• A qualitative study of urinary excretion of carbohydrates by mentally retarded children

      Cravey, Eurgene C; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1964-08)
    • Quality of Life in the Elderly with Cancer

      Chen, Huei-ling; School of Nursing (Medical College of Georgia, 1995-01-25)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among demographic variables, symptom distress, and quality of life in the elderly with cancer. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 subjects. Data were obtained from the completion of a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the Quality of Library Index-Cancer Version (QLI-CV), and the Symptom Distress Scale (SDS). Pearson product moment correlation was employed to analyze the relationship between selected demographic variables and the total QLI-CV as well as the four subscales, and the relationship between the SDS and the total QLI-CV as well as the four subscales. Positive relationship was found between age and the total QLI-CV as well as the health/functioning, socioeconomic, and psychological/spiritual subscales (p<.05). Symptom distress had a negative correlation with the total QLI-CV and all four subscales (p< .05). Individuals who were married or widowed had higher scores on the total QLI-CV and on the psychological/spiritual and socioeconomical subscales than those who were single, divorced or separated. Using stepwise multiple regression, symptom distress and marital status were found to be significant predictors of quality of life. Implications for nursing, and recommendations for further study were described.
    • Quantification of PAS reactive materials in the renal cortices of rat and mouse

      Kehl, Thomas E.; Department of Anatomy (1977-07)
      The purpose of this study was_to quantify any age-related changes in PAS reactivi-ty in the renal cortex of ~ndiseased rat and mouse kidneys, and to apply statistical analysis (Student's t-Test) to the data obtained to determine (1) ·intraspecific PAS reactivity changes with age and (2) interspecific PAS.reactivity relationships within four relative age g.roups. The kidneys were removed, longitudinally divided at the hilus, fixed with a solution of ethanol: formalin: acetic acid (AFA), and embedded inparaffin. Sections 1011 in thickness were mounted and stained utilizing routinePAS·procedures. Significant differences were found between age groups within each species, with both rat and mouse exhibit_ing a. peak of PAS reactivity. in a ~iddle ag_e group, with significantly lower reactivity,in the younger and older age groups. The interspecific relationships wer_e· significantly different when identical areas (8 X 104 ]1 2 ) of cortex were compared. In order to cqmpare interspecific tubular ·PAS rea~tive relationships, the number of tubules per area within each age_ group~of each species was determined. No significant intraspecific,. changes in tubules perJarea .occurred with age in either species, but the mouse had significantly more tubules per area than rat. , This data was applied· to the ·area ·comparison to illustrat_e the more intense PAS reactivity· in rat ·tubular basement membranes and brush borde:r;s when compar~d· with· mouse:. tubular basement membra.nes and. brush borders.
    • Quantitative staphylococcal antibodies against Jensen's antigen A

      Rinker, Geraldine; Department of Medicine (1964-06)
    • Race and Income Association with Health Service Utilization for Veterans with Heart Failure

      Landrum, Laurie G.; Department of Nursing (2012-07)
      Disproportionate heart failure outcomes exist for Blacks in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) despite equitable access and financial barrier minmization. No study has examined the association of race and income with health service utilization for veterans with heart failure. This observational study investigated race and income associations with readmissions, bed days of care, and emergency room (ER) visits for veterans with heart failure after controlling for predisposing, enabling, and illness severity factors. Medical record data were collected for 149 veterans telemonitored for heart failure during 2008-2011. Heart failure symptoms severity and comorbidities were measured using investigator-adapted scales based on the New York Heart Association IIV scale and the Charlson comorbidity index. Heart failure related outcomes (30 day, 90 day, 1 year, and total readmissions, ER visits, and total bed days of care) were modeled controlling for age, marital status, and heart failure and comorbidity severity. Of patients younger than 60 years of age, 18% were Black compared to 11% of Whites, Χ2 (2, N=149) = 5.15, p= .02. Blacks had a much higher comorbidity prevalence than Whites, p = .000. Ischemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease rates were double and triple national VHA rates, respectively, among Whites and Blacks. Race did not predict readmissions, bed days of care, or ER visits. The odds of a readmission or bed day of care ever decreased by 38% and 43%, respectively, for married men, p = .03. The odds of a readmission or bed day of care ever due to severe heart failure—compared to less severe heart failure—were four to five times higher, respectively, p ≤ .004. Income increased the odds of total bed days of care by 14%, p = .00, holding race constant. Overall, the sample experienced far fewer readmissions, bed days of care, or ER visits, compared to VHA national rates, but sample size may have limited accurate comparisons.
    • Race and income association with health service utilization for veterans with heart failure

      Landrum, Laurie; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 2012-07)
      Disproportionate heart failure outcomes exist for Blacks in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) despite equitable access and financial barrier minmization. No study has examined the association of race and income with health service utilization for veterans with heart failure. This observational study investigated race and income associations with readmissions, bed days of care, and emergency room (ER) visits for veterans with heart failure after controlling for predisposing, enabling, and illness severity factors. Medical record data were collected for 149 veterans telemonitored for heart failure during 2008-2011. Heart failure symptoms severity and comorbidities were measured using investigator-adapted scales based on the New York Heart Association IIV scale and the Charlson comorbidity index. Heart failure related outcomes (30 day, 90 day, 1 year, and total readmissions, ER visits, and total bed days of care) were modeled controlling for age, marital status, and heart failure and comorbidity severity. Of patients younger than 60 years of age, 18% were Black compared to 11% of Whites, Jf (2, N=149) = 5.15, p= .02. Blacks had a much higher comorbidity prevalence than Whites,p = .000. Ischemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease rates were double and triple national VHA rates, respectively, among Whites and Blacks. Race did not predict readmissions, bed days of care, or ER visits. The odds of a readmission or bed day of care ever decreased by 38% and 43%, respectively, for married men,p = .03. The odds of) a readmission or bed day of care ever due to severe heart failure-compared to less severe heart failure--were four to five times higher, respectively, p :5 .004. Income increased the odds of total bed days of care by 14%,p = .00, holding race constant. Overall, the sample experienced far fewer readmissions, bed days of care, or ER visits, compared to VHA national rates, but sample size may have limited accurate comparisons.
    • Racial and status conflict as perceived by black licensed practical nurses

      Baker, Judith; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1992-01)
      The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of racial and status conflict held by black Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) in their work environment. A descriptive correlational design was used. The questionnaire entitled "Study of Working Relationships as Perceived by the LPN" was modified from a questionnaire developed by Lowenstein & Glanville, and used to determine black LPNs' perceptions of racial and status conflict. Data analysis revealed the majority of black LPNs perceived that racial and status conflict was present in their work settings. In addition, some black LPNs perceived this prejudice as being extensive. Numerous respondents reported that administration and white Registered Nurses (RNs) demonstrated the greatest amount of racial prejudice. It was the attitudes and behaviors of both white RNs and LPNs that marked the existence of racial prejudice to the black LPNs. Black LPNs reported that they observed these attitudes and behaviors in work assignments, work performance, and salary distribution. When conflict transpired in the workplace, black LPNs felt that the outcome resolutions were most often in favor of whites. Additional findings disclosed that the majority of the sample reported that working relationships between LPNs and RNs were harmonious. However, LPNs were disturbed about the lack of support for them by nurse management
    • Radiation adaptation in the rat

      Corrill, Lydia S.; Department Of Biology (1968-09)
    • Radiographic imaging analysis of interdental trabecular bone patterns

      Jett, Scott; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2003-05-05)
    • Rapamycin, an evolving role in up-regulation of autophagy to improve stroke outcome and increase neuronal survival to stroke type injuries

      Buckley, Kathleen; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2015-10)
      Rapamycin was shown to reduce infarct size in a non-reperfusion and a slow reperfusion model of murine stroke; it also improved neurological score and survival in the slow-reperfusion model. The rapamycin improvement was 50 percent greater than that observed with chloroquine. In HT22 mouse hippocampal neurons, rapamycin was shown to improve survival to an oxidative/reperfusion injury with H2O2 and a hypoxic/ischemic injury with oxygen and glucose deprivation to a larger degree than chloroquine. Rapamycin treatment increased punctate microtubule light chain associated protein 3, LC3, in the HT22 neurons in an uninjured and oxygen and glucose deprivation injured HT22 neurons compared to untreated neurons. Finally, genetic knockdown of autophagy with shRNA to autophagy protein 5, ATG5, abrogated the rapamycin’s positive effect on survival to injury.
    • Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus and chemotherapy of herpes infection

      Se Kwon, Byoung; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1980-12)
    • Recent advances in the technique of cardio-vascular surgery

      Shapiro, Stephen M.; Department of Medical Illustration (1956-06)
    • Receptor-mediated endocytosis of vitellogenin in the oocyte of the frog, xenopus laevis

      Tucciarone, Linda M; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1983-05)
      The yolk protein, vitellogenin, is internalized by the developing oocyte by the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis. This process is initiated in Xenopus laevis by gonadotropic hormones. This study w~s designed to characterize the endocytot-ic pathway of vitellogenin in· the Xenopus oocyte and the influence-of gonadotropins on this pathway. One of the molecular-mechanisms of this pathway involves the enzyme transglutaminase which catalyzes E(-y-glutamyl) lysine crosslinks. These studies have demonstrated the presence of transglutaminase activity in Xenopus ovary. By the use of specific inhibitors of transglutaminase, dansylcadaverine and methylamine, the activity of this enzyme has been correlated with vitellogenin uptake by the oocytes. An increase in the activities of· the ovarian transglutaminase was also observed subsequent to in vitro exposure of ovarian fragments to hCG. The relationship of calmodulin, the calcium regulator protein, to transglutaminase activity in the ovary and uptake of vitellogenin was investigated because of the calcium requirement for both of these processes. In this study, the uptake of vitellogenin was shown to be sensitive to the calmodulin-directed drug, Stelazine. However, Stelazine failed to inhibit the transglutaminase activity of the ovary, suggesting that the functional role for calmodulin in endocytosis of vitellogenin must be at another site. The common endocytotic pathway of nutritional protein such as vitellogenin involves clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. Studies utilizing SDS-PAGE and immunolabelling techniques have shown that the 180,000 M r protein, clathrin, is present in both hCG treated and untreated ovaries.Extracts of Xenopus ovary containing coated vesicles have additional proteins in common with pig brain coated vesicles, including the two clathrin light chains of 33,000 M and 36,000 M • r · r An RIA for measuring gonadotropin induced alterations in the levels of clathrin in the ovary was developed. However, ·the sensitivity of the assay was very low and proved inadequate to measure small differences in cilathrin levels in the ovary •
    • Receptor-mediated endocytosis of vitellogenin in the oocyte of the frog, xenopus laevis

      Tuten, Susan Harris; School of Nursing (1988-07)
      The purpose of this study was two~fold: ( 1) to determine if the patency of the peripheral intermittent intravenous device could be maintained with sodium chloride as effectively as with dilute heparin, and (2) to determine if sodium chloride could be used effectively with fewer local co~plicatitins (i.e., infiltrati~n, phlebitis) than d i 1 u t e hepar in so 1 u t ion • The sample consisted of 77 I hospitalized medical surgical patients having a total of 1~4 peripheral intermittent intr~venous devices. During a 60 day period, the devices (N=43) of the 30 patients in the experimental group were maintained with sodium chloride (0.9%) while the devices (N=71) of the 47 patients in the control group were maintained with dilute heparin ClOOU/lml). Three hypotheses were tested utilizing the chi-square procedure with Yates correction for continuity statistical test. An alpha level of p < .OS was used to determine statistical significance. All three hypotheses. were rejected. No incidence of site loss due to coagulation was reported i~ either group, and no significant difference was demonstrated in the incidence of site loss associated with phlebitis cx2 = .140; p = • 708; df = 1) or infiltration C X 2 = • ·a 12 ; p = • 9 1 0 ; d f = 1 > between pat i en t s in the experimental and control groups. These findings indicate that sodium chloride may be used for peripheral intermittent intravenous device maintenance with similar rates of local complications (i.e., coagulation, infiltration, phlebitis) as seen with dilute heparin. It is r~commended that the study-'be replicated in a larger sample representing more diverse·clinical settings, and that the instrument utilized ·in this study be subjected to more rigorous validity and reliability testing.
    • Recognition of a candidate protein involved in chromatin organization at the base of nuclear pores

      Adams, Donna L.; Department of Immunology and Microbiology (1995-12)
    • Recombination and genetic polymorphism at the mouse alpha-globin locus

      Lewis, Jill B; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1988-12-08)
      Unusual genetic phenomena are often responsible for dramatic evolutionary changes at many mammalian loci. Among the possible genetic mechanisms involved in these changes are point mutation, gene-conversion, and homologous or nonhomologous recombination. Rarely can such evolutionarily significant events be studied as recent occurrences in mammalian systems. In most case.s it can only be postulated that such events occurred ·in the distant past. In the case analyzed in this research, however, the genetic rearrangement has occurred within the last fifteen years since the origination of a certa~n inbred mouse strain known as AKXL-7. The AKXL-7 recombinant inbred strain is the product of inbred parental strains AKR and C57L. AKR.has the Hba "f" genetic type which specifies only alpha-globin chain 5. C57L has the Hba "a" genetic type that specifies only alpha-globin chain 1. Chains 1 and 5 are identical except for a gly --> ala substitution at position 78. Although one would predict that any recombinant inbred strain resulting from thes,e parents would be homozygous for one of these two alpha-globin types, this is not the case for the AKXL-7 strain. These mice express both alpha-globin chains, with chain 1 present in greater amounts than chain 5. The type of genetic reassortment that has occurred has been ascertained through the use of DNA probes to flanking regions of the two non-allelic or "tandem" alpha-globin 1 genes. Southern blot analysis has revealed that the left and right AKXL-7 alphaglobin gene flanking regions are homologous to regions from different parents. This result indicates that the novel AKXL-7 genotype is the result of a reciprocal recombination event. Further analysis using an intergenic region probe narrowed the region of crossover to approximately 5.2 kb. Using the most distal flanking region probes, chromosome walking was performed to recover probes useful for characterization of three different induced mouse alphathalassemia mutations. Results indicate that in all three cases the deletion spans. at least 45 kb, including both alphaglobin genes and the-embryonic alpha-like x gene.
    • Reduced binding to type I collagen of rat tibiae by transposon-mutated staphylococcus aureus

      Buxton, Thomas Brooks; Department of Immunology and Microbiolgy (1992-03)
    • Reducing Noise in Neonatal Intensive Care Nurseries: Incubator Covers

      Kellam, Barbara Cruit; College of Nursing (Medical College of Georgia, 2005-04)
      Minimal safe noise levels for premature infants are not definitively known. The American Academy of Pediatrics (1997) set a standard of 50 decibels maximum for hourly noise levels in NICUs to protect the normal growth and development of pre-term infants. Disruption of normal sensorineural development in preterm infants may result from exposure to environmental noise during hospitalization. Concerns emerge from a literature review of noise measurement studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. First, few studies have measured high frequency sound within occupied incubators. Second, interventions to reduce noise exposure to preterm infants cared for in incubators focused on transient physiological and/or behavioral states. Third, intervention studies designed to reduce noise within incubators indicated conflicting results. Finally, none of the published studies used acoustical products as the core of an incubator cover. This experiment measured noise levels within the preterm infant's incubator under the treatment and the control condition. It was one of the few studies to perform sound spectral analysis while subjects were cared for within incubators. It was the first study to test the effectiveness of an incubator cover with a Noise Reduction Coefficient of 0;95: Acoustical Incubator Covers©. This study indicated that Acoustical Incubator Covers© significantly reduced high frequency sound(~ 1000 Hz). When examined using ANCOVA procedures, the data indicated a trend toward improved weight gain in the group that received Acoustical Incubator Covers©. There was no difference between the two groups on the variable of pass rate on the hearing screening exam. Length of hospitalization differed between the two groups by 10 days with the treatment group having the lower mean length of hospitalization. Further study with a larger sample size is needed to determine if reduced high frequency noise promotes better weight gain and fewer hospital days in preterm infants.