• Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene TMEM108 Regulates Excitatory Synapse Development and Transmission in the Dentate Gyrus

      Bates, Ryan; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (2014-06)
      The primary purpose of this project is to understand the function of schizophrenia susceptibility gene Transmembrane Protein 108 (TMEM108) in the brain. First, we set out to understand the temporal and spatial expression of TMEME108 in the brain using RT-PCR, mice harboring the LacZ gene driven by the TMEM108 promoter and antibodies targeting the TMEM108 protein. Second, to address protein function mice containing a null mutation in the TMEM108 gene were generated. This mouse was used to determine the effect of TMEM108 deletion on the development of gross brain morphology. Third, we sought to understand the function of TMEM108 in synaptic development and physiology by examining the number and type of synapse as well as recording from brain slices lacking TMEM108. Fourth, we sought to understand the consequence of TMEM108 deletion on animal behavior.
    • Screening for Circadian Rhythm of Core Body Temperature in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

      Secrest, Janet A.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1987-10)
      The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of core body temperature in spinal cord injured patients. The research question was: Is there a circadian rhythm for core body temperature in spinal cord injured patients? Subjects included 19 in patients with traumatic spinal cord transections at or above the fourth thoracic segment. Oral temperatures were monitored every four hours for a 48-hour period using an electronic thermometer. The range of individual subjects temperature ranges were 1.1 to 5.2 degrees F. The group pattern of mean temperatures from Day 1 was similar to that of Day 2.A significant difference was found between the time periods (p = .038). The higher temperatures occurred in the evening, and the lower temperatures in the morning. The finding of a circadian rhythm for core body temperature was unexpected in spinal cord injured subjects.
    • A search for [alpha] and [gamma] globin gene anomalies among SS and SC patient

      Ryan, Robrt Frederick; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1987-12)
    • Selected correlates of academic success in baccalaureate nursing students

      Lee, Janet Hughes; School of Nursing (1987-05)
      The purpose of this study~as to examine the relationship between selected cognitive and noncoghitive variables and the baccalatireate nursing student's grade point average (GPA) to determirie which variables correlate with academic success for black· and for white students. The cognitive variables were the Scholastic Aptitude Test. (SAT) scores aqd the GPA on all courses prerequisite to the nursing sequence. The noncognitive variables were social support, self-esteem and expectancy for success. All junior and senior nursing students in a baccalaureat~ nursing program located in the Southeastern U. S. were invited to participate. Data were collected on 72 students using the Norbeck Social Sripport Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hal~-Fibel Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale, and a demographic data sheet. Entry GPA, SAT scores, and nursing GPA were obtained from the students' records. A multivariate analysis of variance utilized to test three hypotheses concerning the difference between the black· and white student groups on the noncognitive variables showed a statisiically significant difference between the black and white student· groups when the noncognitive variables were con~idered ·as a set~ However, there were no significant differences when the noncognitive variables were considered individually. Six hypotheses were tested using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to determine relationships between the nonq,o~gnitive variables and nursing ~\t . GPA. There were no significant relationships between the noncognitive variables and nursing GPA in the black student group. There were significant .relationships between selfesteem and nursing GPA (E = .3468), and between expectancy for success and nursing GPA (E = .2259) in the white student group. Stepwise multiple regression was used to·determine the variables accounting for significant portions of the variance in nursing GPA in the total sample (R2 = .4227). Entry GPA was the first variable to eriter into the model followed by mother's education and by self-esteem.
    • Self-care and Cultural Meanings of Mothering in African American Women with HIV/AIDS

      Shambley-Ebron, Donna; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2003-11)
      African American women as a marginalized group in American society daily face obstacles related to race, gender, and culture. The stigma of HIV/AIDS compounds the problems and issues that African American women face as they ' manage their illness, childrearing, and other responsibilities of daily living. Within the last twenty years, HIV/AIDS has undergone a transformation, with a shift in the population most affected by HIV/AIDS. Women of color and their children have become the most rapidly growing group of people living with HIV/AIDS. This study will explore how core cultural values influence the self care activities and personal meaning of mothering among African American women who are HIV- positive. An Africana Womanist framework in conjunction with critical social theory will be used to guide and analyze this study. Knowledge generated from this research study will lead to the development of culturally appropriate theory development, and has the potential for developing empowering and liberating resistance patterns in young African American women.
    • Self-Perceived and Actual Competence of Registered Nurses' Evaluations of Electronic Fetal Monitoring Strips

      Bishop, Kitty Pickard; School of Nursing (1983-05)
      The·. relationship between self-perceived and. actual competence . . . . . of 16 registered nurses' evaluations of electronic- fetal monitoring ' . ' - . strips was 'exainfned 1n a 12-bed labor' an'd delive-ry u~it 1n a 7ob~bed' general hospi ~al·.in ·east .dentra 1 . G~o rg.ta. · The :nurses were admi nistered three structur~d inStruments:· The Demographic Data Questi ·a~nai re, Se·l f-Assessment of El ectro·n.i.c Fetal· Monitoring Ski 11 s, and . . ~ . . . . ~ . . ' - . •" . . . ' . . . Electronic· Fetal ·.~onitciring Ski 11 s Asse.ssment. Data were ·analyzed using Pearson 's· product moment. corre·l ati on· coefficient, and _one-way . · analyses: 'of variance .. The: findings showed no. significant relati.o·nsh.ip between-overall l • • : • se.l f:...pe·rcei ved and actua 1 competenc·e among labor and delivery room nurses' eva·l uations of .EFM strips ( r = -0 .2·295, .E_> .05). There was no· s i gni fi ca~t re 1 at ionsh·i p between n.urses •_· 6vera 11 . self-·percei ved · ·. -~ompetence-when. eva:l.uating EFM.stri'ps :and (1) 1ength . o.femployment . - ' .- ' . - . experienc:e fn.·labor·and delivery_settings, .and (2') elapsed.time since electronic fetal monitoring educq.t·ion .. A significant relationship·· did exist between self-perceived-competence in dist.inguishing be: t~een ~ar1y, va·rtab1e,··and··late 'decelerations 'a,nd. (1) exp_erien.ce. in' ·._·labor and delivery ~.ettings·, and (2) elapsed time sinceelectronic. feta 1 m6ni tori ng educat i·on.
    • Self-Regulation Intervention by Telephone to Reduce Weight and Blood Pressure in Overweight Women with Elevated Blood Pressure

      Fluker, Janet G; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2005-05)
      Excess weight and increases in blood pressure are two biological risk factors that can be modified with changes in lifestyle behaviors. Lifestyle modification involving nutrition and activity level remain the cornerstone of prevention and treatment for individuals who are overweight and hypertensive. Self-regulation intervention delivered by telephone is designed to assist individuals in adopting lifestyle modifications to lose weight and reduce blood pressure. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to test the effectiveness o f a telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention in reducing weight and systolic blood pressure in overweight women with elevated blood pressure. Secondary aims were to test the effectiveness of self-regulation intervention on weight self-efficacy, exercise selfefficacy and health status. Sixty-two overweight women with elevated blood pressure were randomly assigned to either five weeks of telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention (n=31) or usual care control group (n=31). Repeated measurements for outcome variables occurred at Baseline, 6-weeks and 10-weeks. Two-way ANOVA with one repeated factor demonstrated a significant interaction for weight x group (F= 8.79, df = 1/60 p = .004), with individuals in the self-regulation intervention group having a significantly greater weight loss as compared to individuals in the usual care group. Examining weight self-efficacy x group differences there was a significant difference in weight self-efficacy (F= 12.39, df = 1/60 p = .001) with individuals in the self-regulation intervention having a greater increase as compared to individuals in the usual care control group. There was a significant main effect for systolic blood pressure (F = 9.00, df 2/120, p < 01) and health status (F= .4.94, d f = 1/60, p = .03). There was no significant interaction for systolic blood pressure x group, exercise self-efficacy x group, or health status x group. These results support the use of telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention in the primary care setting as a more effective means than usual care to assist overweight women with elevated blood pressure in losing weight and increasing weight self-efficacy. Self-regulation was shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure and improving health status but it did not prove to be more effective than usual care.
    • Sense of Coherence and Psychological Well-Being Among Female Adult Children of Alcoholics

      Kito, Noriko; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1998-11)
      Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) have been identified as an at-risk population for alcoholism and depression. However, findings of previous studies have been inconsistent. Adapting the Salutogenic model proposed by Antonovsky (1979, 1987), this cross-sectional correlational study was designed to test a model of psychological well-being among female ACOAs. The constructs in the model were: past life experiences (family functioning in the family of origin and the gender of parental alcoholism), present life experiences (social functioning and self-help group attendance), generalized resistant resources (income and education), stressors (negative life events), Sense of Coherence, and psychological well-being (depression and inclination to problematic drinking behaviors). Following approval from the human assurance committee, a combination of local and Internet announcements were used to recruit self-identified ACOA women between the ages of 30 and 50, asking them to participate in an anonymous survey by mail. To measure research variables, seven pre-existing questionnaires were used with a selfdeveloped demographic questionnaire for this study. One hundred twenty-one participants returned their questionnaire, and 112 cases were used for analyses. Through path analyses, the results of testing the study hypotheses partially supported the theoretical model. Social functioning and family functioning in the family of origin significantly accounted for Sense of Coherence while Sense of Coherence showed a significant direct effect on depression. However, stressors did not significantly contribute to Sense of Coherence as originally posited. Generalized resistant resources did not show an indirect effect on Sense of Coherence. In the test of an alternative model, Sense of Coherence appeared to mediate the relationship between social functioning and depression. Also, in the alternative model, social functioning mediated between stressors and depression and between family functioning in the family of origin and depression. The study findings suggest emphasis on social functioning and Sense of Coherence in efforts to decrease depression among ACOA women.
    • The Separation and Characterization of Young and Old Erythrocytes

      Boyd, Evalyn; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1967-05)
      Results of an investigation by Huisman and Meyering (1960) of Hb-Ar in young and old cells of two adults and three infants using eM-cellulose chromatography showed that the old red blood cells contained considerably more Hb-Ar than younger red cells. Similar studies by Huisman and Horton (1964) on a more limited scale and with the use of Arnberlite IRe-50 chromatography failed to demonstrate differences in the quantities of the Hb-Ar components in hernolysates of young and old cells. Because of this discrepancy it was considered of importance to extend these observations by studying the young and old red blood cells of a relatively large number of normal healthy adult individuals. The Amberlite IRe-50 chromatographic procedure was selected for this purpose because this technique was found to have the advantage over eM-cellulose chromatography of a better differentiation of the Hb-A1a, Hb-A1b, and Hb-Arc components, while the complex of Hb with -SG groups could be demonstrated as a separate component (Hb-Ard) with its own·specific chromatographic properties. In order to assure a definite fractionation of the adult red blood cells into layers of cells with different cell-age--a-new procedure was developed, which moreover, allowed us sufficient quantities of (intact) ·cell fractions for additional characterization.
    • Separation of Adenovirus Type 5 Proteins by Disc Electrophoresis

      Bedinggield, Rebecca Birchmore; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1968-06)
    • Sex Differences in Renal Inner Medullary Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulation and Nitric Oxide Synthase Contribution to Blood Pressure Control in Hypertension

      Brinson, Krystal N.; Department of Physiology (2013-06)
      There are sex differences in the development of hypertension with young males developing a more severe pathology faster than age-matched females; however, with advancing age this “protection” in females is lost. The mechanisms responsible for the sex difference in hypertension are unclear but the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO)/NO synthase (NOS) pathway which is important in blood pressure (BP) regulation has been implicated. Systemic inhibition of NOS using L-NAME (2, 5, and 7 mg/kg/day at 4 days per dose in drinking water) in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) resulted in dose-dependent increases in BP measured via telemetry; however, females exhibited greater increases in BP than males. Treatment of male and female SHR chronically with L-NAME at a dose of 7 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly increased BP in both sexes, however, a previous exposure to L-NAME increased BP sensitivity to chronic NOS inhibition in females exclusively; this confirmed our hypothesis that female SHR are more dependent on NOS for BP control compared to male. Important for BP control, the renal inner medulla (IM) is the only region of the kidney to exhibit sex differences in NOS enzymatic activity. Female SHR have greater total NOS activity than males and we observed that it is not due to differences in phosphorylation or protein expression. Therefore, we examined potential molecular mechanisms to explain the sexual dimorphism in renal IM NOS activity. The endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been indicated in hypertension. However, HPLC analysis of ADMA and the essential NOS substrate L-arginine were equal between the sexes in plasma and renal IM of SHR and thus do not contribute to the sex differences in renal IM NOS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential NOS cofactor and decreased BH4 availability has been indicated to be elevated in patients and animal models with essential hypertension. BH4 levels can be decreased via oxidation and male SHR have higher levels of oxidative stress compared to females. HPLC analysis of biopterin levels in control and tempol (antioxidant) treated SHR showed that female SHR have greater total biopterin, BH4 and BH2 levels than males in the renal IM and that these sex differences were dependent on the presence of oxidative stress. Studies next examined if greater biopterin levels in females translated into greater NOS activity in females. In vitro analysis of NOS enzymatic activity confirmed that greater oxidative stress and deficiency of BH4 of male SHR in the renal IM resulted in lower levels of NOS activity relative to female SHR. In addition, in vitro analysis of renal IM NOS activity revealed that 1) female SHR exhibit a sex hormone-dependent increase in renal IM NOS activity from sexually immature, pre-hypertensive age to sexually mature, hypertensive age that is not evident in male SHR and 2) that the ability of female sex hormones to stimulate NOS activity is time-dependent. In conclusion, the combination of BH4 deficiency in males caused by elevated oxidative stress and the ability of female sex hormones to stimulate NOS activity in female SHR and not ADMA or L-arginine, contribute to the sexual dimorphism in renal IM NOS activity. In addition, differences in sensitivity to NOS levels in SHR aid in creating sex differences in BP control.
    • Sex Role Stereotyping and Nursing Management Effectiveness: A Correlational Study

      JoAnn, Alderman Ortgiesen; Department of Nursing (1983-03)
      The purp se o f this study is to nvesti gate the re lationship b tween ne s percepti n of h r hi s sex role and the indivfdual s perception of her hi _management effecti ven s s A conveni enc e sample o f 20 9 Nursing Service Administrators holding membership in the S ociety of N u r s i n g s e r v c e Ad m i n f s t r a tors i n the s t a t e s of F 1 o r i d a and Georgi a was use d Data were collected usfng the Bern Sex Ro 1 e J n v e nt or y a n d t he Ma n age men t E f feet i v en e s s In struments plus a_ amogra hfc data heet All question n ires were self administered The hypoth s we e 1 There is a positive relation hip between the sel f perc eptio n of bei rig androgynous a nd the p_ercepti on of m anagement effec tfv eness he 1 d by the fern a 1 e Di r ector of Nursing Results upport the hypot esis 2 There is ne ative relationship betwe n the high femi ni n e self perception and the i ndi vi dua 1 s perception of management effecti en ss Results in d icate no fe laiionshfp exists ther fore the hypothesis ts not s up po r t e d 3 Ther e s a neg_a ti ve relati onship between the htgh m sculi ne s elf perception and the tn d vidual s percepti on of ma agem nt effentiveness Ftndings indicate that p o s t i v e r e l a t f on s h i p ex i s t s between h i g h mas c u 1 1 n e s e 1 f percep ti on and management effecti ven_e ss th e refore the hypothesis is not supported Descript ive findings indi ate that the respondents of t h i s pop u T a t i o n we r e mo s t 1 k e 1 y to be a w h i t e p r o testant female who practices her religion has a mean of 1 1 children is43 6 years of age a nd had a mother who did not work out of the home Professionally the re s p o n de n t i s tn o s t 1 i k e 1 y to h a v e a d i p 1 o m a i n n u r s i n g wi t h this di plorna being the highe st level attained hold the t i t 1 e of D i r e c tor o f N u r si n g h a s been i rt he r P res e nt p6sition fbr a mean rif 5 2 years and ha s a mean of 19 7 years of ex p e r i en c e i n n u r s i ng The respondent i s m o s t lik ly to be em ldyed in a private non profit h spit 1 with a b ect size rang irig from ld0 298 Implications are that masculine s x o1 chara teris tt s are the most desirable cha racteristics in th practice of nursing _admiJ1istratton D irections for f u rther re search 1 nc 1 u de 1 measuring andro gyny and management effectiveness usihg a behavioral base instr ment 2 comparing the perception and or behaviors bet ween male a nd f ema le nursing a dmi ni strators and between admin strators and non ad inistrati ve urses 3 the development of a valid behavioral instrument which differentiates sex role groups and management effe tiveness
    • Signaling in the Late Phase of T Cell Activation

      Chang, Jin-Wen; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics (2004-12)
      Engagement of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces multiple signaling pathways, including the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We previously reported the importance of sustained ERK activation for interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Inhibition o f ERK activation from 2 to 6 hours after TCR stimulation significantly impaired IL-2 production and activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) family transcription factor, c-Rel, whereas inhibition during the first 4 hours had no effect. Loss o f the adaptor protein, She, results in impaired ERK activation during the late phase of TCR stimulation, and leads to severely reduced IL-2 production and c-Rel activation. These data suggest a novel activation process following TCR stimulation that involves She and late ERK activation-dependent regulation of c-Rel activation and IL-2 production. To further understand the mechanisms underlying this pathway, we employed a two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis/ mass spectrometry (2D-DIGE/MS)-based proteomics approach. This approach to identify members of a Shc-containing signaling complex revealed alpha tubulin and beta actin as She associated proteins. Furthermore, we identified proteins whose expression and modification are triggered by TCR stimulation and are under control of the ERK signaling pathway, by comparing TCR-stimulated samples with or without MEK (MAPK kinase) inhibitor treatment. Here we report heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K) as a novel downstream target of ERK in TCR signaling. Functional studies using small RNA interference showed that hnRNPK regulated IL-2 production at the transcriptional level. We also showed that knockdown o f hnRNP-K expression specifically impaired NF-kB activity, but caused a relatively minor effect on activating protein-1 (AP-1) activity and expression of CD69 or CD25. Biochemical analysis showed that knockdown of hnRNP-K caused enhanced proteolysis of the protooncogene Vav. MEK inhibitor treatment during the late phase of stimulation also enhanced proteolysis of Vav. Moreover, knockdown of hnRNP-K impaired Vav-mediated transcriptional activation of IL-2 gene. Taken together; these results indicate that ERK signaling modulates IL-2 production by regulating Vav activity through the function of hnRNP-K. We also examined changes in phosphoprotein profiles upon TCR stimulation and MEK inhibitor treatment. Results obtained from these three different approaches provide a further understanding of the mechanisms that regulate late phase T cell activation as well as the components required for full activation o f T cells.
    • Signaling Mechanism of Blood-Retinal Barrier Regulation: Role of Mitogen-Activated

      Yang, Jinling; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2011-03)
      Breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is an early hallmark of diabetic retinopathy. A critical component in retinal vascular hyper-permeability is increased production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a potent permeability factor that activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), an endogenous anti-permeability factor, blocks VEGF-induced vascular permeability increase. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of VEGF and PEDF in regulating endothelial permeability are not yet clear. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that VEGF induces paracellular permeability via beta-catenin nuclear translocation/transcriptional activation and subsequent upregulation of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). This current study tests the role of two MAP kinases, p38 and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), in regulating VEGFinduced beta-catenin signaling, uPAR expression and BRB breakdown. We also evaluate the effects of PEDF on this VEGF permeability inducing pathway. The role of MAP kinase in this VEGF permeability inducing pathway was first evaluated using inhibitors of p38 and ERK. These inhibitors preserve the endothelial barrier function upon VEGF treatment. In confluent endothelial cells, cytosolic beta-catenin is phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) then ubiquitinated and degraded. With VEGF treatment, GSK is phosphorylated/inactive followed by beta-catenin cytosolic accumulation, nuclear translocation and subsequent uPAR expression. These effects were blocked by MAP kinases inhibitors. This indicates p38 and ERK as mediators of VEGF-induced beta-catenin signaling, uPAR expression and endothelial barrier breakdown. Next, it was found that PEDF not only blocks VEGF-induced endothelial permeability increase and MAP kinase activation but also prevents the activation of GSK/beta-catenin signaling as well as uPAR expression. However, PEDF did not block VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) phosphorylation suggesting that PEDF acts downstream of VEGFR-2 and upstream of MAP kinase level. To further evaluate the role of p38 in regulating VEGF-induced permeability, adenovirusmediated delivery of p38alpha mutants was used. One p38alpha mutant has an altered ATP-binding site thus looses its activity. It is more efficient in blocking VEGF-induced GSK/beta-catenin signaling, uPAR expression and paracellular permeability increase. This study identifies p38alpha and ERK as mediators of VEGF permeability-inducing signaling. They could also serve as potential therapeutic targets for diseases featured by blood-retinal barrier dysfunction.
    • Significance of Small Heat Shock Proteins HSPB1 and HSPB5 in Aggregation and Degradation of Amyloid Proteins

      Ojha, Juhi; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2011-06-10)
      Molecular chaperones protect cells from the deleterious effects of protein misfolding and aggregation. Neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta (Ap) aggregates and its deposition in senile plaques are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We observed that the overall content of aB-crystallin, a small heat shock protein molecular chaperone, decreased in AD model mice in an age-dependent manner. We hypothesized that aB-crystallin protects cells against Ap toxicity. To test this, we crossed aB-crystallin/HspB2 deficient (CRYAB'A HSPB2'A) mice with AD model transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein. Transgenic and non-transgenic mice in chaperone-sufficient or deficient backgrounds were examined for representative behavioral paradigms for locomotion and memory network functions - (i) spatial orientation and locomotion was monitored by open field test; (ii) sequential organization and associative learning was monitored by fear conditioning and (iii) evoked behavioral response was tested by hot plate method. Interestingly, aB-crystallin/HspB2 deficient transgenic mice were severely impaired in locomotion compared to each genetic model separately. Our results highlight a synergistic effect of combining chaperone deficiency in a transgenic mouse model for AD underscoring an important role for chaperones in protein misfolding diseases.
    • Small Nuclear RNA Sythesis in Isolated Mouse Erythroleukemia Cell Nuclei

      Braziel, Nina; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1978-06)
      A set of small nuclear RNA.sp~cies (snRNA) in eukaryotic cells have been described. Their cellular function and method of formation is unknown. SnRNAs are found predominately in the nucleus and have been - shown to consist of 9-14 discrete species (1). An in vitro isolated nuclear system capable of synthesizing this class of RNA would greatly facilitate the study of l) the RNA polymerase(s) responsible for their. synthesis and pos$ible derivation from other classes of nuclear RNA, 2) transport from the nucleus and 3) post transcriptional modifications such as methylation and capping. Mouse erythroleukemia cell nuclei were capable of synthesizing RNA linearly for 70 minutes. A labeled ribonucleoside triphosphate was . ' incorporated into· RNA at a rate of 7 pmols/~gnuclear DNA/50 minutes. . " Maximum synthetic activity required the presence of high concentrations of all four ribonucleoside triphosphates (1 mM), a low incubation temperature (25°C), ~nd 5 x 107 nuclei/ml. The effect of a-amanitin on total RNA synthesis was examined. RNA polymerases A, B, and C were functioning in nuclei isolated from MEL cells in mid-log phase. The RNA synthesized .:!.!!_ vitro sedimented in sucrose gradients at approximately 4 to 20S. The synthesis of two species of rapid turn-over snRNA (C and A) was· detected, one with the same electrophoretic mobility as 5S rRNA and one with that of 4.5S pre-tRNA. Indications of the synthesis qf snRNA species D, E, arid F were observed as was the synth~sis ·of snRNA species· ~~, which unlike D, E; and F can be recovered from both cytoplasmic and nuclear cell fractions .
    • Social Determinants of Health Outcomes in Older Mexican American Cancer Survivors

      Gomez, Wanda L.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (12/15/2011)
      This dissertation study examined the effects of economic deprivation, financial strain, linguistic acculturation, and perceived social support on functional status and depressive symptoms among older Mexican American cancer survivors. Potential mediation effects of linguistic acculturation and perceived social support were also explored. Ecosocial theory provided the framework for this analysis, and a secondary data set analysis was employed using the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE). The H-EPESE was a longitudinal study with 5 waves of data currently available from 1993 to 2005. The original study interviewed 3,050 older Mexican Americans living in 5 southwestern states. Data was pooled from 5 waves of the original study spanning over 10 years from 1993 to 2005, respondents reporting a history of cancer were identified, and the synthetic cohort approach was used to center data on the event of cancer diagnosis providing pre- and post-cancer data for each respondent. Economic deprivation and financial strain were not found to be significantly related to functional status and depressive symptoms. Age was found to be significantly associated with functional status such that higher age was associated with higher mobility impairment. Age was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms; however, perceived social support was significantly associated with depressive symptoms such that a higher perceived social support was associated with lower depressive symptoms.
    • Social Support and Coping Behaviors in Patients Diagnosed With Cancer

      Dunson-Martin, Carol; Department of Nursing (1988-11)