• p21B, a variant of p21wAF1/Cip1, is induced by the p53 family

      Nozell, Susan; School of Graduate Studies (2001-12)
    • p21B, a variant of p21WAFiycipl, is induced by the p53 family

      Nozell, Susan; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2011-12)
      Alternative splicing or expression from an alternate promoter can produce variants of a gene. To determine whether the p21 W*r,/Cipl locus is regulated by these mechanisms, we searched for and found two transcripts, p21B and p21C, that are expressed from an alternate promoter in the first intron of the p21 gene. While p21C encodes the p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21B encodes a novel protein and is ubiquitously expressed in sixteen human tissues tested. Both p21B and p21C are induced by DNA damage, p53, and p73, and are potentially regulated by a proximal p53 response element in their own promoter. p21B is localized to the Golgi apparatus, and overexpression of p21B inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. These findings indicate that the p21 locus expresses at least two structurally distinct, but functionally related, variants of the p21 gene from discrete promoters.
    • ParaDIME: Genome-wide differential DNA methylation analyses using next generation sequencing

      Pabla, Sarabjot; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics (12/27/2016)
      Epigenetic modifications are key players in the regulation of a plethora of cellular and physiological processes. DNA methylation is one of the most widely studied epigenetic modification. Genomic abnormalities in DNA methylation have been implicated in various complex diseases including cancer and autoimmunity. With advent of next generation sequencing, investigating DNA methylation patterns at genome-wide scale has become increasingly feasible. However, the pace of developing appropriate statistical methods to analyze large scale DNA methylation data has been slower. This can be attributed to both statistical and computational challenges faced by current methods. In order to overcome these statistical and computational shortcomings, we developed ParaDIME, a web application for differential DNA methylation analysis. ParaDIME tests CpG dinucleotide sites or pre-defined regions of CpG sites for differential DNA methylation using Rao-Scott chi squared test. ParaDIME not only uses a nonparametric test that accounts for differential sequencing coverage but also uses permutation testing to compute exact p values. In order to overcome computation challenges of large amount of permutations, we use parallel computing to share the workload and decrease execution time significantly. To test ParaDIME in-silico, we initially simulated bisulfitesequencing data and tested it against two most widely used methods: MethylSig and MethylKit. It performed equal or better at accurately detecting differentially methylated regions than both the methods. Especially, at important, low differences of percent methylation, ParaDIME performed better than existing tools. In order to test ParaDIME’s ability to detect biologically relevant differentially methylation regions (DMRs), it was then tested on publically available methylation data from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Our method was able to detect previously known and experimentally verified DMR in CLL, especially DMRs located in Nfatc1 and FOXA2 genes. Additionally, it was able to detect other DMRs in genes present in caner related pathways. Due to ParaDIME’s ability to detect biologically relevant DMRs, we employed it in an integrative analysis study to identify epigenetically regulated genes in Sjogren’s syndrome mouse model, B6.NOD aec1/aec2. We performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and RNA sequencing on salivary glands of four and eighteen weeks old B6.NOD aec1/aec2 compared to age and gender matched C57BL/6 mice. After removing age and mouse model effect, we discovered 89 differentially expressed as well as differentially methylated genes. Spearman rank order correlation analysis found a significant correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression. Autoimmunity related genes Klf9 and Nfkbid showed significant negative correlation whereas, other genes like Fgf12 and Coll11a2 genes showed significant positive correlation. Subnetwork enrichment using MATISSE showed three jointly active connected subnetworks that were highly enriched in Immune system related pathways, especially, T cell and B cell activation along with cytokine signaling and endocrine system development. Evidence presented in this report presents a novel and a robust differential DNA methylation analysis method with high accuracy to detect disease-relevant DMRs. ParaDIME is a user-friendly and scalable web application with appropriate test statistic to analyze large-scale DNA methylation studies.
    • Parenting a child in the hospital : factors influencing maternal role alteration stress

      Bennett, Nancy R.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1993-03)
      The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to investigate factors influencing parental role alteration stress of mothers with a child hospitalized on a general care pediatric unit. The subjects consisted of 30 mothers whose children were 7 to 59 months (4 years 11 months) and had no previous hospitalizations. The relationship of parent role alteration stress to perception of competency with normal child rearing tasks, the child's acuity of illness, and whether the child's admission was expected, not planned, or unexpected was investigated. The stress scores were low for the subjects' (mean 35.27) out of a possible range of 16-80. No significant relationship was obtained between parent role alteration stress and either competency or acuity. There were no significant differences among the stress scores when the children's admissions were expected, not planned or unexpected.
    • Partial Elucidation of the Primary Structure of the Heavy Chain of a Myeloma Protein: igG GAR

      Apelgren, Lynn David; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1977-06)
    • Partial elucidation of the structure of IgG 1 heavy chain disease protein BAZ

      Chang, Lebe S.; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1974-09)
    • Partnering With a Formal Program: Expanding the Boundaries of Family Caregiving for Frail Older Adults

      Poole, Deborah K.; Department of Biobehavioral Nursing (1999-12)
      Caring for frail older adults at home is an increasingly common lifestyle among American families. A growing array of community-based programs has been developed to assist family caregivers in this endeavor. Certain of these programs are comprehensive in nature and require a particularly close working relationship between the program’s health professionals and the lay caregiver at home. A paucity of literature exists that can act as a guide to formal and informal caregivers within such a context as they strive to develop an effective working relationship. This study used grounded theory methodology to develop a substantive theory of the process by which family caregivers of frail older adults establish and maintain a working relationship with a comprehensive formal caregiving system. The context of the study was a program belonging to the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) network. An initial sample of six primary caregivers of PACE participants was selected. The primary means of data collection was in-depth individual interviews with documents review also being used as a data source. An additional 13 primary caregivers were chosen via theoretical sampling for a total sample size of 19 informants. The method of constant analysis was employed to direct data acquisition and analysis until saturation was complete and the core variable was identified. The basic social-psychological problem identified by informants was termed Helplessness, defines by them as “needing additional help with caregiving.” Partnering with the Program was the basic social-psychological process informants used to relieve their helplessness in caregiving. Partnering with the Program was comprised of three phases: Connecting, Discovering Self, and Transcending Self. The first phase of Connecting represented “the honeymoon phase” of the relationship with the program and was made up of three stages: finding out, “joining up”, and adjusting. Discovering Self, the second phase, had three stages: communicating concerns, evaluating the program’s response, and expecting more. Informants in this phase related with the program in a conflicted manner, wanting to assert their autonomy but realizing their dependence on the program. The final phase, Transcending Self, was also made up of three stages. These stages were monitoring, advocating, and choosing to work it out. The hallmark of the final phase was that informants chose to have a positive, family-like personal relationship with the program staff rather than perpetuate conflict over unmet desires about service provision. This substantive theory provided information heretofore unavailable regarding the trajectory of close healthcare relationships from the perspective of the family caregiver. Implications of the theory related to health and social policy, clinical practice with older adults, and nursing knowledge are made explicit in the final chapter of the report.
    • Patterns of compensation in alcohol dependent women

      Ambrogne, Janet A.; School of Graduate Studies (1999-04)
    • Patterns of Compensation in Alcohol Dependent Women

      Ambrogne, Janet A.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1999-04)
      Over the past two decades there has been an increase in the number of research studies addressing alcohol and drug dependent women. Findings from these studies support a number of characteristics unique to women that have implications for treatment. Despite these findings, the majority of existing treatment modalities for substance dependence have continued to be based on traditional models of additions and treatment. Further, few studies have explored women's perceptions of their alcohol use, or the struggles that women encounter in their efforts to temper their alcohol use. The purpose of this qualitative study was to forward an interpretive theory about how alcohol dependent women experience temperance. This study was a focused ethnography, and was guided by a feminist perspective. The techniques of in-depth interviewing and participant observation were employed as a means of eliciting the perspective of a purposive sample of fourteen women. Concurrent data collection and analysis generated an interpretive theory that went beyond the women’s experiences with temperance. The theory: From Chaos to Connection: Patterns of Compensation in Alcohol Dependent Women, answered the questions, “What are women’s experiences with alcohol dependence?” A cultural theme of patterns of compensation was identified. The women used alcohol and other drugs as compensatory mechanisms to alleviate feelings of inadequacy and depression. Through participation in treatment and twelve-step self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous, the women learned to replace their former compensatory mechanisms of drinking and using, with compensatory strategies designed to manage the disease of alcoholism. Even with successful abstinence, the women continued to struggle with feelings of depression and low self-worth. While they had learned purposeful strategies that facilitated abstinence, feelings of depression and inadequacy endured. These findings challenge the utility of dominant models of addiction such as the disease model, which focuses on substance dependence as the primary problem, in adequately meeting the needs of women who use alcohol and other substances to alleviate negative feelings such as depression. Findings from this study support the need to integrate other models of addiction, such as the Self-Medication Hypothesis into treatment programs for women. Implications for nursing, policy and future research directions are forwarded.
    • Penalized Least Squares and the Algebraic Statistical Model for Biochemical Reaction Networks

      Linder, Daniel F. II; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (2013-07)
      Systems biology seeks to understand the formation of macro structures such as cellular processes and higher level cellular phenomena by investigating the interactions of systems’ individual components. For cellular biology, this goal is to understand the dynamic behavior of biological materials within the cell, a container consisting of smaller materials such as mRNA, proteins, enzymes and other intermediates necessary for regulating intracellular functions and chemical species levels. Understanding these cellular dynamics is needed to help develop new drug therapies, which can be targeted to specific molecules or specific genes, in order to perturb the system for a desired result. In this work we develop inferential procedures to estimate reaction rate coefficients in cellular systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from noisy data arising from realizations of molecular trajectories. It is assumed that these systems obey the so called chemical mass action law of kinetics, with corresponding deterministic mass action limit as the system size becomes infinite. The estimation and inference is based on the penalized least squares estimates, where the covariance structure of these estimates corresponds to the solution of a system of coupled nonautonomuous ODEs. Another topic discussed here is that of network topology estimation. The algebraic statistical model (ASM) offers a means of performing this topological inference for the special class of conic networks. We prove that the ASM recovers the true network topology as the number of samples grows without bound, a property known in the literature as sparsistency. We propose a method to extend the ASM to a wider class of networks that are decomposable into multiple cones.
    • Perceived Conditions of Employment Among Hospital Registered in Georgia: A Comparative Analysis

      Futch, Joan W.; School of NursinG (1982-03)
      Employment conditions of registered nurses have to date not been studied in the State of Georgia. This investigation was conducted in order to compare ~urses' satisfaction or dissatisfaction with conditions of employment to retention, hospital setting, and hospital size, The present study identified specific factors in ~he work environment that contribute to the registered nurses' satisfaction or dissatisfaction with employment conditions.. This investigation, which is a partial replication of an earlier st ud.y by Wandel t ( 1980) , arose· out of concern for the shortage . of registered nurses in Georgia. A descriptive survey design was used to determine the relationship between perceived conditions of employment o~ register$d n~ses employed in 200- 400 bed acute medical-surgical hospitals. in the State of Georgia and their perceived job. satisfaction. It was hypothesi.zed thata (1) nurses employed in a hospital with a low turnover rate would express greater satisfaction with conditions of employment than nurses employed in a hospital with a high turnover rate; (2) nurses employed in a rural hospital would express greater satisfaction with conditions of employment than nurses employed in an urban hospital; and ( J) nurses employed in a 200 - 2?5 bed hospital would express great,er satisfaction with conditions of employment than nurses employed in a,J25 - 400 bed hospital. The results of ! test values, at the .05 level of significance, demonstrated statistically significant results for all three hypotheses posed.
    • Perceived effects on the family system when a wife/mother returns to school as reported by returnee

      Jackson, Jo Anne Christian; School of Nursing (1986-06)
      The foc~s of this study was the· female's ret~rn to school and her petception of its effect·on the family system. A tota~ of ·twenty females, selected through a snowball effect,· were interviewed ·in their homes. An interview technique· with demographic questionnaire 'Was utilized. The results of the st.udy indicated that the return to school had various similarities for the female. The suppoit 6f . . ·. spouse and f~mily was viewe~ as crucial. Di.~ision.of · labor d-id not change drastically nor did. t'ime spent with families. Quality of time with family.became more important and.the most positive effect of the return to school was seen as the increased interqction between husband and children. The study has implications for educators, counselors, health car~ providers and the families~ The greatest implication of the. study is the fact that the return to school. was viewed by most women in this study as being positive.
    • Perceived Professional Risk of School Nurses Associated with Delegation of Nursing Care Responsibilities to Unlicensed Personnel

      Hamilton, Bernita K; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1997-05)
      The increasing numbers of children who require health care services while attending school have prompted the delegation of nursing care responsibilities to unlicensed personnel. School nurses have expressed legal and professional concerns regarding delegation. The purpose of this study was to describe current delegation practices of school nurses to unlicensed personnel, examine legal and professional standards which impact delegation decisions, and explore the perceived professional risk of school nurses associated with delegation and risk to the health and safety of students. A professional and legal regulation of practice model provided the conceptual framework. A descriptive design was used to investigate the delegation practices of school nurses in Georgia. Eighty-seven (N=193) school nurses returned completed questionnaires. Summary statistics were used to analyze the data. A Demographic Questionnaire provided information about sample characteristics. Analysis of data from the School Health Care Questionnaire determined the performance and delegation of nursing care responsibilities. Approximately 70% of the school nurses reported delegation to unlicensed personnel. Crosstabulation of performance and delegation revealed the most frequently delegated procedures as oral, inhalation, ophthalmic/otic, and topical medication administration; seizure procedures; gastrostomy feedings; vision and hearing screenings; and urinary catheterizations. The investigator-developed Professional Risk Related to Delegation Scale determined the importance of standards used in delegation decisions and the risk associated with delegation practices. The majority of participants rated the legal and professional standards as considerable to extreme importance in delegation decisions. Findings supported that items consistent with appropriate delegation practices had lower risk scores; whereas, items consistent with inappropriate delegation had higher risk scores. Overall, the school nurses reported moderate to very high professional risk and risk to the health and safety of students associated with delegation to unlicensed personnel. Findings show that school nurses in Georgia are concerned about professional risk associated with delegation to unlicensed personnel. These findings have implications for development of delegation practice models and refinement of legal and professional statutes and standards for the regulation of delegation.
    • Perceived Supportive Behaviours and Occupational Stress Among Nurses

      Allanach, Elaine J.; Department of Nursing (1988-04)
    • Perception of Police Encounters: An Investigation of Racial Differences, Anxiety, and Anger, Using Video and Transcript Stimuli

      Omelian, Sam; Department of Psychological Science (2017-06)
      Due to recent nationwide news reports involving police officers shooting and killing unarmed citizens, it is important to investigate the emotional potential impact of viewing these news sources. This study had two aims. The first aim was to investigate racial grouping differences in the perception of police and anxiety and anger levels towards police. Second, the project aimed to investigate whether the form of stimulus materials, video or transcript of a police encounter, affected participants’ responses. The sample consisted of 67 college age students from a southeastern university. Participants completed pretest anxiety and anger measures and a global perception of police scale. After viewing or reading about a police-citizen encounter, they completed posttest anxiety and anger measures. Results suggested that anxiety and anger increased significantly after viewing or reading about a police encounter, with the video stimulus creating stronger affective responses. Race did not significantly influence affective responses; however, Whites perceived police more positively than Non-Whites. In general, college students reported experiencing positive police encounters themselves. Findings confirm the power of visual media on affective responses and suggest that future researchers should think carefully about whether vignettes of police encounters are the best stimulus materials to use.