• Understanding African American women church members' health decision-making and described behavior: a qualitative inqui

      McCall, Amber Brown; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (2011-12)
      This dissertation described the processes that African-American women church members used to make health decisions and investigated the experiences and perceptions that faith had on this cohort‘s health beliefs. African-American women historically have suffered disproportionately from health disparities, and African-American women church members have played a central role as their families‘ primary caregiver. It is perceived that faith-based interventions can be effective at reducing health disparities. However, there is little understanding of the impact on the health decision-making process. By undertaking an investigation into this process in a cohort of African-American women church members, this study incorporated and advanced nursing theories used to guide the development of risk-reduction interventions through describing and delineating the role of faith-based health decision-making. A purposive, intensity sample of eleven African-American women church members were recruited to participate. Naturalistic inquiry methodology was used to analyze the interview data, answering the following questions: 1) What process(es) do African-American women church members use to make health decisions, and what health behaviors do these women describe? 2) What is the role of faith (if any) in the health beliefs of African-American women church members? The results indicated religious faith was integrated throughout the health decision-making process; additionally, three overarching processes were used by the study subjects, which are described herein as: 1) Believing in God, 2) Empowering Self, and 3) Using Resources. This demonstrated that their faith was a major influence in the lives participants and that faith impacted their competence and ability to be empowered and resourceful—as well as influenced health decision-making. Due to the targeted, purposive sampling methods along with the qualitative nature of the data obtained from study participant interviews, these research results cannot be generalized to the general population of African-American women. Nevertheless, understanding the process of health decision-making in this sample may be important to enabling researchers, clinicians and clergy to promote further research regarding the interplay of faith in health decision-making, risk reduction activities, and quality of life. The implications for nursing theory, practice and research, and empowering the community are included, and provide the essential foundation for this study.
    • Understanding the role of RAD51AP1 in tumor growth and progression

      Bridges, Allison Elaine; Biomedical Sciences (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Although much progress has been made in recent years in treatment and prevention, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the United States. Surgical removal of the tumor is not possible in all cancer types. Therefore, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have become the standard course of treatment and are often the only option for late stage and metastatic tumors. Unfortunately, chemotherapy and radiation therapy resistance are the greatest challenge for physicians trying to eradicate disease, prevent tumor recurrence, and inhibit distant metastasis. This resistance is derived from a heterogeneous population of cells within the tumor known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are able to maintain a higher capacity for self-renewal due to an efficient DNA repair system. RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1), which is responsible for the successful resolution of double-strand breaks during DNA repair, is overexpressed in wide variety of human cancers. The present study sought to determine the functional role of RAD51AP1 in CSC self-renewal and its relevance to tumor growth and progression and also drug resistance. Our studies provide evidence that RAD51AP1 plays a critical role in CSC self-renewal and maintenance in breast, lung, and colon cancers. To determine the functional role of RAD51AP1 in cancer growth and progression, we generated genetically engineered mouse models in breast, lung, and colon cancer in wild-type Rad51ap1+/+ and knockout Rad51ap1-/- background. In breast and lung cancer models, Rad51ap1 deletion significantly delayed the time of tumor formation and distant metastases, in parallel decreasing the self-renewal capacity of CSCs from each model. Furthermore, to investigate the functional role of RAD51AP1 in colon cancer growth, we utilized AOM/DSS and ApcMin/+ models of colon cancer and found smaller tumor burden along with reduced CSC self-renewal in knockout mice compared to wild-type. Taken together, these data provide evidence that RAD51AP1 plays a critical role in CSC self-renewal in different human cancers and RAD51AP1 could be a novel therapeutic target for cancer prevention and treatment.
    • Unplanned Pregnancy and Elective Abortion for African American Adolescents

      Andrews, Janet L.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1997-03)
      The purpose of this focused ethnography was to generate an interpretive theory about how African American adolescents experience unplanned pregnancy and elective abortion. How African American adolescents experience events and circumstances surrounding pregnancy and elective abortion is not understood. Research questions were: 1) How do African American adolescents view unplanned pregnancy?; 2) How do African American adolescents go about deciding to seek abortions?; and 3) What factors do they consider when making their decisions to abort their pregnancies? Purposive sampling was used to obtain a sample of 12 participants within the ages of 15 to 18 years. Participants were drawn from clients at a nonprofit clinic designed to provide women's health services including abortion. Data were collected by continuous interviews and observation participation. First interviews took place as the participants awaited their abortion procedures. Second interviews were conducted at a time and place convenient for the participants. Four themes were generated during data analysis: l) Relationships with partners, 2) Confiding in others: finding support, 3) Unselfish decision for self and 4) Resolution of the crisis. The integral pattern of Empowerment emerged from the four themes. Through their experiences with unplanned pregnancy and elective abortion, the young women began to assume responsibility, think for themselves, direct their own lives, gain control and act to solve problems to their own satisfaction. The experiences of the young women in this study challenged several pervasive myths or controlling images regarding African American adolescents with unplanned pregnancy and elective abortion. The findings from this study support health professionals counseling teenagers about choices and options that are culturally relevant to them.
    • The Use of Sex Chromosomes as Markers to Determine The Fate of Allogenic Bone Implants

      Amin, Mohammed Assem Mahmoud; Department of Oral Biology (1979-08)
      ,This ·study investigated the survival of whole ·fresh hip marrow allografts in four genetically (DLA) mismatched mongrel dogs, paired on the basis of opposit~ sex. Allografts were placed into tooth extraction · s i'~,es: autographs and nongra fted sites served as contra 1 s. The graft material recovered from the experimental sites was grown ~vitro and chromosomal preparations made from these cells were examined for pre~ence of donor cells, at various tim~s up to 56 d~ys after transplantation. In addition, the survtval of allograft osteocytes was observed dsing histological techniques. The use of t i ssu~ cu-1 ture and chromosoma 1 prep~ rations indicated the survi va 1 of an uni denti fi ed. allogeneic cell type for up to .. 56 days. Thus, the morphologic ch~nges of t~e graft osteocytes did-correlate with the.su~viv~l .. ~·~ ' of those unidentified cells after the 20 d~j survival limit of the osteoc}t~s, indicating that allogeneic bone· cells can survive this ·long in bone grafts and may contribute to he a 1 i ng ·of the defects. ·
    • Use of Sigma Receptor Ligands to Prevent Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis Characteristic of Diabetic Retinopathy

      Martin, Pamela M; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2003-04)
      (First Paragraph)Diabetic retinopathy is a major sight-threatening disease and is the leading cause of blindness among working-aged Americans, affecting approximately 10 to 12 million persons (Wu, 1995). Although retinal vasculature is particularly vulnerable to damage in diabetes, other retinal cells are at risk. Very recently, Barber et al. (1998) documented increased apoptosis of neural retinal cells in experimental diabetes in rats and diabetes mellitus in humans. Notably, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were found to be at particular risk. Ganglion cell death in diabetic retinopathy is thought to be mediated via overstimulation o f N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by glutamate. oRl is a nonopiate and nonphencyclidine-binding site that has numerous pharmacological and physiological functions. In some studies, agonists for aR l have been shown to afford neuroprotection against overstimulation of the NMDA receptor. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the potential use of aR ligands, particularly those that bind specifically to o R l, as neuroprotective agents in the treatment of RGC apoptosis characteristic of diabetic retinopathy. A detailed description of the retina, followed by information about diabetes and the mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, particularly the apoptotic death of RGCs associated with diabetic retinopathy, is provided below.
    • Use of Stress Management to Decrease Nurse Burnout

      Gramling, Lou; School of Nursing (1983-11)
      The impact of stress man~gement education'on the amount of reported nurse burnout was studied. A quasi-experimental two-group (control and experimental) pretest-posttest design was used. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslacfi and Jackson, 1981) and a Demographic Data Form were used to study eight registered nurses who·registered to attend a J two-hour inservice program entitled "Reducing Your Stress Thr6ugh Self-Management.'' The results of the study indicated ' an increase (although not statistically significant) in reported burnout from the group that attended the workshop. Possibly in the allotted one month time frame, participants gained insight into their burnout, but did not have time to implement ne~ coping skills. A relationship was ·found be- ~tween burnout reported.and the nurse's practice setting, with nurses working in the medical-surgical area report~ng higher burnout than those working ,in the other areas represented. Additiohal study of the variables influencing burnout in nursing and interventions to prevent burnout is recommended.
    • The use of the mouse APRT gene in cultured human cells to study point mutations

      Jarrett, Robert A; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1988-08)
      Site-specific mutagenesis, gene transfer, and somatic cell selection have been used to develop a method for the identification of site- and sequence-specific point mutationsinduced in a mammalian cell transgenic system. This method utilizes a mouse adenine phosphoribosyltransferase [APRT] gene containing a specific point mutation in an intronjexon splice recognition sequence, which disrupts mRNA processing and destroys a diagnostic Pst I restriction site. This construct was introduced by cotransfection,with the bacterial n&Qr gene into HTD-114, a non-spontaneously-reverting, Aprt- human fibrosarcoma-derived cell line. The construct s·tudied contains I an A to G transition which is revertible with ethyl methanesulfonate [EMS], a mutagen known to produce G to A transitions in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Exposing two independently derived cell lines containing the construct to EMS concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ugjml (corresponding-to 100 to 0.8 percent survival) produced a frequency of reversion to the Aprt+ phenotype of 10-7 to 10-2 .
    • Use-dependent Antagonism of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors as a Novel Treatment for Drug Addiction

      Hall, Brandon J; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (2011-11)
      The contributions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to the onset and maintenance of drug addiction are well known, but these receptors are too often overlooked as potential targets for addiction treatment. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that use-dependent antagonism of nAChRs by the compound bis (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl) sebacate (BTMPS) offers a novel approach to treatment for drug addiction, and that positive outcomes of this treatment can be demonstrated across different classes of abusive drugs, nicotine or morphine in all three phases of an animal model of what is known as the drug abuse cycle: 1) binge-intoxication, 2) withdrawal-negative affect, and 3) preoccupation-anticipation. Different groups of rats were allowed to self-administer drugs of abuse (nicotine or morphine) on a 24 hr basis for a period of 14 days to establish binge-intoxication. Upon completion of self-administration, each rat was evaluated for withdrawal-negative affect. Subsequent to acute withdrawal the rats were placed in standard housing cages for a period of six weeks. At the end of the six week period, each rat was examined for unrewarded drug seeking responses, or preoccupation-anticipation, for another 14 day period preoccupation-anticipation. Injections of vehicle or BTMPS were administered to the animals during each behavioral phase of the study. Treatment with BTMPS significantly reduced the self-administration of both nicotine and morphine compared to vehicle treated animals. BTMPS treated animals also displayed reduced acute withdrawal symptoms when compared to their vehicle treated counterparts. When intervention occurred during self-administration or acute withdrawal, BTMPS treatment resulted in a significant reduction in drug-seeking responses after a protracted period of abstinence from drug. However, delaying treatment with the compound until the drug seeking phase of the study was ineffective against reducing drug seeking behavior. Administration of BTMPS alone did not appear to elicit adverse side effects in the animals, neither affecting their motivation to obtain food nor compromising the animals' performance during the behavioral procedures in the study. Thus, the resultsof this study support the hypothesis that use-dependent antagonism of nAChRs offers the potential for an alternative approach to treatment of substance abuse and drug addiction.
    • Using peptide-based vaccines to enhance adoptive cell therapy with genetically engineered T cells

      Fan, Aaron; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (6/27/2018)
      Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of retrovirally transduced (RV) CD8 T cells is a powerful technique that has shown promise in tumor eradication in cancer patients. However, some major barriers to current methods are that ACT is expensive, time consuming, and requires harmful and toxic adjunct procedures. The Celis laboratory has demonstrated the use of TriVax, a potent peptide vaccination strategy that dramatically expands ACT cell populations and bypasses the necessity for adjunct procedures. The purpose of my thesis project was to enhance current methods of ACT+TriVax by testing an antigen-specific antitumor response of RV CD8 T cells and if it could be improved with constitutively active STAT5 (CA-STAT5) expression, a protein activated downstream several cytokine pathways that have been shown to play a role in increasing CD8 T cell persistence and resistance to apoptosis. Here, I aimed to test the hypothesis that CA-STAT5 in CD8 T cells enhances an antitumor effect by increasing T cell persistence and efficacy. My results show that TriVax administration selectively expanded frequencies of the ACT cell population expressing gp100-TCR in both blood and spleen. When co-transduced with CA-STAT5, an even higher fold expansion of antigen-specific cells was observed. +CA-STAT5 T cells were able to expand more robustly than -CA-STAT5 T cells upon repeated antigen stimulation (vaccine boost), demonstrating nearly 4000-fold increases in antigen-specific CD8 T cells. +CA-STAT5 T cells also seemed to persist longer in vivo over time, and they expressed lower levels of surface PD-1. Using B16F10 melanoma, ACT+TriVax of these cell populations into tumor-bearing mice demonstrated a powerful antitumor effect, leading to tumor regression in treated groups. CA-STAT5 seemed to recapitulate similar antitumor effects our laboratory observed previously with combinatorial anti-PD-L1 treatment or IL2/anti-IL2 mAb complexes (IL2Cx), suggesting a potential role for STAT5 in resisting the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathway. Altogether, these results demonstrate that RV CD8 T cells expressing gp100-TCR and CA-STAT5 are capable of antigen-dependent expansion in response to TriVax. CA-STAT5 plays a role in increasing T cell proliferation and persistence, as well as increasing efficacy through resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition.
    • Value orientation and activity interests in two cultural groups

      Jih, Guey-Fang; Department of Occupational Therapy (1987-04)
      A study of value· orientation in Ufe goals and activity interests was conducted to explore how culture influences thes_e two variables. The relationship between value· orientation and activity interests was also investigated to explore the theoretical framework of human occupation. The human occupation model borrowed the general system theory and assumed that t Man as an open system, interacted with the environment through a process of input, throughput , output and feedback. The environment is physical, social and cultural phenomena. Output information results in purposeful occupation or human occupation. A descriptive survey was designed using two questionnaires to measure the value orientation and activity interests in two cultural g~oups, American occupational therapy students at the Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, U. S. A. and Chinese occupational therapy students at the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan,· R. 0. C .. The questionnaires were translated into Chinese for the Chinese subjects. The California Life Goals Evaluation Schedules was administered to measure the value orientation in life goals. It included 150 statements categorized into 10 categories: esteem, profit, power, fame, leadership, security, social service, interesting experiences, self expression and independence. Matsutsuyu's Neuropsychiatric Institution Interest Checklist was used to measure activity interests which were categorized with the assistance of occupational therapy faculty at the Medical College of Georgia. The 80 activity items were categorized as active, passive, cooperative, competitive, creative, structured, solitary and group activities. A total.of 35 questionnaires was sent out for the Chinese subjects. All of them were returned , but one of them was not completed. A total of 50 questionnaires was distributed for the American subjects. Thirty·questionnaires were returned, 20 of them were completed. ·Data were analyzed using "STATGRAPHICS" computer package. The statistical tests utilized were_ Student's t-test and Pearson product moment Correlations. Findings indicated that the value orientation in these two groups had .statistically significant differences in fame, power, leadership, security, interesting experiences, and independence. But, there were no significant differences in the activity interests except-in the category of structured activities. A further finding was that the American group in this study tended to prefer passive, cooperative, creative and group activities. The Chinese group tended to prefer passive, and cooperative activities and had no significant preferences in creative versus structured and solitary versus group activities. Considering the correlation of value and activity interests in each cultural group, the results showed that there existed some correlations of value and activity interests. These findings did not supp·ort all the hypotheses, but did provide clues of relationship in value and activity interests.
    • A Variable Prenatal Stress Paradigm as a Valid Drug Discovery Platform for Cognitive Deficits Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

      Wilson, Christina Ann; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (2012-10)
      Cognitive dysfunction is now recognized to be central to the functional disability of several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, treatment options for the management of cognitive symptoms are limited and the development of novel therapeutics has been made difficult by the lack of appropriate animal models. It has been suggested that variable prenatal stress (PNS) in rodents might be an etiologically appropriate model for some components of schizophrenia. Thus, the overall goal of this dissertation project was to conduct a comprehensive behavioral study of the model to assess face validity, and to make a preliminary assessment of its construct and predictive validity. Our results indicate that exposure to PNS results in elevated corticosterone levels following exposure to acute stress, increased aggressive behaviors, as well as increased locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors. Further, PNS rats had altered innate fear responses to predator odor as well as impaired fear extinction. Additionally, PNS in rats was associated with impairments of sustained attention, inhibitory response control, and recognition memory all of which could be attenuated by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine. Collectivity, these data support the premise that PNS in rodents is a valid model system for studying some behavioral components of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as their treatment.
    • Variables That Affect Adaptation In Post-Mastectomy Women

      Pritzker, Joanie K; School of Nursing (1982-05)
    • Vascular dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension: Role of protein kinase G-1a nitration

      Aggarwal, Saurbh; Vascular Biology Center (2011-06)
      Pulmonary hypertension is a common and debilitating complication of pulmonary, cardiac, and extrathoracic pathologies. The development of pulmonary hypertension is associated with elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), and increased vascular remodeling. Pulmonary vascular tone is regulated through the activation of protein kinase G-la (PKG-la), which is the isoform predominantly found in the lungs, via a complex signaling pathway that involves nitric oxide (NO), natriuretic peptides (NP), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Vascular injury secondary to increased reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) in pulmonary hypertension disrupts these regulatory mechanisms, potentiating the development of vascular dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are not completely understood and were the focus of this study.
    • Venous Contraction to Endothelin-1 in Congestive Hearth Failure

      Reddy, Vikram; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2003-04)
      Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is produced by endothelial cells and can stimulate either the ETa or the ETB receptors. The role o f ET-1 and the identity of the endothelin receptors involved in mediating tone in the mesenteric small veins of the Golden Syrian hamster are not known. ET-1 induces venoconstriction, thereby increasing the preload to the heart in congestive heart failure. However, mechanisms mediating contraction to ET-1 in the mesenteric small veins of the cardiomyopathic hamsters in the early and late stages of CHF are not known. Therefore, mechanisms mediating ET-1 induced contraction were determined in the mesenteric small veins o f the Golden Syrian and cardiomyopathic hamsters in the early and late stages of CHF. Baseline intraluminal diameter of small veins was measured before and after treatment with either ETa or ETB receptor antagonists. ET-1 induced contraction was higher in the early stage o f CHF, while it was decreased in the late stage of CHF. Blockade of the ETA receptor decreased ET-1 induced contraction in the mesenteric small veins from the control and cardiomyopathic hamsters in both the early and late stage o f CHF. ETB receptor blockade decreased the ET-1 induced contraction in the control and cardiomyopathic hamsters in the early, but not late, stage o f CHF. Therefore, ET-1 induced contraction in the mesenteric small veins is mediated by the ETa receptors alone in the late stage of CHF, while both the ETa and ETB receptors mediate vasoconstriction in the controls and in the early stage o f CHF. Stimulation of ET-1 receptors is associated with an increase in calcium levels within the vascular smooth muscle cells. It is not known whether the increase in reactivity to ET-1 in the early stage o f CHF or the decrease in reactivity to ET-1 in the late stage of CHF is due to problems with mobilization o f the intracellular calcium levels within the vascular smooth muscle cell. Following ET-1, calcium levels within the vascular smooth muscle cell were increased to a larger extent in the early stage o f CHF, than in the late stage of CHF, in agreement with the vascular reactivity data. Calcium levels were also measured before and after treatment with either ETa or ETb receptor antagonists. Blockade o f the ETa receptor inhibited the ET-1 induced increase in calcium levels in the mesenteric small veins from the control and cardiomyopathic hamsters in both the early and late stage of CHF. However, ETB receptor blockade inhibited the ET-1 induced increase in calcium levels in only the control and cardiomyopathic hamsters in the early stage o f CHF. These results indicate the absence of a functional responses mediated by the ETb receptor in the late stage of CHF. Studies have shown that NO can modulate the contraction to ET-1 in the vasculature. Baseline intraluminal diameter o f small veins were measured before and after treatment with N-nitro-L-arginine (LNA), a specific inhibitor o f nitric oxide synthase. LNA decreased the contraction to ET-1 in the early stage o f CHF, but increased contraction to ET-1 in the late stage of CHF. This indicates that NOS mediates a vasodilatory effect that counteracts contraction to ET-1 in the late stage, but contributes to the vasoconstrictor effect of ET-1 in the late stage o f CHF. NOS activity was measured to identify the NOS isoforms contributing to the modulation o f ET-1 induced vascular reactivity. Total NOS activity was significantly increased in the cytosolic fraction of small veins from hamsters in the late stage o f CHF and in the particulate fraction in hamsters in the early stage of CHF. In the late stage, the increase in NOS activity was inhibitable by 1400W, an iNOS selective inhibitor, suggesting that an increase in iNOS decreases the contraction to ET-1. In summary, in the early stage of CHF, there is an increase in the vascular reactivity to ET-1 associated with an increase in intracellular calcium levels and partially mediated by NOS. This may increase preload and impair myocardial function in CHF. There is an absence o f ETb receptor-mediated responses in the late stage of CHF, associated with very high plasma ET-1 levels and impaired intracellular calcium signaling. NOS activity is significantly enhanced in the mesenteric small veins from the cardiomyopathic hamsters in the late phase of CHF, and this increase in NOS activity is at least partially dependent on iNOS and may contribute to impaired venous contraction to ET-1 in cardiomyopathic hamsters. This may serve as a compensatory mechanism to decrease the preload to the failing heart.
    • Vitamin D Moderators and Supplementation Outcomes

      Havens, Robyn Lynn; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1/25/2018)
      Abstract Robyn L. Havens Vitamin D Moderators and Supplementation Outcomes (Under the direction of Dr. Elizabeth NeSmith) Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health concern affecting approximately 1 billion people, including about one third of the American population. Vitamin D insufficiency promotes the development of chronic diseases. The people most at risk for developing chronic diseases from vitamin D insufficiency are those individuals in the vulnerable populations who experience poor health outcomes. Currently, researchers and clinicians disagree as to the recommended daily allowance and therapeutic range supporting sufficient serum vitamin D concentrations. To provide data to resolve this disagreement, the objectives of this secondary analysis were to determine if age, sex, and body mass index were moderators of serum vitamin D concentration and if varying dosages of vitamin D supplementation affected serum interleukin-6 concentrations. The data records of 60 healthy male and female African American participants were examined who were aged 13-45 years, categorized as overweight or obese, and exhibited a baseline serum vitamin D concentration ≤ 50 nmol/L. The participants were randomized into four treatment groups for the original study: 1) a control group that received a placebo; (2) a group that received monthly supervised doses of 18,000 IU (equivalent to 600 IU/day); (3) a group that received monthly supervised doses of 60,000 IU (equivalent to 2,000 IU/day); and (4) a group that received monthly supervised doses of 120,000 IU (equivalent to 4,000 IU/day). After 16 weeks of vitamin D supplementation, the only statistically significant interaction found was with sex as a moderating variable despite the small sample size of men. No other significant interactions were found, including no interaction with vitamin D supplementation and interleukin-6. Despite lacking statistical significance, the data results suggested that the 2,000 or 4,000 IU/day dosages of vitamin D supplementation was needed for the overweight/obese African American participants to achieve a sufficient serum vitamin D concentration > 50 nmol/L as recommended in the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. These results also suggest that the overweight/obese, African American adolescents and adults needed much more vitamin D supplementation than the 600 IU/day recommended by National Institute of Health researchers. Lastly, the findings suggest that the national clinical guidelines published by the Endocrine Society may warrant revision to at least 2,000 IU/day to be effective for individuals in vulnerable populations. Future research is needed to further elucidate the role vitamin D plays in maintaining overall good health and the benefits of vitamin D supplementation. Keywords: vitamin D, vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D supplementation, age, sex, body mass index, interleukin-6, vulnerable populations conceptual model
    • The VL region of IgG GAR and its role in anti-flavin specificity

      Kiefer, Charles R; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1981-05)
    • w do baccalaureate degree nurses differ from diploma and associate degree nurses in ethical decision-making?

      King, Rebecca B.; School of Nursing (1987-04)
      The purpose of this ex post facto study was to test the hypothesis that baccalaureate degree nurses would make more ethical decisions at a higher moral reasoning level than diploma ·,. or associate degree nurses. A convenience sample of 86 registered nurses voluntarily participated in the study. The Judgement About Nursing Decisions (JAND) instrument, developed by Dr. Shake' Ketefian, was used to measure ethical judgements and decision-making. A demographic survey accompanied the JAND test. Results of the one-way analysis of variance test revealed no significant difference in the mean JAND scores of the baccalaureate degree, diploma and associate degree nurses. These findings resulted in the rejection of the study hypothesis. Results of the seven factor analysis revealed that one factor out of seven pupported that baccalaureate degree nurses make more ethical decisions ·at a higher· moral reasoning level than diploma or associate degree nurses. The findings of this investigation indicate the need to further study what factors play an active role in moral reasoning and ethical decision-making. The findings also support the need to revise and develop valid and reliable tools to measure moral reasoning and ethical behavior.
    • You Really Are Too Kind: Implications Regarding Friendly Submissiveness in Trainee Therapists

      Cain, Lylli; Department of Psychological Sciences; Augusta University (4/20/2018)
      To facilitate patient growth, therapists must immerse themselves in the patient’s world while also being able to see what is needed for change. This process requires finding a delicate balance between supporting and pushing patients. Therapists in training are additionally tasked with incorporating supervisors’ suggestions with their own views on what is needed to help their patients. Beginning therapists with tendencies to be overly accommodating may struggle to reconcile these competing demands. Thus, the aim of the present work is to explore how trainee friendly submissiveness (FS) interfaces with psychotherapy. Prior to training, clinical graduate trainee (n = 35) FS was assessed using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32. Process and outcome data were then collected from each therapist’s first training case. Specifically, each trainee was assigned an undergraduate student volunteer with whom they had four non-manualized therapy sessions over the academic semester. After the third session, patients and trainees completed questionnaires assessing session impact and the working alliance, and two expert raters coded third session videotapes for techniques. Following termination, patients rated the overall helpfulness of the therapy. Trainee FS was significantly negatively associated with patient-rated depth, alliance, and overall helpfulness with moderate effects. Findings from a mediation analysis further suggested that trainees with high FS struggled to focus the therapy in a way that felt productive to patients. Implications for clinical training are discussed.