link protein (LP) were measured using immunogold labeling technique at the light and the electron microscopic levels. The right joint of each of 20 rabbits was exposed surgica~ly, and all discal attachments were severed except for the posterior attachment. The disc was then displaced anteriorly and sutured to the zygomatic ·arch. · The left joint served as a sham-operated control.. Ten additional joints were used as non-. operated controls. Deeply anesthetized rabbits were perfused with 2% buffe~ed formalin two weeks after surgery. The mandibular condyles were excised and decalcified in ethylenediaminetetraac~tic acid (EDTA). Paraffin embedded tissues were sectioned at 5 J.Lm for light microscopic study, while water-soluble plastic .embedded sections were used for electron microscopy. Sections were incubated in monoclonal antibodies directed against C4S, C6S, KS and LP, and in polyclonalantibodies.against type-VI and -IX collagen~. Mter incubation in the appropriate colloidal gold conjugated secondary antibodies, tissue sections were studied with light and electron microscopes. In addition; immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was ~erform~d using paraffin sections, and the PCNA, indices of. control and experimentfll condyles were determined. Pathological alterations were obvious in the experimentB;l condyles, and I appeared to be characteristic oste~arthritic changes. These i~clude .cartilage . . . I neovascularization, chondrocyte clustering, vacuolation, loss of extracellular matrix next to the membranes of chondrocytes, and an increase in number of apoptotic chondrocytes. Increased numbers of PCNA-positive cells in the osteoarthritic cartilage of the experimental group .indicated an active chondrocytic proliferation. Ultrastructural changes in injured chondrocytes included increased amounts of RER and Golgi, suggesting an increase in the synthesis and secretion of possibly degradative enzymes with a decrease in the normal secretory products. The results of the immunocytochemistry using c~lloidal gold conju~ates both at the light and electron microscopic levels showed statistically significant depletion of C4S, C6S, KS, LP, type-VI collagen and type-IX collagen in the osteoarthritic cartilage (P < 0.05). The _reduction of binding molecules such as LP, type-VI and type-IX collagens suggest a possible mechanism for the observed loss of integrity of the extracellular matrix. It is concluded that surgical induction· of ADD in the rabbit CMJ leads to molecular, cellular and extracellular alterations in the articular cartilage of the mandibular condyle similar to those described previously in human ADD and in osteoarthritis of other synovial joints. The results of this study provide evidence that the loss of the. shock absorber function of the disc, and the exposure of the condyles to overloading inay cause the _injured chondrocytes to secrete degenerative cytokines as indicated by the loss of proteoglycans, binding collagens and LP. These molecular changes are expressed at the sub.cellular and cellular levels as osteoarthritis or degenerative: joint disease.
    • Alterations in Articular Cartilage of the Rabbit Mandibular Condyle Following Surgical Induction of Anterior Disc Displacement: Light and Electron Microscopic Immunocytochemistry Using Colloidal Gold Conjugates

      Choi, Won-Seok; Department of Oral Biology (1996-05)
      The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that surgical induction of anterior disc displacement (ADD) in the rabbit craniomandibular joints (CMJ) will lead to degenerative osteoarthritic changes detectable a t the molecular, subcellular and cellular levels in the articular cartilage of the rabbit mandibular condyle. Ultrastructural features of the normal rabbit mandibular condyle were compared to those of experimental condyles a t two weeks following induction of ADD. The quantities of type-VI and -IX collagens, as well as the components of proteoglycans, such as chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S), k e ra tan sulfate (KS) and link protein (LP) were measured using immunogold labeling technique at the light and the electron microscopic levels. The right joint of each of 20 rabbits was exposed surgically, and all discal attachments were severed except for th e posterior attachment. The disc was then displaced anteriorly and sutured to the zygomatic arch. The left joint served as a sham -operated control. Ten additional joints were used as non­ operated controls. Deeply anesthetized rabbits were perfused with 2% buffered formalin two weeks after surgery. The mandibular condyles were excised and decalcified in ethylenediam inetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Paraffin embedded tissues were sectioned a t 5 (im for light microscopic study, while water-soluble plastic embedded sections were used for electron microscopy. Sections were incubated in monoclonal antibodies directed against C4S, C6S, KS and LP, and in polyclonal antibodies against type-VI and -IX collagens. After incubation in the appropriate colloidal gold conjugated secondary antibodies, tissue sections were studied with light and electron microscopes. In addition, immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed using paraffin sections, and the PCNA indices of control and experimental condyles were determined. Pathological alterations were obvious in the experimental condyles, and appeared to be characteristic osteoarthritic changes. These include cartilage neovascularization, chondrocyte clustering, vacuolation, loss of extracellular matrix next to the membranes of chondrocytes, and an increase in num ber of apoptotic chondrocytes. Increased num bers of PCNA-positive cells in the osteoarthritic cartilage of the experimental group indicated a n active chondrocytic proliferation. Ultrastructural changes in injured chondrocytes included increased amounts of RER and Golgi, suggesting an increase in the synthesis and secretion of possibly degradative enzymes with a decrease in the normal secretory products. The results of th e immunocytochemistry using colloidal gold conjugates both a t the light and electron microscopic levels showed statistically significant depletion of C4S, C6S, KS, LP, type-VI collagen and type-IX collagen in the osteoarthritic cartilage (P < 0.05). The reduction of binding molecules such as LP, type-VI and type-IX collagens suggest a possible mechanism for the observed loss of integrity of the extracellular matrix. It is concluded that surgical induction of ADD in the rabbit CMJ leads to molecular, cellular and extracellular alterations in the articular cartilage of the mandibular condyle similar to those described previously in hum an ADD and in osteoarthritis of other synovial joints. The results of this study provide evidence that the loss of the shock absorber function of the disc, and the exposure of the condyles to overloading may cause the injured chondrocytes to secrete degenerative cytokines as indicated by the loss of proteoglycans, binding collagens and LP. These molecular changes are expressed a t the subcellular and cellular levels as osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease.
    • Alterations of rabbit craniomandibular joint tissues following experimental induction of anterior disk displacement : histochemical and immunohistochemical studiea

      Abdel-Hamid Ali, Ayman Mohammed; Department of Oral Biology and Microbiology (1996-04)
      The purpose of this study was to test the ·hypothesis · that surgical induction of anterior disk displacement (ADD) in the rabbit craniomandibular joint (CMJ) leads to cellular and extracellular alterations similar to those that occur in human ADD. The right joint of each of 35 rabbits was exposed surgically and the discal attachments of the CMJ were severed except for the posterior attachment (bilaminar zone). Then the disks were displaced anteriorly and sutured to the zygomatic arch. The left joint~ were treated as surgical controls. Twenty joints from ten additional rabbits were used as non-operated controls The rabbits were· anesthetized, perfused with fixative 24 hours (5 rabbits), 1 week (10 rabbits), 2 weeks (10 rabbits) and 6 weeks (10 rabbits) following induction of ADD. CMJ tissues were then removed after fixation, processed and stained for general histology using H&E stain, glycos.aminoglycans (GAGs) using alcian blue stain, elastic fibers using resorcin-fuchsin stain and nerve fibers. using. silver nitrate stain. In addition, immunohistochemical localization of . . type-I, type-II, type-III, type-VI, type-IX collagens and fibronectin (FN) as well as various GAGs, such as keratan sulfate (KS), chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition to the link protein (LP) and neurofilaments (NF). The results showed a statistically significant enla.rgement of the condyles in the treated joints compared to controls (P < 0.01). The enlargement was characterized by statistically · significant increases in the cartilage thickness and the surface area of the condyle when compared to controls (P < 0.01). In addition, the results showed neovascularization, cell clustering and fibrillation of the displaced · disks, as -weli as, fibrosis of the bilaminar zone. The subchondral bone showed hemorrhage, fibrosi,s and cyst formation. The osteochondral junction showed _ splitting from . the subchondral bone. Condylar .cartllage in ADD joints showed neovas·cularization, cell clustering and hyperplasia. The· articular eminence showed. cell clustering along _ with hyperplasia of chondroid bone ·and synovial membrane. There was a loss of elastic fibers in the displaced disks and the loaded bilaminar zone, and there were fine elastic fibers among the chondrocytes in the condylar cartilage which were· not present in the cartilage of th~ control condyle. The results of the immunohistochemistry showed statistically significant depletion of KS, C4S, C6S, FN, HA (P < 0.05) at 2 weeks. Also, loss of LP, reduction. in type-II (P < 0.05), type-VI and type-IX collagens at 2 weeks compared to controls. Some areas even showed a switch in the type of collagen from type-II to type-I collagen. At 6 weeks there was statistically significant increases in the level of C4S, FN, HA and type-II collagen (P < 0.05). Also, there were increases in type-VI and type-IX collagens levels compared to controls. In addition, newly formed type-III collagen was seen in the osteoarthritic cartilage which was absent in control condyles. Link protein did not reappear for up to 6 weeks. In the bilaminar zone there were statistically significant increases in KS, C4S, C6S, FN (P < · 0.05). Also, type-III, type-VI and type-IX collagens were increased in the experimental groups compared to controls. In additio~, the appearance of newly formed type-11 collagen was seen which was absent in control bilaminar zone. Histological nerve fiber staining and immunostaining both showed that the control and. experimental bilaminar zones were heavily innervated. The bilaminar zone adhesions were also innervated. Some nerves were seen ~perieterating the condyle. It is concluded that surgical induction of ADD in the rabbit CMJ leads to cellular and extracellular alterations comparable to those found in human ADD, · osteoarthritis of the human knee joint and induced osteoarthritis of the knee joint in various animal models.
    • The amino acid transporter SLC6A14 (ATB0,+) and its relevance to cancer

      Karunakaran, Senthil Kumar; institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics (Medical College of Georgia, 2010-01)
    • Amyloid Peptide-a7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interactions: Implications For Cytoprotection In Vitro

      Li, Xinyu D.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2006-11)
      Brain deposition of (3-amyloid peptide 1-42 (A(31 -42)-containing senile plaques has been a consistent finding in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the link between Apl-42 and neuronal degeneration remains unclear. It has been reported that AP peptides bind with selectivity to a l nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (a7nAChRs), in both healthy and Alzheimer’s Diseased brain tissues. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the functional inhibition of oc7nAChRs induced by Api-42, both in systems in vitro and in vivo. Initially, differentiated PC-12 cells were preloaded with fura 2-AM and intracellular free Ca2+ levels were determined by fluorescent imaging. Nicotine-induced Ca2+ signals were inhibited by pretreatment with the a7nAChR-selective antagonists, abungarotoxin (BTX) and methyllycaconitine (MLA). Nicotine induced Ca2+ influx was also blocked by pretreatment with 100 nM Api-42. In the same model, nicotine produced a concentration-dependent increase in cell viability in differentiated PC-12 cells that underwent nerve growth factor (NGF) withdrawal for 24 hr. The cytoprotective action of nicotine was efficiently antagonized by co-treatment with a7nAChR antagonists. A concentration-dependent inhibition of the cytoprotective action of nicotine also was produced by co-treatment with Apl-42 (1-100 nM). Also in differentiated PC-12 cells, nicotine induced a concentration-dependent increase in cell surface Trk A receptor expression. This increase was almost completely reversed by a7receptor-selective antagonists, and by co-treatment with Api-42. In in vivo studies with rats, intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of choline, a selective a7nAChR agonist, produced transient, but dose-dependent pressor responses and prolonged decreases in heart rate. Icv pretreatment with BTX and MLA significantly inhibited the cardiovascular responses to subsequent injection of choline. Pretreatment with the Api-42 also significantly inhibited the choline-induced cardiovascular changes suggesting that the peptide can block an oc7nAChR-mediate response in vivo. Nicotine also was administered to rats by direct injection into a lateral cerebral ventricle. Estimation of Trk A expression in necropsied brain tissues revealed significant increases in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. These increases were significantly inhibited in rats co-treated with a-bungarotoxin or with Api-42. The data derived from these in vitro and in vivo experiments support the hypothesis that low physiological concentrations of AP peptides inhibit the function of a7nAChRs, thereby contributing to the loss in neuronal viability that accompanies Alzheimer’s disease.
    • An Essential Oil Intervention for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Mixed Methods Study

      Langley-Brady, Dawn Louise; Nursing (Augusta University, 2020-12)
      Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a painful, debilitating consequence of cancer treatment and is considered the most adverse of non-hematologic events. Pharmacological approaches to CIPN are often ineffective and cause adverse effects. A problem faced by many breast cancer survivors is poor CIPN treatment coupled with practitioners’ lack of understanding about their subsequent quality-of-life (QOL). Essential oils (EOs) are an underutilized non-pharmacological approach to pain reduction. EO mechanisms of action include non-competing inhibition of 5-HT, AchE, and Substance P and antagonism of TRPA1 and TRPV1. The study aims were to ascertain the effect of an EO intervention (EOI) on CIPN and quality-of-life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors and develop a deeper understanding of CIPN QOL using photovoice methodology. This mixed methods research design employed a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-six breast cancer survivors with chronic lower extremity CIPN were enrolled in the quantitative strand using purposive sampling. Participants were stratified by baseline pain score and randomized to intervention (n = 13) and placebo (n = 13) groups. Participants topically applied an EOI (containing Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum, Pelargonium asperum, Zingiber officinale, Mentha x piperita, and Rosmarinus officinalis ct. cineole) or placebo three times a day for six weeks. Pain was assessed weekly using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2) and daily using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). QOL was assessed using the QOL:CIPN20 and QOL Adult Cancer Survivor questionnaires(QLACS) at baseline, midpoint, and endpoint. Data were analyzed in SPSS using generalized estimating equations. Test of model main effects were significant for visit (SF-MPQ-2, p = .000; VAS, p = .008; QLACS Pain subdomain, p = .026), but not for visit*group interaction effects. SF-MPQ-2 and VAS positively correlated with QOL:CIPN20 scores (r = .843, r = .671); however, QOL:CIPN20 model main effects were not significant. The VAS %Δ for intervention and placebo groups was -14.67 and -7.57 respectively. This was not statistically significant, but is clinically important. Regardless of group assignment, pain and QOL improved. The EOI was well-tolerated and demonstrated 50% more pain reduction than placebo. A subset of participants(n = 9) were enrolled in the qualitative strand, received photovoice-related training, and spent four weeks photographing their life with CIPN. Participants participated in photo-interviewing, a photo discussion focus group, a photovoice exhibition at a local art gallery, and an event de-briefing focus group. Data were analyzed in NVivo using thematic, visual content, and iconographical analyses. Six primary themes emerged from the data: (a) advice for clinicians, (b) positive photovoice experience, and CIPN (c) causes pain, (d) affects relationships, (e) causes disruptions, and (f) alters self-image. Further research is needed to enhance EO pain-reducing efficacy as a natural nursing intervention. CIPN greatly impacts breast cancer survivors’ QOL and is multifaceted. Nursing care for breast cancer survivors should include education regarding the potential severity and lifelong effects of CIPN and benefits of study participation and group support.
    • AN EXPLORATION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS' PERSPECTIVES ON PARTICIPATING IN A PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROGRAM

      Cason, Natalie Michelle; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Children who lack prosocial skills and exhibit social-emotional deficiencies tend to have more behavior problems in school. Chronic behavior problems negatively affect students’ academics, attendance, and ability to develop relationships. Aggression, bullying, and mental health problems have also been linked to social-emotional deficiencies. Children’s prosocial skills and emotional intelligence correlate to children’s social-emotional competence. The researchers investigated students’ perspectives of their experiences with and their perception of the impact a prosocial behavior intervention, Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2012), had on their behavior through focus groups and field observations. Participants were consenting and assenting second through fifth-grade students who were identified through the behavior RTI process in Rural County. Researchers also analyzed quantitative, descriptive data from a Skillstreaming Student Checklist, to investigate how students self-rated their own prosocial skills. The researchers found that the participants were able to identify prosocial skills but did not always choose to apply the prosocial skills they learned to social situations with teachers and peers. All participants communicated positive feelings towards the intervention and liked having the opportunity to escape and process their emotions. Many felt it provided them with tools they could recall and apply to their school settings. Students emphasized the importance of relationships in relation to their behavior, and students interpreted their relationships based on attributes of fairness and care. In discussion of findings, research supported the importance of relationship between teachers and students and supported the finding that students often know prosocial skills and expectations in the school setting but choose their behavior based on the relationship between the student and the teacher. Keywords: prosocial intervention, elementary students, behavioral challenge, school discipline, prosocial skills, emotional intelligence, social-emotional competence, social-emotional learning, RTI, PBIS, Skillstreaming, student perspectives
    • AN EXPLORATION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON PARTICIPATING IN A PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROGRAM

      Aycock, Jeana; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Children who lack prosocial skills and exhibit social-emotional deficiencies tend to have more behavior problems in school. Chronic behavior problems negatively affect students’ academics, attendance, and ability to develop relationships. Aggression, bullying, and mental health problems have also been linked to social-emotional deficiencies. Children’s prosocial skills and emotional intelligence correlate to children’s social-emotional competence. The researchers investigated students’ perspectives of their experiences with and their perception of the impact a prosocial behavior intervention, Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2012), had on their behavior through focus groups and field observations. Participants were consenting and assenting second through fifth-grade students who were identified through the behavior RTI process in Rural County. Researchers also analyzed quantitative, descriptive data from a Skillstreaming Student Checklist, to investigate how students self-rated their own prosocial skills. The researchers found that the participants were able to identify prosocial skills but did not always choose to apply the prosocial skills they learned to social situations with teachers and peers. All participants communicated positive feelings towards the intervention and liked having the opportunity to escape and process their emotions. Many felt it provided them with tools they could recall and apply to their school settings. Students emphasized the importance of relationships in relation to their behavior, and students interpreted their relationships based on attributes of fairness and care. In discussion of findings, research supported the importance of relationship between teachers and students and supported the finding that students often know prosocial skills and expectations in the school setting but choose their behavior based on the relationship between the student and the teacher. Keywords: prosocial intervention, elementary students, behavioral challenge, school discipline, prosocial skills, emotional intelligence, social-emotional competence, social-emotional learning, RTI, PBIS, Skillstreaming, student perspectives
    • AN EXPLORATION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON PARTICIPATING IN A PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROGRAM

      Ocak, Lauren A. W.; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Children who lack prosocial skills and exhibit social-emotional deficiencies tend to have more behavior problems in school. Chronic behavior problems negatively affect students’ academics, attendance, and ability to develop relationships. Aggression, bullying, and mental health problems have also been linked to social-emotional deficiencies. Children’s prosocial skills and emotional intelligence correlate to children’s social-emotional competence. The researchers investigated students’ perspectives of their experiences with and their perception of the impact a prosocial behavior intervention, Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2012), had on their behavior through focus groups and field observations. Participants were consenting and assenting second through fifth-grade students who were identified through the behavior RTI process in Rural County. Researchers also analyzed quantitative, descriptive data from a Skillstreaming Student Checklist, to investigate how students self-rated their own prosocial skills. The researchers found that the participants were able to identify prosocial skills but did not always choose to apply the prosocial skills they learned to social situations with teachers and peers. All participants communicated positive feelings towards the intervention and liked having the opportunity to escape and process their emotions. Many felt it provided them with tools they could recall and apply to their school settings. Students emphasized the importance of relationships in relation to their behavior, and students interpreted their relationships based on attributes of fairness and care. In discussion of findings, research supported the importance of relationship between teachers and students and supported the finding that students often know prosocial skills and expectations in the school setting but choose their behavior based on the relationship between the student and the teacher. Keywords: prosocial intervention, elementary students, behavioral challenge, school discipline, prosocial skills, emotional intelligence, social-emotional competence, social-emotional learning, RTI, PBIS, Skillstreaming, student perspectives
    • AN EXPLORATION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES ON PARTICIPATING IN A PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROGRAM

      Lott, Joe Henry; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Children who lack prosocial skills and exhibit social-emotional deficiencies tend to have more behavior problems in school. Chronic behavior problems negatively affect students’ academics, attendance, and ability to develop relationships. Aggression, bullying, and mental health problems have also been linked to social-emotional deficiencies. Children’s prosocial skills and emotional intelligence correlate to children’s social-emotional competence. The researchers investigated students’ perspectives of their experiences with and their perception of the impact a prosocial behavior intervention, Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2012), had on their behavior through focus groups and field observations. Participants were consenting and assenting second through fifth-grade students who were identified through the behavior RTI process in Rural County. Researchers also analyzed quantitative, descriptive data from a Skillstreaming Student Checklist, to investigate how students self-rated their own prosocial skills. The researchers found that the participants were able to identify prosocial skills but did not always choose to apply the prosocial skills they learned to social situations with teachers and peers. All participants communicated positive feelings towards the intervention and liked having the opportunity to escape and process their emotions. Many felt it provided them with tools they could recall and apply to their school settings. Students emphasized the importance of relationships in relation to their behavior, and students interpreted their relationships based on attributes of fairness and care. In discussion of findings, research supported the importance of relationship between teachers and students and supported the finding that students often know prosocial skills and expectations in the school setting but choose their behavior based on the relationship between the student and the teacher.
    • An Iterative Procedure to Select and Estimate Wavelet-Based Functional Linear Mixed-Effects Regression Models

      Lundeen, Jordan Sarah; Biostatistics (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      Actigraphy is the continuous long-term measurement of activity-induced acceleration by means of a portable device that often resembles a watch and is typically worn on the wrist. Actigraphy is increasingly being used in clinical research to measure sleep and activity rhythms that might not otherwise be available using traditional techniques such as polysomnography. Actigraphy has been shown to be of value when assessing circadian rhythm disorders and sleep disorders and when evaluating treatment outcomes. It can provide more objective information on sleep habits in the patient's natural sleep environment than using the patient's recollection of their activity or a written sleep diary. We propose a wavelet-based functional linear mixed model to investigate the impact of functional predictors on a scalar response when repeated measurements are available on multiple subjects. The advantage of the proposed model is that each subject has both individual scalar covariate effects and individual functional effects over time, while also sharing common population scalar covariate effects and common population slope functions. An iterative procedure is used to estimate and select the fixed and random effects by utilizing the partial consistency property of the random effect coefficients and selecting groups of random effects simultaneously via the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) penalty function. In the first study of its kind, we compare multiple functional regression methods through a large number of simulation parameter combinations. The proposed model is applied to actigraphy data to investigate the effect of daily activity on Hamilton Rating of Depression Scale (HRSD), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Reduced Morningness- Eveningness Questionnare (RMEQ) scores.
    • An Analysis of Diabetes Predictors and Diagnostic Tests in a Sample of African Americans at Risk for Diabetes

      Williams, Lovoria B.; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (2011-05)
      Recently the ADA and International Expert Committee (IEC) endorsed HbA1C for diagnosis of glucose states. Concerns exists regarding discordance between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1C; the committees do not agree on the HbA1C cut-point for diagnosis of sub-diabetic states; and the HbA1C may be more sensitive in AAs. A secondary data analysis of the Fit Body and Soul (FBAS) sample (n = 393) was conducted. FPG and HbA1C values were classified by the current ADA and the IEC HbA1C criteria. A risk factor analysis was also conducted. Results indicate different subject classification based on choice of diagnostic test and criterion used. Subjects classified as normoglycemic based on ADA FPG, ADA HbA1C and IEC HbA1C criterion were (78.9%; 30.7%; 55%) of the sample, respectively. Sub-diabetic state was (18.1%; 55.9%; 31.5%), respectively. Diabetes was (3%; 13.4%; 13.4%), respectively. Moderate correlation exists between HbA1C and FPG (Pearson’s r = 0.63 p < 0.001); there is only slight to fair agreement between ADA HbA1C and ADA FPG classifications and IEC HbA1C and ADA FPG classifications; Cohen’s Kappa = 0.127; 0.234 (p < 0.001), respectively; McNemar’s Chi Square (χ23df = 182.8; 81.54 p < 0.001) respectively. Significant predictors of HbA1C by linear regression were waist circumference (WC) and age; FPG predictors were age, WC and family history of diabetes. The risk factor analysis indicated poor agreement with either diagnostic test.
    • An analysis of gentamicin resistance in staphylococcus aureus

      Wood, David Oliver; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1977-09)