• Large Scale Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Insight into Pathways Related to Type 1 Diabetes and Associated Complications

      Carey, Colleen M.; Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine (2013-08)
      Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from complex interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system, ultimately leading to the destruction o f pancreatic islet cells and insulin deficiency. Previous studies have examined the series o f molecular, cellular, and protein changes occurring within subsets of individuals and how these are associated with particular disease states. Genome wide association studies have revealed a large number o f genetic susceptibility intervals including those implicated in disease pathogenesis, the identification o f various markers for risk assessment, the classification o f disease or complications, and finally markers for monitoring therapies for disease. However, none of these studies to date is without seriously limitations. First, although microarray based gene expression profiling is a powerful tool in discovery; results must be validated by alternate techniques. Second, due to the inherent heterogeneity of the human population large sample sizes in each group must be used in order to handle the expected large expression variations among individual subject. Third, for accurate normalization of Real-Time PCR expression data appropriate reference genes must be selected. We proposed a large scale gene expression validation study to address the limitations of previous studies. Validation studies were performed using high throughput Real-Time RT-PCR on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) o f 928 individuals with T1D and 922 individuals as antibody negative (AbN) controls, recruited through the Prospective Assessment in Newborns of Diabetes Autoimmunity (PANDA) study. This dissertation work validated the gene expression changes among 28 genes shown to have differential expression in T1D patients as compared to controls. These genes were selected based on their function, role in inflammatory or the immune response, and any previously documented reference to a role in T1D. Our aims were to 1) identify gene expression changes which may be occurring specifically in diabetic complications, and 2) identify gene expression changes which may result in an increased state o f oxidative stress in the diabetic state. For validation studies, we divided the 28 genes into two subsets based on related function to ask whether any gene expression signatures could be associated with diabetes, diabetic complications, or oxidative stress in the diabetic state. Our studies revealed genes that are involved in inflammation, immune regulation, and antigen processing and presentation are significantly altered in the PBMCs o f T1D patients. Eight genes (S100A8, S100A9, MNDA, SELL, TGFB1, PSMB3, CD74, and IL12A) were shown to have higher expression, with three genes (GNLY, PSMA4, and SMAD7) having lower expression, in T1D when compared to controls. The data also suggested that inflammatory mediators secreted mainly by myeloid cells are implicated in T1D and its complications (Odds ratios OR = 1.3-2.6, adjusted P value= 0.005- 1.08 x 10 8), and particularly in those patients with nephropathy (OR=4.8-7.9, adjusted P value < 0.005). Validation studies also revealed nine genes (LAT2, MAPK1, APOBEC3B, SOD2, NDUFB3, STK40, PRKD2, ITGB2, and COX7B) with higher expression in T1D. These genes are involved in general pathways of inflammation and immune response; however SOD2, NDUFB3, and COX7B (OR=l.l-1.27, adjusted P value= 0.007-0.47) are functionally involved in the mechanisms o f the mitochondria and may play a role in the increased state of oxidative stress seen in T1D. In these studies we have validated and confirmed the gene expression differences between T1D and control subjects initially suggested by microarray. Our experimental design has addressed each of the limitations posed by earlier studies in the largest scale study to date on gene expression profiles in human T1D. We have demonstrated that gene expression is significantly different between autoantibody negative (AbN) controls and T1D patients without any complications. Genes implicated in immune function (S100A8, S100A9, MNDA, IL12A), immune regulation and promotion (TGFB1, SELL), antigen processing and presentation (CD74, PSMB3), and mitochondrial function (SOD2, NDUFB3, COX7B) have higher expression in T1D and support the notion that chronic inflammation and cellular oxidative stress contribute to the development of T1D and associated complications. The understanding gained from our results implies a translational potential for the use o f gene expression profiles in the classification o f at risk individuals for both T1D and complication. Further, our understanding into the role that the immune system plays in cellular oxidative stress leading to the diabetic state may serve to provide prevention therapies however there remains much to be learned before this is attainable.
    • Leveraging Medical Simulation to Teach Interprofessional Education (IPE): A Pilot Study

      Hernlen, Kathleen; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Interprofessional education (IPE) is a term used to describe an educational technique that involves two or more learners from various professions learning from each other and with each other to increase collaboration among the learners and improve health care for their patients. Medical simulation can be described as any type of aid that can simulate a technique that is used in a clinical setting. The goal of this pilot study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an IPE medical simulation faculty training program that employed an IPE teaching method using the example of medical simulation which was lacking on the health sciences campus. A mixed methods study was developed to explore whether medical simulation could be used as a delivery method for an effective IPE faculty training program, and the extent to which IPE knowledge and perceptions changed as a result. A pre- and post-survey was given to faculty participants to evaluate their knowledge and perceptions of IPE. Following the training, faculty participants participated in a focus group. Data analysis included coding of focus groups responses and consolidating the codes into themes, and statistical analysis of the pre- and post-survey data. The findings of the pilot study included a statistically significant increase in knowledge and perceptions of IPE by the participating faculty which was corroborated by the focus group responses.
    • Leveraging Medical Simulation to Teach Interprofessional Education: A Pilot Study

      Etheridge, Rebecca Johnson; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Interprofessional education (IPE) is a term used to describe an educational technique that involves two or more learners from various professions learning from each other and with each other to increase collaboration among the learners and improve health care for their patients. Medical simulation can be described as any type of aid that can simulate a technique that is used in a clinical setting. The goal of this pilot study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an IPE medical simulation faculty training program that employed an IPE teaching method using the example of medical simulation which was lacking on the health sciences campus. A mixed methods study was developed to explore whether medical simulation could be used as a delivery method for an effective IPE faculty training program, and the extent to which IPE knowledge and perceptions changed as a result. A pre- and post-survey was given to faculty participants to evaluate their knowledge and perceptions of IPE. Following the training, faculty participants participated in a focus group. Data analysis included coding of focus groups responses and consolidating the codes into themes, and statistical analysis of the pre- and post-survey data. The findings of the pilot study included a statistically significant increase in knowledge and perceptions of IPE by the participating faculty which was corroborated by the focus group responses.
    • Life changes and perceived psychosocial implications for child victims and their families following disclosure of incest

      Stephenson, Grace H; School of Nursing (1987-01)
      This study addresses the ps-ychosocial implications of life changes occurring for children after disclo~ure of an incestuous relationship. Subjects ~ere 11 families obtained from the cas~load of .a county Depart~ent 6f Family and Child. Protective Services .. The· subjects w~re··f~male with ·a~e~ fr6m 5-17, black and white subjects we~e .. ~epr~sented. This was a descriptive study with data obtained from interviews with lawyers, therapists, mothers, and caseworkers. A content analysis approach was used for data analysis. Synthesis of the data revealed all families continued to experience turmoil yeats after the disclosure. Eleven categories. representing life changes were obtained from the data. The categories of famili di~ruption and"mother's inability t6 provide emotional support for her daughter were the most represented categorie~.
    • Linkage of characters and variation in recombining capacity in compatible nocardiae

      Walsh, Richard S. III; Department of Molecular Biology (1971-04)
    • Lipid mobilization by mouse stomach carcinoma #2663

      McChesney, Daniel Gerad; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1975-12-15)
    • Lysis of cells and cell walls of bacillus psychrophilus

      Mattingly, Stephen Joseph; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1972-08)
    • Macromolecular incorporation of tritium from body water

      Sanders, Samuel Marshall Jr.; Department of Radiobiology (1973-12)
    • Macrophage Recruitment Signals Following Unilateral Chorda Tympani Nerve Degeneration

      Cavallin, Melissa Ann; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (2007-02)
      The chorda tympani nerve (CT) innervates taste buds within fungiform papillae. Unilateral transection of the CT causes degeneration of the ipsilateral taste buds and a bilateral increase in activated lingual macrophages. However, dietary Na+ restriction prevents the macrophage response and results in a subnormal neural response to Na+ stimuli by the contralateral, intact CT. Stimulating immune system function with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) restores the bilateral macrophage response to CT section in Na+-restricted rats. This macrophage response is associated with the recovery of normal taste function, suggesting that macrophages affect taste function. Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 are upregulated prior to and during the peak macrophage response suggesting that these molecules are recruitment signals for macrophage entry following CT injury. Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α is not significantly upregulated following CT section. Importantly, the increase in VCAM-1 expression is prevented by dietary Na+ restriction, which may partially explain the decreased macrophage response in these animals. However, binding of an antibody against platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, which is downstream of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, paradoxically increases macrophage recruitment and does not alter taste function. Other adhesion molecules may be able to compensate for the loss of PECAM-1. The response of the immune system to CT section is diverse and requires the cooperation of many molecules in order to recruit macrophages to maintain normal taste function. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 are upstream recruitment signals for macrophages that may ultimately affect the function of taste receptor cells.
    • Macrophage recruitment signals following unilateral chorda tympani nerve degeneration/

      Cavallin, Melissa Ann; School of Graduate Studies (2007-02)
      The chorda tympani nerve ( CT) innervates taste buds within fungiform papillae. Unilateral transaction of the CT causes degeneration of the ipsilateral taste buds and a bilateral increase in activated lingual macrophages. However, dietary Na+ restriction prevents the macrophage response and results in a subnormal neural response to Na+· stimuli by the. contralateral, intact CT. Stimulating immune system function with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) restores the bilateral macrophage response to CT section in Na+ -restricted rats. This macrophage response is associated with the recovery of normal taste function, suggesting that macrophages affect taste function. Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 are upregulated prior to and during the peak macrophage response suggesting that these molecules are recruitment signals for macrophage entry following CT injury. Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1a is not significantly upregulated following CT section. Importantly, the increase in VCAM-1 expression is prevented by dietary Na+ restriction, -which may partially · explain the decreased macrophage response in these animals. However, binding of an antibody against platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, which is downstream of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, paradoxically increases macrophage recruitment and dpes · not alter taste · ;;function. Other adhesion molecules may be able to compensate for the loss of of PECAM-1. The response of the immune system to CT section is diverse and requires the cooperation of many molecules in order to recruit macrophages to maintain normal taste function. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 are upstream recruitment signals for macrophages that may ultimately affect the function of taste receptor cells.
    • Maintenance of AR Inactivation by S-nitrosylation

      Qin, Yu; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2011-04)
      Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. Unregulated activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression. Post-translational modifications of AR regulate its function, and we propose that nitric oxide (NO) synthase III (eNOS) and its product NO regulate prostate cancer cell growth via S-nitrosylation, a covalent addition of an NO group to a cysteine thiol, of AR. We found that S-nitrosylation levels were reduced in prostate cancer and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia compared to normal adjacent tissues, and xD;1089-8603 (Linking)15566968
    • Marker Co-Expression Analysis of Initial Cellular Events in the Critical-Size Rat Calvarial Defect Model and the Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2)

      Capetillo, Joseph F.; Department of Oral Biology (4/15/2016)
      Craniofacial defects can result from congenital malformations, trauma, tumor resection,periodontal disease, post-extraction ridge remodeling, and peri-implantitis. Regenerationof bone is critical to achieving functional and esthetic outcomes in the rehabilitation ofsuch defects. Traditional strategies for osseous regeneration include a multiple ofsurgical techniques utilizing autologous bone, cadaver-sourced allogeneic or xenogeneicbone, synthetic bone biomaterials, barrier membranes, or combinations thereof(Wikesjö, Qahash 2009). The need to enhance the predictability of regeneration inespecially large defects that cannot heal adequately without intervention (critical-sizedefects) has led to recent development of protein- and cell-based technologies.[Introduction, first paragraph]
    • Marketing Emergency Services: The Degree of Involvement Among Nurse Executives

      Byrd, Lura A.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1986-05)
      The purpese of this study is to determine the degree of invo1vement among nurse executi~es i~ marketi~g emergency s~rvices. Know1edge ther~by obtained will provide identification of cu~rent marketing.trends in emergency services as wel.l as areas ofmarketing content in education programs preparing nurse executfves. A questionnaire~ 11Emergency Services Marketing Activity Survey 11 (ESMAS)~ specific for marketing e~ergency Services was ·adapted from Kotler•s (1975) 11 Systematic Marketing Audit. 11 Items were dev-eloped far·· each major category (marketing environment; marketing system; and ma·rketing activity}'. purported· by Kotler (1975) to be·essentia1 in eva1uating marketing activities. The ESMAS was reviewed by a panel of fie1d experts including facu1ty invo1ved in teaching marketing and finance in hea)th care services. Based on recommendations from the pane1, severa1 items were revised and made less ambiguous. The revi sed vers i on of the ESMAS Questi onna i re was ma i 1 e.9 to Di rectors of Nurs i.ng (DON) and Emergency Department Head Nurses ( EDHN) in 114 Georgia hospitals 1isted by the American Hospital Association Gui de (1985} as· provi ders of emergency servi ces. Study subj ects were asked to respond on a sca 1 e of one to 'seven to .the de·gree to whi eh each marketing emergency services item is a part of their role as nurse executive. Responses were received from 42 DONs and 37 EDHNs. Descriptive information was compi1ed and t-test analysis was done to describe the V involvement of DONs and EDHNs in marketing emergency services and to describe the relationship between the involvement of DONs and EDHNs in their marketing involvement. Involvement was divided into three categories: a rating 1.0-2.9 was considered low involvement, 3.0-4.9 wa? considered moderate involvement,_ and 5.0:7.0 was considered h1gh involvement~ It was·found that·nurses were involved in marketing overall at the moderate level·. There we~e significant differences at the 0.029 level in the involvement of DONs and EDHNs in marketing environment category. There were no significant differences between the involvement of the two groups in marketing system nor in marketing activities categories.
    • Marketing hospital based obstetrical services : the degree of involvement among nurse executives

      Watford, Deborah L.; Master of Science (1987-04)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of involvement among obstetrical nurse executives in marketing hospital-based obstetrical (OB) services. A descriptive nonexperimental design was.used. The "Obstetrical Services Marketing Activity Survey" (OSMAS) and a "General Data Questionnaire" (GDQ) were administered to 90 Directors of Nursing (DONs) for OB Services and 90 Labor and Delivery Head Nurses (LDHNs) in 90 hospitals located in three southern states. The OSMAS was adapted for obstetrical services from an original, unpublished tool entitled "Emergency Services Marketing Activity Survey" (Byrd, 1986). Responses were received from 26 DONs and 23 LDHNs, representing a 27% return rate. On a scale of one to seven, marketing involvement was arbitrarily divided into three categories: 1.0 to .2.9 wa$ designated as a low level of involvement; 3.0 to 4.9 was designated as a moderate level of involve.ment; and 5. 0 to 7. 0 was designated as a high level of inv.olvement. The results of this study indicated that OB nurse executives overall were involved in marketing at the moderate level (4.86 mean). !-Test analysis revealed no significant differences at the .05.level in the degree of involvement bet~een LDHNs and DONs in marketing OB servic_es. Through descriptive analysis, it wa~ found that the health care industry, P.ar~icularly OB.services, is competitive in nature. It was concluded that OB nurse executives are becoming more involved in marketing their hospital-based OB departments~ yet they are not educationally prepared to engage in marketing activities.
    • Maternal Anxiety Levels and Coping Patterns Among Primiparas When the Neonate is Ill at Birth

      Hollins, Rebecca S.; School of Nursing (1991-12)
      The birth of an ill infant creates special concerns which may increase a new mothers's anxiety ,and ability to cope with the situation. Therefore, the purpose o~ this study was to d.etermine if there was a difference in maternal anxiety levels and coping behaviors of first-time mothers in ill infants when compared to first-time mothers of well infants. Twenty mothers (Group I, mothers of ~11 infants [n=10]; Group II, mothers of well infants (n=lO]) qompleted McCubbin et al.'s (1983) Coping Health Inventory fo~ Parents (CHIP) and Spielberger et al.'s (1970) State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). ~-Tests were used to analyze the difference between the groups' mean scores from the two questionnaires. Chisquare tests were used to test for differences in observed frequencies between the two groups. Spearman's rho correlations were used to determine if there were any relationships between maternal anxiety levels and maternal coping patterns between the two groups. Results indicated that mothers of i+l neonates had significantly higher state and trait anxiety scores. Mothers of ill neonates were also found to use·more coping patterns than mothers of weil neonates. There was a significant relationship between coping behaviors and anxiety levels of mothers with ill neonates. Implications based on the re.sults .indicated that nurses need to gain knowledge in regard to .how anxiety affects coping behaviors of pr~gnant moth~r$. Nurses need to be able to recognize·and identify when first~time mothers are using ineffective coping behaviors to deal with their anxieties. Efforts to minimize ineffective coping can be recognized and nursing interventions adapted to assist the mother to learn about her strengths and weaknesses and developing better coping skills.
    • Maternal-fetal attachment in pregnancy subsequent to perinatal death

      Coverston, Catherine R.; School of Nursing (1989-11)
      The purpose of this study was to examine hypothesized differences -in ma~~~nal-fetal' ·attachment:.' }jetween -multigravida·· women who had experienced -perinatal death and multigravida women who ha:cf not-. A convenience· sample of 107 women. ~ttending a clinic at·a_ large Southeas~er1;1·health ce_nter ·pa,~tJcipated in th,e _ study. -Fifty-.twcf _of -these had '.. \ ;_ .-· experience? p_er~_natal :: qeath. s,ub_j ects' completed Cranley' s (1981) Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale and a demographic questionnaire. _ Date was analyzed using descriptive statistics,· t-tests, ANOVA, and MANOVA. Mothers who.had become pregn~nt ·1ess than six months from the time of 16ss scored significantly higher on subscale one, "Di-fferentiation from Self" than did other women-with loss and women who had not experienced a loss. This group also scored significantly· higher than the no loss group on the total scoreo .Although not significant, this group ·aiso had higher mean scores on_ all other subscales. No differences were found by race, socioeconomic sta~us-, education, marital status, number of pregnancies or risk factor.
    • Maternal-Fetal Bonding and A Previous Spontaneous Abortion

      Elkins, Sharon; Department of Nursing (1985-10)
      Maternal-Fetal Bonding and a Previous Spontaneous Abortion. Sharon Sue Elkins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the occurrence of a spontaneous abortion in a prior pregnancy and maternal-fetal bonding· in a. current pregnancy. Cranley•s Maternal;;;Fetal Attachment Sca'le and a demographic questionnaire were completed by 236 pregnant women attending either Lamaze classes or a prenatal clinic .. There was no significant difference found in maternal-fetal bonding, measured by the total score on Cranley•s Maternal-Fetal Attachment Sea 1 e, between wome·n who had experienced a spontaneous abortion .in the previous_ pregnancy and women who had not experienced· a spontaneous abortion in the previous pregnancy. However, on ·subscale (2) 11 interaction with the fetus 11 the scores of the spontaneous abortion group. were significantly lower than the scores of the lnonspontaneous abortion group. A1 s o, the spontaneous abortion group had a significantly greater variance than the nonspontaneous abortion group. No relationship was found between the number of weeks pregnant at the time of the spontaneous abortion and maternal~fetal bonding. -. Social class was found to have the greatest effect on maternal-fetal bonding of all the observed variables. Women in higher social classes had significantly higher total scores on the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale. Also-, Caucasian women and younger women had significantly \higher total scores on the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale. Women who were the greater number of weeks pregnant also had significantly higher scores ·on two of the subscales, 11 i·nteraction with the fetus" and 11 giving of self ...
    • Mathematical and Stochastic Modeling of HIV Immunology and Epidemiology

      Lee, Tae Jin; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (8/3/2017)
      In HIV virus dynamics, controlling of viral load and maintaining of CD4 value at a higher level are always primary goals for the providers. In recent years, a new molecule was discovered, namely, eCD4-Ig, which mimics CD4 if introduced into the human body and has potential to change existing HIV virus dynamics. Thus, to understand dynamics of viral load, eCD4-Ig, CD4 cells, we have developed mathematical models by incorporating interactions between this new molecule and other known immunological, virological information. We further investigated model based speculations for management, and obtained the level of eCD4-Ig required for elimination of virus. Next, we built epidemiological model for HIV spread and control among discordant couple through dynamics of PrEP (Pre-exposure prophylaxis). For this, an actuarial assumptions based stochastic model is used to obtain the mean remaining time of couple to stay as discordant. We generalized single hook-up/marriage stochastic model to multiple hook-up/marriage model.