• SALUBRINAL MEDIATES FETAL HEMOGLOBIN INDUCTION VIA THE EIF2α-ATF4 SIGNALING PATHWAY FOR THE TREATMENT OF SICKLE CELL DISEASE)

      Lopez, Nicole Hope; Biomedical Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder caused by the βS-globin mutation leading to hemoglobin polymerization, vaso-occlusion, chronic hemolysis and progressive organ damage. SCD affects ~100,000 people of African descent in the United States and millions worldwide. An effective therapy for SCD is fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction by pharmacologic agents such as Hydroxyurea (HU), the only drug with FDA-approval that works via this mechanism. The goal of our study was to determine whether Salubrinal (SAL), a selective protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor, induces HbF expression by the activation of p-eIF2α (phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α) and ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4). ChIP analysis in K562 cells showed ATF4 binding in the locus control region along with the predicted ATF4 binding sites in the y-globin promoter and HBB locus. Sickle erythroid progenitors treated with SAL 9, 18 and 24 µM increased F-cells from 5.2%, 7.7% and 9% (p<0.05) respectively compared to untreated cells and decreased oxidative stress. Western blot analysis showed SAL 24 µM induce HbF by 1.5-fold and mediated dose-dependent increases of p-eIF2α and ATF4 up to 11.1%. In preparation for preclinical studies, pharmacokinetic studies showed plasma concentration of SAL (5mg/kg) peaked 6 hours post IP injection. Subsequent treatments of SCD mice (n=10 per group) were conducted with SAL (3 and 5mg/kg), HU (100mg/kg) and water control (vehicle), 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Flow cytometry showed SAL produced a significant 2.3-fold increase in F-cells compared to a 2.6-fold increase by HU on week 4 (p<0.05); SAL did not produce significant changes in peripheral blood counts. Our findings, supports HbF induction and decrease sickle cell formation by SAL in vivo and the potential this agent might be developed as a novel treatment option for SCD.
    • Screening for Circadian Rhythm of Core Body Temperature in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

      Secrest, Janet A.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1987-10)
      The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of core body temperature in spinal cord injured patients. The research question was: Is there a circadian rhythm for core body temperature in spinal cord injured patients? Subjects included 19 in patients with traumatic spinal cord transections at or above the fourth thoracic segment. Oral temperatures were monitored every four hours for a 48-hour period using an electronic thermometer. The range of individual subjects temperature ranges were 1.1 to 5.2 degrees F. The group pattern of mean temperatures from Day 1 was similar to that of Day 2.A significant difference was found between the time periods (p = .038). The higher temperatures occurred in the evening, and the lower temperatures in the morning. The finding of a circadian rhythm for core body temperature was unexpected in spinal cord injured subjects.
    • A search for [alpha] and [gamma] globin gene anomalies among SS and SC patient

      Ryan, Robrt Frederick; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1987-12)
    • THE SECURITY DILEMMA IN RELATION TO RUSSIA’S CYBERAGGRESSION TOWARDS THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 2016 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

      O'Neil, Rachelle; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Voting for public office is often touted as a right, and the ability to do so without interference is vital to the democratic process of the United States. However, during the U.S. 2016 Presidential Election, Russia interfered with the voting process. Given that Russia and the U.S. has a long tenuous relationship that consist of a mutual back and forth, this paper proposes that the security dilemma theory offers an explanation outlining Russia’s cyberaggression toward the U.S. 2016 Presidential Election and whether the aggression posturing was offensive, defensive, or an exchange of both. Additionally, this paper conducts a literature review of the security dilemma theory and the rise of the cybersecurity dilemmas its derivative and ascertains their applicability to the proposed thesis. The paper further argues that in relation to the U.S., Russia, as a Great Power, more likely favors cyberaggression when threatened, real or perceived. This paper uses case analysis as the methodology for testing its research question and answering its thesis. The case analysis comprises of examples of the security dilemma theory, aggression, the cybersecurity dilemma , and cyberaggression exchanged between Russia and the U.S. during the Cold War and 21st Century. After reviewing analysis trends, a discussion follows that covers gapsin this research; advanced knowledge about the theory; the thesis astested; the development or testing of the theory; methodology of cases analyzed; the sources used; measurement of variables; limitations of the study; generalization of results; and finally the reliability or replicability of the results.
    • Segmental responses of the dog paw vasculature

      Hammond, Mary Corinne; Department of Physiology (1968-06)
    • Selected correlates of academic success in baccalaureate nursing students

      Lee, Janet Hughes; School of Nursing (1987-05)
      The purpose of this study~as to examine the relationship between selected cognitive and noncoghitive variables and the baccalatireate nursing student's grade point average (GPA) to determirie which variables correlate with academic success for black· and for white students. The cognitive variables were the Scholastic Aptitude Test. (SAT) scores aqd the GPA on all courses prerequisite to the nursing sequence. The noncognitive variables were social support, self-esteem and expectancy for success. All junior and senior nursing students in a baccalaureat~ nursing program located in the Southeastern U. S. were invited to participate. Data were collected on 72 students using the Norbeck Social Sripport Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hal~-Fibel Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale, and a demographic data sheet. Entry GPA, SAT scores, and nursing GPA were obtained from the students' records. A multivariate analysis of variance utilized to test three hypotheses concerning the difference between the black· and white student groups on the noncognitive variables showed a statisiically significant difference between the black and white student· groups when the noncognitive variables were con~idered ·as a set~ However, there were no significant differences when the noncognitive variables were considered individually. Six hypotheses were tested using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to determine relationships between the nonq,o~gnitive variables and nursing ~\t . GPA. There were no significant relationships between the noncognitive variables and nursing GPA in the black student group. There were significant .relationships between selfesteem and nursing GPA (E = .3468), and between expectancy for success and nursing GPA (E = .2259) in the white student group. Stepwise multiple regression was used to·determine the variables accounting for significant portions of the variance in nursing GPA in the total sample (R2 = .4227). Entry GPA was the first variable to eriter into the model followed by mother's education and by self-esteem.
    • Selective vulnerability of axonal systems to acrylamide and 2,5-hexanedione toxicity

      Derojas, Teresa C.; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicologt (Augusta University, 1989-04)
      Studies were conducted to determine if a selectjv~ vulnerability irrespective of axonal size occurs in the CNS with acrylamide {ACR} and in the PNS with another toxicant, 2,5-hexanedione {HD). In these studies two new and effective HD cat models have been introduced, the osmotic minipump and the subcutaneous injection models.. These models have an advantage ove~ the drinking water model previously used in that the rate of toxicant administration can be tightly controlled. By studying the behavioral consequences of HD intoxication it was. determined that the rate of toxicant administration is important in attaining a given behavioral deficit~ This contradicts previous reports. whi<:h. suggest that total HD dose,, and not the rate of toxicant administration, was the factor responsible for the behavioral and morphological changes· observed in HP toxicity •. These studies have added to the growing body of evidence. which directly opposes the classical hypothesis of selective vulnerability of axons in DA by suggesting that the largest diameter axons are not the most vulnerable to toxicant-induc·ed DA. In these studies smaller diameter axons were shown to be more vulnerable than the.largest diameter axons in the CNS utilizing ACR as the model toxicant, and in the peripheral nervous system utilizing HD. ACR impaired the ability to evoke a dorsal root reflex from the sural nerve {medium diameter) but not from the medial gastrocnemious nerve {largest diameter). HD affected the lengthfrequency response relationship. of secondary muscle spindle {Group II) to a greater extent than the primary muscle spindle (Group I). In addition, electron microscopic investigation of peripheral nerves from animals intoxicated with HD showed that unmyelinated fibers were undergoing degenerative changes at the same doses as myelinated axons of all diameters. An alternate hypothesis of selective vulnerability of slowly adapting systems in preference to rapidly adapting systems was also investigated. In these studies of primary muscle spindle afferent function (position and velocity sensitivity) and differential effect of HD on these two systems was not found. These data also suggested that a defect in muscle spindle afferent activity was not the genesis ·of the ataxia and motor incoordination induced by HD toxicity as was previously thought.
    • SELECTIVITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF GPCR-G PROTEIN INTERACTIONS

      Okashah, Najeah; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (Augusta University, 2020-03)
      Hundreds of human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) converge on activation of four families of heterotrimeric G proteins. Individual receptors select a subset of G proteins in order to produce appropriate cellular responses. While the precise mechanisms of coupling selectivity are uncertain, the G alpha subunit carboxy (C) terminus is believed to be the primary region recognized by GPCRs. We directly assessed coupling between 14 representative GPCRs and 16 G alpha subunits, including one wild-type G alpha subunit from each of the four families and 12 chimeras with exchanged C termini. We found that Gi-coupled receptors were relatively selective for Gi1 heterotrimers, while Gs-, Gq-, and G12- coupled receptors were more promiscuous and always coupled in some measure to Gi1 heterotrimers. Our tests with G alpha subunit chimeras show that the G alpha subunit core and C terminus both play important roles in selectivity. This suggests that the key G protein determinants of selectivity vary widely, even for different receptors that couple to the same G protein. While promiscuous GPCR-G protein coupling is often observed. These interactions behave as expected with receptor-G protein coupling and activation being almost synonymous. Agonist bound GPCRs activate the G protein heterotrimers they interact with, while ignoring G protein subtypes that they cannot activate. However, we have shown that GPCRs can form unproductive complexes with G12 heterotrimers. Vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) forms agonist-dependent complexes with G12 heterotrimers. Unlike V2R complexes with cognate Gs heterotrimers, V2R-G12 complexes do not dissociate when GDP or GTP is present. Stimulating V2R with arginine vasopressin (AVP) does not activate signaling responses downstream of G12 activation. Evaluation of several G12-coupled receptors demonstrated that agonist induced GPCR-G12 complexes have a wide range resistance to GDP. Like V2R receptors, formyl peptide 2 receptors (FPR2) and smoothened receptors (SMOR) formed complexes with G12 heterotrimers that were relatively resistant to GDP. Our results indicate that several GPCRs can form agonist-dependent unproductive complexes with G12 heterotrimers that are relatively resistant to GDP. Suggesting that for some GPCRs agonist-dependent association with G12 heterotrimers is weakly coupled to nucleotide exchange
    • Self-care agency and health-promoting behavior of a miliatry population

      Simmons, Susan; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1990)
      A self-care perspective has emerged as a significant theme in the identification and understanding of health behavior patterns in various populations. This study examined the extent to which exercise of self-care agency and the basic conditioning factors of age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, military rank, duty type, formal education, and perceived health state explained reported performance of health-promoting behaviors in a military population. The Health-Promoting Self-care System Model. was developed from three nursing frameworks and tested in a random sample of 421 active-duty Navy men and women. Data were collected over a three-month period by mailed questionnaires, which included a Personal Data Form, the Exercise of self-care Agency (ESCA) Scale (Kearney & Fleischer, 1979), and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) (Walker, Sechrist, & Pender, 1987). The construct validity of study measures was evaluated by principalcomponents analysis, revealing a five-component structure for the ESCA scale and a six-component structure for the HPLP. Internal consistency reliabilities were .92 for the ESCA scale and .95 for the HPLP. stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that total and subscale scores on the ESCA scale were the strongest predictors (E < .001) of total and subscale scores on the HPLP. The basic conditioning factors of marital status, ethnicity, duty type, formal education, and perceived health state were differentially predictive of scores on the total HPLP and its six subscales. Cross-validation of the derived regression models on two random subsamples (£ = 210 and n = 211) indicated similar findings relative to explained variances and strength of predictor variables. Prediction of group membership into high or low levels of health behavior performance, based on the full sample regression models, established a 67% to 83% range of correct classifications.
    • Self-care and cultural meanings of mothering in african american women with hiv/aids.

      Shambley-Ebron, Donna; School of Graduate Studies (2003-11)
      African American women who are HIV-positive and responsible for mothering an HIV-positive child face many challenges in caring for themselves and their children. This study used critical ethnographic methods to explore the experiences, values, traditions ·and beliefs of African American women to understand how these factors influence self-care and mothering. An Africana Womanist framework was used to guide this study. The study was conducted with a purposive sample of 10. African American · women from the Southeastern United States. The sample participants were HIV-positive and had at least one child who also was HIV-po~itive. The overarching theme derived from the research was "Creating a Life of Meaning", which encompassed domains of · "Disabling Relationships, "Strong Mothering", and "Redefining Self-Care". This study revealed the culturally. specific ways in which African American women mother their children and manage their own care when. living with HIV, a chronic, stigmatizing illness. This study dispels negative stereotypes of African American women and highlights the sttengt}ls ·that women use in their daily lives. This research has the potential to create an impact on the ways in which nursing care is delivered. and self-care promoted for this population.
    • Self-Perceived and Actual Competence of Registered Nurses' Evaluations of Electronic Fetal Monitoring Strips

      Bishop, Kitty Pickard; School of Nursing (1983-05)
      The·. relationship between self-perceived and. actual competence . . . . . of 16 registered nurses' evaluations of electronic- fetal monitoring ' . ' - . strips was 'exainfned 1n a 12-bed labor' an'd delive-ry u~it 1n a 7ob~bed' general hospi ~al·.in ·east .dentra 1 . G~o rg.ta. · The :nurses were admi nistered three structur~d inStruments:· The Demographic Data Questi ·a~nai re, Se·l f-Assessment of El ectro·n.i.c Fetal· Monitoring Ski 11 s, and . . ~ . . . . ~ . . ' - . •" . . . ' . . . Electronic· Fetal ·.~onitciring Ski 11 s Asse.ssment. Data were ·analyzed using Pearson 's· product moment. corre·l ati on· coefficient, and _one-way . · analyses: 'of variance .. The: findings showed no. significant relati.o·nsh.ip between-overall l • • : • se.l f:...pe·rcei ved and actua 1 competenc·e among labor and delivery room nurses' eva·l uations of .EFM strips ( r = -0 .2·295, .E_> .05). There was no· s i gni fi ca~t re 1 at ionsh·i p between n.urses •_· 6vera 11 . self-·percei ved · ·. -~ompetence-when. eva:l.uating EFM.stri'ps :and (1) 1ength . o.femployment . - ' .- ' . - . experienc:e fn.·labor·and delivery_settings, .and (2') elapsed.time since electronic fetal monitoring educq.t·ion .. A significant relationship·· did exist between self-perceived-competence in dist.inguishing be: t~een ~ar1y, va·rtab1e,··and··late 'decelerations 'a,nd. (1) exp_erien.ce. in' ·._·labor and delivery ~.ettings·, and (2) elapsed time sinceelectronic. feta 1 m6ni tori ng educat i·on.
    • Self-Regulation Intervention by Telephone to Reduce Weight and Blood Pressure in Overweight Women with Elevated Blood Pressure

      Fluker, Janet G; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2005-05)
      Excess weight and increases in blood pressure are two biological risk factors that can be modified with changes in lifestyle behaviors. Lifestyle modification involving nutrition and activity level remain the cornerstone of prevention and treatment for individuals who are overweight and hypertensive. Self-regulation intervention delivered by telephone is designed to assist individuals in adopting lifestyle modifications to lose weight and reduce blood pressure. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to test the effectiveness o f a telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention in reducing weight and systolic blood pressure in overweight women with elevated blood pressure. Secondary aims were to test the effectiveness of self-regulation intervention on weight self-efficacy, exercise selfefficacy and health status. Sixty-two overweight women with elevated blood pressure were randomly assigned to either five weeks of telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention (n=31) or usual care control group (n=31). Repeated measurements for outcome variables occurred at Baseline, 6-weeks and 10-weeks. Two-way ANOVA with one repeated factor demonstrated a significant interaction for weight x group (F= 8.79, df = 1/60 p = .004), with individuals in the self-regulation intervention group having a significantly greater weight loss as compared to individuals in the usual care group. Examining weight self-efficacy x group differences there was a significant difference in weight self-efficacy (F= 12.39, df = 1/60 p = .001) with individuals in the self-regulation intervention having a greater increase as compared to individuals in the usual care control group. There was a significant main effect for systolic blood pressure (F = 9.00, df 2/120, p < 01) and health status (F= .4.94, d f = 1/60, p = .03). There was no significant interaction for systolic blood pressure x group, exercise self-efficacy x group, or health status x group. These results support the use of telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention in the primary care setting as a more effective means than usual care to assist overweight women with elevated blood pressure in losing weight and increasing weight self-efficacy. Self-regulation was shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure and improving health status but it did not prove to be more effective than usual care.
    • Self-regulation intervention by telephone to reduce weight and blood pressure in overweight women with elevated blood pressure

      Fluker, Janet G.; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2005-05)
      Excess ·weight and increases in blood pressure are two biological risk factors that can be modified with changes in lifestyle behaviors. Lifestyle modification involving nutrition and activity level remain the cornerstone of prevention and treatment for individuals who are overweight and hypertensive. Self-regulation intervention delivered · by telephone is designed to assist individuals in adopting lifestyle modifications to lose weight and reduce blood pressure. The purpose of this randomized clinical swdy was to test the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention in reducing weight and sy~tolic blood pressure in overweight women with elevated blood pressure. Secondary aims were to test the effectiveness of self-regulation intervention on weight self-efficacy, exercise selfefficacy and health status. Sixty-two overweight women with elevated blood pressure were randomly a~signed to either five weeks of telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention (n=31) or usual care control group (n=31). Repeated measurements for outcome variables occurred at Baseline, 6-weeks and 1 0-weeks. Two-way ANOV A with one repeated factor demonstrated a significant interaction for weight x group (F= 8.79, df = 1160 p = .004), with individuals in the self-regulation intervention group having a significantly greater weight loss as compared to individuals in the usual care group. Examining weight self-efficacy x group differences there was a significant difference in weight self-efficacy (F= 12.39, df= 1/60 p = .001) with individuals in the self-regulation intervention having a greater increase as compared to individuals in the usual care control group. There was a significant main effect for systolic blood pressure (F = 9.00, df2/120, p <. 01) and health status (F= .4.94, df= 1160, p = .03). There was no significant interaction for systolic blood pressure x group, exercise self-efficacy x group, or health status x group. These results support the use of telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention in the primary care setting as a more effective means than usual care to assist overweight women with elevated blood pressure in losing weight and increasing weight self-efficacy. Self-regulation was shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure and improving health status but it did not prove to be more effective than usual care.
    • Self-worth, social support and parenting attributes among pregnant adolescents

      Sykes, Mary K.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1990)
      A study of 34 pregnant adolescents was conducted to examine whether Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) scores could be predicted from measures of self-worth, social support, and age. The Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (Harter, 1989) was utilized to measure selfworth, and the Family Support Scale (Dunst, Jenkins, & Trivette, 1984) was chosen as the social support instrument. A descriptive correlational research design was used to test the hypothesis that child abuse potential would be negatively related to perceived self-worth, perceived social support, and age. Only self-worth was a significant predictor of CAPI scores. Instrument subscales were examined for correlations between self-perceptions in specific domains and components of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. significant correlations between total CAPI scores and perceived social acceptance and romantic appeal were found. Results of this study indicate that perceptions of self-worth and social acceptance may be related to parenting in similar samples.
    • Sense of Coherence and Psychological Well-Being Among Female Adult Children of Alcoholics

      Kito, Noriko; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1998-11)
      Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) have been identified as an at-risk population for alcoholism and depression. However, findings of previous studies have been inconsistent. Adapting the Salutogenic model proposed by Antonovsky (1979, 1987), this cross-sectional correlational study was designed to test a model of psychological well-being among female ACOAs. The constructs in the model were: past life experiences (family functioning in the family of origin and the gender of parental alcoholism), present life experiences (social functioning and self-help group attendance), generalized resistant resources (income and education), stressors (negative life events), Sense of Coherence, and psychological well-being (depression and inclination to problematic drinking behaviors). Following approval from the human assurance committee, a combination of local and Internet announcements were used to recruit self-identified ACOA women between the ages of 30 and 50, asking them to participate in an anonymous survey by mail. To measure research variables, seven pre-existing questionnaires were used with a selfdeveloped demographic questionnaire for this study. One hundred twenty-one participants returned their questionnaire, and 112 cases were used for analyses. Through path analyses, the results of testing the study hypotheses partially supported the theoretical model. Social functioning and family functioning in the family of origin significantly accounted for Sense of Coherence while Sense of Coherence showed a significant direct effect on depression. However, stressors did not significantly contribute to Sense of Coherence as originally posited. Generalized resistant resources did not show an indirect effect on Sense of Coherence. In the test of an alternative model, Sense of Coherence appeared to mediate the relationship between social functioning and depression. Also, in the alternative model, social functioning mediated between stressors and depression and between family functioning in the family of origin and depression. The study findings suggest emphasis on social functioning and Sense of Coherence in efforts to decrease depression among ACOA women.
    • Separation and characterization of proteins isolated from cow's snout epidermi

      Champman, Graeme V; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1973-05)
    • Separation and characterization of urinary mucopolysaccharides by column chromatography

      Lin, Michael; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1964-06)
    • The Separation and Characterization of Young and Old Erythrocytes

      Boyd, Evalyn; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1967-05)
      Results of an investigation by Huisman and Meyering (1960) of Hb-Ar in young and old cells of two adults and three infants using eM-cellulose chromatography showed that the old red blood cells contained considerably more Hb-Ar than younger red cells. Similar studies by Huisman and Horton (1964) on a more limited scale and with the use of Arnberlite IRe-50 chromatography failed to demonstrate differences in the quantities of the Hb-Ar components in hernolysates of young and old cells. Because of this discrepancy it was considered of importance to extend these observations by studying the young and old red blood cells of a relatively large number of normal healthy adult individuals. The Amberlite IRe-50 chromatographic procedure was selected for this purpose because this technique was found to have the advantage over eM-cellulose chromatography of a better differentiation of the Hb-A1a, Hb-A1b, and Hb-Arc components, while the complex of Hb with -SG groups could be demonstrated as a separate component (Hb-Ard) with its own·specific chromatographic properties. In order to assure a definite fractionation of the adult red blood cells into layers of cells with different cell-age--a-new procedure was developed, which moreover, allowed us sufficient quantities of (intact) ·cell fractions for additional characterization.