• The job performance of nurses educated at the baccalaureate level was compared with nurses educated at the associate degree level. This descriptive study was conducted with the use of a Demographic Data Questionnaire and Schwirian's (1978) Six Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance which measured job performance in the areas of leadership, critical care, teaching/collaboration, planning/evaluation, communication and professional development. The only significant results of this study indicated that associate degree nurses self reported more leadership behaviors than did baccalaureate nurses. This finding did not support the conceptual frrunework and this researcher concluded that no inferences could be drawn. Further investigation in the area of job performance is recommended.

      Taylor, Nancy Begin; School of Nursing (1984-04)
      The job performance of nurses educated at the baccalaureate level was compared with nurses educated at the associate degree level. This descriptive study was conducted with the use of a Demographic Data Questionnaire and Schwirian's (1978) Six Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance which measured job performance in the areas of leadership, critical care, teaching/collaboration, planning/evaluation, communication and professional development. The only significant results of this study indicated that associate degree nurses self reported more leadership behaviors than did baccalaureate nurses. This finding did not support the conceptual frrunework and this researcher concluded that no inferences could be drawn. Further investigation in the area of job performance is recommended.
    • Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Among Registered Nurses in The Hospital Setting

      Cromer, Pamela; Department of Nursing (1988-03)
      The purpose of this study was to utilize Herzbe~g's approach to deter~ine the factors within a nursers job and.work environment ·that are most important to the registered. nurse. A convenience sample of 107 registered nurses from two acute care hospitals in the southeast United States participated in this survey and answered questions on the Longest (1974) questionnaire. This instrument is a 6-point Likert type tool designed to.1determine the nurses' pe~ception of the importance of Herzberg's ten motivation/hygiene factors to job satisfaction. A pilot study indicated that the instrument was understandable and easily com~leted. Face and content validity of the instrument were established by a review panel of three experts. A reliability coefficient of 0.5 was obtained. Dat~ analysis showed that these nurses rated both the motivation and hygiene factors as moderately important to very important in terms of job satisfaction. Using the paired t-test to compare mean· ratings of each subject on each factor, there was no significant difference between the means of the hygiene and motivation factors. A comparison of overall .job satisfaction .between medical/surgical nurses and those employed in other clinical areas of practice was conducted. A chi square test produced significant findings between the two practice groups. Nurses in medical/surgical areas reported more dissatisfaction in their jobs than did nurses working non-medical/surgical areas. Recommendations for further resea~ch include ./ further testing and refinement of the Longest questionnaire so that reliability is enhanced and further terminology/vocabulary·specific to the nursing profes~ion can be incorporated.,~ . Results of this study . should be utilized proactively by nurse executives in developing incentives and programs that create an attraction to the nursing field an~ an appealing image of the nurse and her work. Finally, a similar study in other geographical areas with a comparatively larger sample of nurses is suggested.
    • Knowledge, attitude, and compliance concerning infection control standards among nurses

      Johnson, Margaret M.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1992-05)
      The purpose of this study was to identify and correlate the knowledge of, attitude toward and compliance with infection control standards of staff nurses. The study utilized a descriptive correlational methodology. A questionnaire developed by the researcher measured the variables, knowledge, attitude and compliance. Staff nurses were mailed a copy of the questionnaire and asked to complete and return it to the researcher. One hundred fifteen staff nurses participated in the study. A significant correlation was found between attitude and compliance. No statistically significant relationship was identified between knowledge and compliance. A negative relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude. Stepwise multiple regression correlation revealed a significant correlation between attitude, knowledge, and compliance. Attitude, as a lone predictor, may influence compliance levels. Knowledge, as a lone predictor, does not appear to influence compliance. When paired, both knowledge and attitude appear to influence compliance.
    • Large Scale Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Insight into Pathways Related to Type 1 Diabetes and Associated Complications

      Carey, Colleen M.; Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine (2013-08)
      Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from complex interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system, ultimately leading to the destruction o f pancreatic islet cells and insulin deficiency. Previous studies have examined the series o f molecular, cellular, and protein changes occurring within subsets of individuals and how these are associated with particular disease states. Genome wide association studies have revealed a large number o f genetic susceptibility intervals including those implicated in disease pathogenesis, the identification o f various markers for risk assessment, the classification o f disease or complications, and finally markers for monitoring therapies for disease. However, none of these studies to date is without seriously limitations. First, although microarray based gene expression profiling is a powerful tool in discovery; results must be validated by alternate techniques. Second, due to the inherent heterogeneity of the human population large sample sizes in each group must be used in order to handle the expected large expression variations among individual subject. Third, for accurate normalization of Real-Time PCR expression data appropriate reference genes must be selected. We proposed a large scale gene expression validation study to address the limitations of previous studies. Validation studies were performed using high throughput Real-Time RT-PCR on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) o f 928 individuals with T1D and 922 individuals as antibody negative (AbN) controls, recruited through the Prospective Assessment in Newborns of Diabetes Autoimmunity (PANDA) study. This dissertation work validated the gene expression changes among 28 genes shown to have differential expression in T1D patients as compared to controls. These genes were selected based on their function, role in inflammatory or the immune response, and any previously documented reference to a role in T1D. Our aims were to 1) identify gene expression changes which may be occurring specifically in diabetic complications, and 2) identify gene expression changes which may result in an increased state o f oxidative stress in the diabetic state. For validation studies, we divided the 28 genes into two subsets based on related function to ask whether any gene expression signatures could be associated with diabetes, diabetic complications, or oxidative stress in the diabetic state. Our studies revealed genes that are involved in inflammation, immune regulation, and antigen processing and presentation are significantly altered in the PBMCs o f T1D patients. Eight genes (S100A8, S100A9, MNDA, SELL, TGFB1, PSMB3, CD74, and IL12A) were shown to have higher expression, with three genes (GNLY, PSMA4, and SMAD7) having lower expression, in T1D when compared to controls. The data also suggested that inflammatory mediators secreted mainly by myeloid cells are implicated in T1D and its complications (Odds ratios OR = 1.3-2.6, adjusted P value= 0.005- 1.08 x 10 8), and particularly in those patients with nephropathy (OR=4.8-7.9, adjusted P value < 0.005). Validation studies also revealed nine genes (LAT2, MAPK1, APOBEC3B, SOD2, NDUFB3, STK40, PRKD2, ITGB2, and COX7B) with higher expression in T1D. These genes are involved in general pathways of inflammation and immune response; however SOD2, NDUFB3, and COX7B (OR=l.l-1.27, adjusted P value= 0.007-0.47) are functionally involved in the mechanisms o f the mitochondria and may play a role in the increased state of oxidative stress seen in T1D. In these studies we have validated and confirmed the gene expression differences between T1D and control subjects initially suggested by microarray. Our experimental design has addressed each of the limitations posed by earlier studies in the largest scale study to date on gene expression profiles in human T1D. We have demonstrated that gene expression is significantly different between autoantibody negative (AbN) controls and T1D patients without any complications. Genes implicated in immune function (S100A8, S100A9, MNDA, IL12A), immune regulation and promotion (TGFB1, SELL), antigen processing and presentation (CD74, PSMB3), and mitochondrial function (SOD2, NDUFB3, COX7B) have higher expression in T1D and support the notion that chronic inflammation and cellular oxidative stress contribute to the development of T1D and associated complications. The understanding gained from our results implies a translational potential for the use o f gene expression profiles in the classification o f at risk individuals for both T1D and complication. Further, our understanding into the role that the immune system plays in cellular oxidative stress leading to the diabetic state may serve to provide prevention therapies however there remains much to be learned before this is attainable.
    • The level of loneliness experienced by adolescent mothers related to social support and locus of contro

      Paisley, Janet A.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1991-05)
      The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a relationship between the level of loneliness. the degree of social support, and perceived locus of control of adolescent mothers. An ex-post facto correlational design was used in this study to examine whether there was a relationship between the variables. Results of this study revealed no significant relationships between level of loneliness, so~ial support, and locus of control. However, when social support was broken down into family total functional support and peer total functional support, some significant relationships were found. Family support was found to be related to decreased levels of loneliness for adolescent •others. Peer support was found to have a curvilinear relationship with loneliness, demonstrating that increasing peer suppori is associated with ·decreasing loneliness until a certain point, beyond which loneliness increases.
    • Leveraging Medical Simulation to Teach Interprofessional Education (IPE): A Pilot Study

      Hernlen, Kathleen; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Interprofessional education (IPE) is a term used to describe an educational technique that involves two or more learners from various professions learning from each other and with each other to increase collaboration among the learners and improve health care for their patients. Medical simulation can be described as any type of aid that can simulate a technique that is used in a clinical setting. The goal of this pilot study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an IPE medical simulation faculty training program that employed an IPE teaching method using the example of medical simulation which was lacking on the health sciences campus. A mixed methods study was developed to explore whether medical simulation could be used as a delivery method for an effective IPE faculty training program, and the extent to which IPE knowledge and perceptions changed as a result. A pre- and post-survey was given to faculty participants to evaluate their knowledge and perceptions of IPE. Following the training, faculty participants participated in a focus group. Data analysis included coding of focus groups responses and consolidating the codes into themes, and statistical analysis of the pre- and post-survey data. The findings of the pilot study included a statistically significant increase in knowledge and perceptions of IPE by the participating faculty which was corroborated by the focus group responses.
    • Leveraging Medical Simulation to Teach Interprofessional Education: A Pilot Study

      Etheridge, Rebecca Johnson; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Interprofessional education (IPE) is a term used to describe an educational technique that involves two or more learners from various professions learning from each other and with each other to increase collaboration among the learners and improve health care for their patients. Medical simulation can be described as any type of aid that can simulate a technique that is used in a clinical setting. The goal of this pilot study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an IPE medical simulation faculty training program that employed an IPE teaching method using the example of medical simulation which was lacking on the health sciences campus. A mixed methods study was developed to explore whether medical simulation could be used as a delivery method for an effective IPE faculty training program, and the extent to which IPE knowledge and perceptions changed as a result. A pre- and post-survey was given to faculty participants to evaluate their knowledge and perceptions of IPE. Following the training, faculty participants participated in a focus group. Data analysis included coding of focus groups responses and consolidating the codes into themes, and statistical analysis of the pre- and post-survey data. The findings of the pilot study included a statistically significant increase in knowledge and perceptions of IPE by the participating faculty which was corroborated by the focus group responses.
    • Life changes and perceived psychosocial implications for child victims and their families following disclosure of incest

      Stephenson, Grace H; School of Nursing (1987-01)
      This study addresses the ps-ychosocial implications of life changes occurring for children after disclo~ure of an incestuous relationship. Subjects ~ere 11 families obtained from the cas~load of .a county Depart~ent 6f Family and Child. Protective Services .. The· subjects w~re··f~male with ·a~e~ fr6m 5-17, black and white subjects we~e .. ~epr~sented. This was a descriptive study with data obtained from interviews with lawyers, therapists, mothers, and caseworkers. A content analysis approach was used for data analysis. Synthesis of the data revealed all families continued to experience turmoil yeats after the disclosure. Eleven categories. representing life changes were obtained from the data. The categories of famili di~ruption and"mother's inability t6 provide emotional support for her daughter were the most represented categorie~.
    • Linkage of characters and variation in recombining capacity in compatible nocardiae

      Walsh, Richard S. III; Department of Molecular Biology (1971-04)
    • Lipid mobilization by mouse stomach carcinoma #2663

      McChesney, Daniel Gerad; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1975-12-15)
    • Local cardiac effects of substance P and its role in myocardial dysfunction during ischemia and reperfusion

      Chiao, Hsi; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (Augusta University, 1994-08)
      Substance P (SP) is widely distributed in mammalian hearts. It can be released by different chemicals and during path~logical conditions. These facts are consistent with the opinion that SP in heart has physiological or pathological ' relevance. This study was designed to investigate the cardiac effects of SP and the mechanisms involved in its actions. The role of SPin myocardial dysfunction during myocardial ischemia/ reperfusion was also investigated. Local cardiac effects ~f SP were studied in isolated guinea pig heart and atrial preparations. In heart and right atrial preparations, SP caused negative changes in rate and force. Both chronotropic and inotropic changes were dose- or concentration- related. In electrically stimulated left atrial preparations, SP had no significant effect on contractile force at concentration up to 3x10-5 M. A series of experiments was conducted to understand the mechanisms involved in the actions ofSP~ It was hypothesized that cholinergic neurons modu1ate the effects of SP. Atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonlst, at a concentration of 1 o- 6 M significantly blocked the negative rate and force effects of SPin both heart and atrial preparations. Depletion of acetylcholine (ACh), achieved by concomitant el~ctrical stimulation of the vagus nerves and perfusion with hemicholinium-3, also significantly antagonized the negative effects ofSP. There was no significant effect of SP observed in hearts with ACh depletion or with muscarinic receptor blockade. These results suggest that SP elicits its effects mainly through the release of ACh. The role of adrenergic neurons in the effects of SP was evaluated by use of adrenergic receptor blocka~~ and norepinephrine (NE) depletion. Phentolamine and nadolol (a- and J3--adrenergic receptor antagonists, respectively) at a concentration oflQ-6 M significantly blocked the rate and force effects of isoprotenolol but did not affect the actions of SP. This finding suggests that SP does not affect adrenergic neurons. However,_ depletion ofNE by reserpine pretreatment significantly potentiated both rate and force effects of SP. One explanation for this observation could be that reserpine exerts a non-selective supersensitivity within the tissue. Our observation that reserpine pretreatment increased the sensitivity of muscarinic receptors to ACh appears to support this explanation. Nitric oxide (NO) can be synthesized in the heart and may be involved in the negative rate and force effe_cts mediated by or produced through cholinergic neurons. Many actions of SPin other tissues have been reported to be mediated by NO. Therefore, we hypothesized that NO formation in heart mediates the effects of SP. Nitric oxide is fortl;led from L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS) and elicits its effects by stimulating soiuble guanylyl cyclase (GC) and the formation of cGMP. We utilized NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor) or methylene blue (a soluble GC inhibitor) to block the actions of endogenous NO. Methylene blue and L-NAME significantly attenuated the rate and force effects of SP. Subsequent addition of L-arginine reversed the blocking effects of L-NAME. These data suggest that NO mediates the cardiac effects of SP. Post-ischemic ventricular dysfunction (myocardial ~tunning) has been characterized by an impairment of myocardial contraction during reperfusion after a short ischemic period. Due to its negative actions in the heart and a report that SP release is iricreased during myocardial hypoxia, we, hypothesized that SP may mediate this post-ischemic cardiac contractile dysfunction. Our model was isolated guinea pig hearts su~jected to15 minutes of global ischemia and followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The hearts.~xhibited a recovery in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) to 54% of the pre-ischemic baseline. After pretreatment of the heart preparations with neurokinin-1 (NKl) receptor antagonists, CP-99,994-01 or span tide, LVDP recovered to 78% and 88% of the pre-ischemic baseline, respectively. Depletion of SP by pretreatment with: capsaicin also significantly enhanced recovery of the LVDP. These results suggest that SP is a mediator of post-ischemi~ myocardial dysfunction. In summary, SPhas both negative inotropic and chronotropic effects in heart. The release of ACh mediates the effects of SP. Nitric oxide also mediates-the effects of SP. Substance.P can be·~eleased in heart during ischemia and reperfusion and appears to play a role in :post-ischeinic cardiac contractile dysfunction.
    • Lysis of cells and cell walls of bacillus psychrophilus

      Mattingly, Stephen Joseph; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1972-08)
    • Macromolecular incorporation of tritium from body water

      Sanders, Samuel Marshall Jr.; Department of Radiobiology (1973-12)
    • Macrophage recruitment signals following unilateral chorda tympani nerve degeneration/

      Cavallin, Melissa Ann; School of Graduate Studies (2007-02)
      The chorda tympani nerve ( CT) innervates taste buds within fungiform papillae. Unilateral transaction of the CT causes degeneration of the ipsilateral taste buds and a bilateral increase in activated lingual macrophages. However, dietary Na+ restriction prevents the macrophage response and results in a subnormal neural response to Na+· stimuli by the. contralateral, intact CT. Stimulating immune system function with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) restores the bilateral macrophage response to CT section in Na+ -restricted rats. This macrophage response is associated with the recovery of normal taste function, suggesting that macrophages affect taste function. Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 are upregulated prior to and during the peak macrophage response suggesting that these molecules are recruitment signals for macrophage entry following CT injury. Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1a is not significantly upregulated following CT section. Importantly, the increase in VCAM-1 expression is prevented by dietary Na+ restriction, -which may partially · explain the decreased macrophage response in these animals. However, binding of an antibody against platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, which is downstream of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, paradoxically increases macrophage recruitment and dpes · not alter taste · ;;function. Other adhesion molecules may be able to compensate for the loss of of PECAM-1. The response of the immune system to CT section is diverse and requires the cooperation of many molecules in order to recruit macrophages to maintain normal taste function. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 are upstream recruitment signals for macrophages that may ultimately affect the function of taste receptor cells.
    • Maintenance of AR Inactivation by S-nitrosylation

      Qin, Yu; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2011-04)
      Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. Unregulated activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression. Post-translational modifications of AR regulate its function, and we propose that nitric oxide (NO) synthase III (eNOS) and its product NO regulate prostate cancer cell growth via S-nitrosylation, a covalent addition of an NO group to a cysteine thiol, of AR. We found that S-nitrosylation levels were reduced in prostate cancer and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia compared to normal adjacent tissues, and xD;1089-8603 (Linking)15566968
    • Maintenance of self-esteem in childre

      Manus, Helen E.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1989-08)
      The purpose of this study was to examine whether obese children differ in global self-worth from normal weight children, and to explore whether the differences between obese children who have high global self-worth and those with low global self-worth are related to discounting and cognitive distortion. Global selfworth was tapped using a multidimensional measurement tool that assesses global self-worth· independently of self-perceptions in specific domains. Results of this study revealed that obese children differed from normal weight peers in how they perceived their physical appearance, whether they were socially accepted, and how they felt in general about themselves. In other words, obese children had lower global self-worth, felt bad about their relations with others, and were unhappy with· the way they looked. However, obese children did use defensive cognitions when answering questions about the self and their physical appearance. Use of these defenses appeared to enhance global self-worth, but not enough to prevent obese children from being in the category of tow in global self-worth.
    • Managing care in the context of bereavement : a grounded theory study of male survivors of partners who died from AIDS

      Ferrell, Jimmy Arthur; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1992-04)
      The purpose of this study was to describe the bereavement experiences of surviving gay men who provided care for a partner who died from AIDS. In addition, a goal was to generate a substantive theory that explains a basic social process used to manage bereavement. Grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze the data. Semistructured, op~n-ended interviews were conducted with 10 participants who lived with their partners diagnosed with AIDS at the time of the death. The collection and comparative analysis of the data occurred simultaneously over a period of 2 years. The findings revealed the basic social psychological problem of bereavement resolution, the basic social process (BSP) of managing care, and three categories comprising the BSP. These categories included: Stage I -- Taking on the care, Stage II -- Sharing the Care, and Stage III Relinquish~ng the Care. In addition, the strategies of each stage which were used by the participants to respond to the challenges of providing care for the partners with AIDS were delineated as forces impacting bereavement outcomes. The strategies ~or.the stages include-d: stage I -- (a) committing to care, (b) managing alone, (c) restructuring the relationship, (d) taking care of oneself; Stage II -- (a) reaching out ·to the families, (b) seeki-;n;g the support of friends; Stage III -- (a) dealing with the health care system, (b) dealing with the families, and (c) deaiing with the final loss. Implications for practice suggest that the Managing Care Theory within the context of bereavement provides a new framework from which to assess survivors' strategies in caring for partners with AIDS. The substantive theory provides a guide for nurses and other healthcare providers to more effectively intervene with survivors in the bereavement period. This study provides a basis for future research to determine if application of the Managing Care Theory will result in more positive bereavement outcomes for the survivors whose partners died from AIDS.