• he effects of selected inhibitors on electron transport in neisseria gonorrhoeae

      Kenimer, Elizabeth Anderson; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1976-03)
    • he relationship between self-concept and locus of control on tobacco use among rural black and white preadolescents: a comparative study

      Smith, Teresita Maria; School of Graduate Studies (2003-03)
      This study investigated the relationships among demog·raphic variables- of grade, age, gender, and race; self-_concept related to home, school,. and peer; and internal and external locus of control on tobacco use among rural BJack and White preadolescents using a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 666 preadolescents •in grades 4 and 5, ages 8 through 12, and enrolled in public schools in east central Georgia. Five elementary schools met the inclusion criteria of being located in a rural county with a population < 25,000, and also with > 50% Black student enrollment. Individual classrooms were randomly selected in 3 of the-schools. All fourth and fifth graders were selected in the other 2 schools. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, t test, and 6 . . logistic regression. Independent variables were self-concept and locus·of control. The dependent variable was tobacco use as being use or never use. The 54-item self-report survey was compri_sed of 4 brief scales: the Student Information Data . Form; the. Hare Self-Este.em Scale; the Nowicki-Strickland Children's Locus of Control. Scale; and the Tobacco Use Self-Report. Data were collected during Fall 2002 and involved 2 steps: (1) Explanation of the study and th~opportunity to participate were provided to the students (parental consent and child assent forms were obtained fro~ those agreeing to participate), and (2) data collection was ·conducted using_ the self-report survey form.· The study.found that tobacco use.rs totaled 9.2°/o' of the sample, which was gre.ater than the· rural norm of 4.2% to 5%. The sample of Black participants was _ large, s·1. 7%, as compared to previous studies with 0% to 20%, an~ was representative of the population. Those who used tobacco 'were more likely to be ' . boys (OR= 2.66, p = ~0005); have low:home sel.f-concept s.core (OR=. 0.91, p = .0003); have low school self-concept score (OR= 0.91, p < .0001 ); and have external locus of control (OR·= 2.05, p = .008) than those who did not use tobacco. Further studies· are recommended that may identify other contributing factors of tobacco use among rural preadolescents, such as diet, exercise, health, and sociodemographic variables.
    • Health disparities in acute outcomes of life-threatening injur

      NeSmith, Elizabeth Grooms; School of Graduate Studies (2007-12)
      Health disparities have been documented in nearly all-leading causes of death. It is unknown if health disparities also exist in acute outcomes of lifethreatening injury. The overall research question for this dissertation was, "Do health disparities exist in acute outcomes of life-threatening injury?". Three studies were conducted: a state of science, a validity study, and a descriptive study. The state of the science showed that only 4 of 352 studies repo'rted disparities, while 3 of 352 studies reported no disparities. The validity study was a retrospective chart review and showed that the instrument used to measure systemic inflammatory response syndrome was valid in predicting intensive care unit length of stay (F = 15.83) p < .0001. Caucasian race also predicted intensive care unit length of stay (F = 9. 7) p = .002. When combined with race, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome instrument explained . more variance (R2 = .15) in intensive care uniflength of stay than either variable alone (F = 7.7) p = .006. The descriptive study utilized the same data set from the validity study, and showed fewer occurrences of systemic inflammatory response syndrofDe in African Americans than in Caucasians (T = 9949.5) p = .04; in adults 30-44 years old than in adults 18-29 (T = 13,654) p = .04; and in ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users (X2 = 7 .85) p = .005. There was less severity of systemic : inflammatory response syndrome in females than in males {T = 7,491.5) p = .03; I / and in marijuana users than in all other substance users (T = 3, 117),P = .02 . . More severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was found among ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users {T = 2,667) p = .0008. Results support that health disparities exist among different patient groups · according to race, age, sex, and substance use for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. More research is needed to determine if these disparities translate to ·increased risk for poor outcomes. _Implications for practice include 1 increased vigilance of different patient groups- based on occurrence and severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
    • Health Disparities in Acute Outcomes of Life-threatening Injury

      NeSmith, Elizabeth Grooms; Department of Nursing (2007-12)
      Health disparities have been documented in nearly all-leading causes of death. It is unknown if health disparities also exist in acute outcomes of life-threatening injury. The overall research question for this dissertation was, “Do health disparities exist in acute outcomes of life-threatening injury?”. Three studies were conducted: a state of science, a validity study, and a descriptive study. The state of the science showed that only 4 of 352 studies reported disparities, while 3 of 352 studies reported no disparities. The validity study was a retrospective chart review and showed that the instrument used to measure systemic inflammatory response syndrome was valid in predicting intensive care unit length of stay (F = 15.83) p < .0001. Caucasian race also predicted intensive care unit length of stay (F = 9.7) p = .002. When combined with race, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome instrument explained more variance (R2 = .15) in intensive care unit length of stay than either variable alone (F = 7.7) p = .006. The descriptive study utilized the same data set from the validity study, and showed fewer occurrences of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in African Americans than in Caucasians (T = 9949.5) p = .04; in adults 30-44 years old than in adults 18-29 (T = 13,654) p = .04; and in ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users (X2 = 7.85) p = .005. There was less severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in females than in males (T = 7,491.5) p = .03; and in marijuana users than in all other substance users (T = 3,117) p = .02. More severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was found among ethyl alcohol users than in all other substance users (T = 2,667) p = .0008. Results support that health disparities exist among different patient groups according to race, age, sex, and substance use for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. More research is needed to determine if these disparities translate to increased risk for poor outcomes. Implications for practice include increased vigilance of different patient groups based on occurrence and severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
    • Health Needs of Older Adult Women in the Rural Environment

      Conway, Mary Ann; Department of Nursing (1983-12)
      This study addressed the following research questions: 1). What are the perceived health needs of older warren in the rural environment? 2) Are. there correlations between perceived health needs .and demographic ' ' . . and sociological variables related to. these needs? The descriptive survey utilized a purposive convenience sample of 14 wanen between the I ages of 66 and 79 •. Half were black, half were white. In-hare interviews were c?nducted by the investigator utilizing. a structured . inter...: view questionnaire to collect demographic data and infonnation regarding ·five ·areas of ·health need: . health· condition, functional status,· social interaction, accessibility o~ health care and service· need •. findings revealed that rrore than half the subjects were widowed. Half ·lived alone. ·.The majority ·had inadequate incanes. A relationship between race a.n.d incane, education, self-rated health, life satisfaction, health condition and functional status was noted.. The ma.jority of the health needs. related to physical functioning and chronic' conditions. Blacks and ~ose 75 or over had rrore·chronic conditions, recent illness and physical ·symptoms and used rrore p~escription.drugs than did whites. Blacks and those under 75 reported rrore activity limitations and disability days than whites and those 75 or over. The black ~espo!fdents and. those 75 or over were less healthy than ·the whites and those under 75. The potential for accidental misuse of rredications is increased among this sample as is the possibility of physical· canplications due to inactivity and lack of exercise. A need . for· health educatio:n programs and health prorrotion, maintenance ~d restorative services targeted to this· population ~s noted.
    • Health-Promoting Lifestyles of Women with HIV Disease

      Carr, Rebecca Lamb; School of Graduate Studies (1997-04)
      Women are one of the fastest growing risk groups for HIV infection in the United States, but little is known about how women manage the problems and concerns commonly faced by individuals who are HIV positive. HIV disease results in compromised lifestyles for women as they cope with physiological and psychosocial problems that accompany this disease. The purpose of this focused ethnography was to explore health-promoting lifestyles of women with HIV disease. Research questions guiding this study were: 1) What do women with HIV disease believe they can do to enhance and/or maintain their health after diagnosis? and 2) How do women promote and maintain their health and well-being? Purposive sampling was used to obtain nine European American participants between the ages of 27 and 52 years. These participants were recruited from the southeastern United States. Semi-structured interviews and observation participation were used to obtain data. The majority of participants were interviewed three times. Observation participation occurred during interviews, at conferences; and volunteer group meetings attended by the researcher and the participants. Data analysis was concurrent with data collection enabling the researcher to confirm her interpretations with the participants. Three major themes were identified: 1) Reaching out to others, 2) Searching for meaning, and 3) Buying time. These themes constituted a health-promoting lifestyle that enabled women to adjust to the change in their identity from a healthy person to a person with HIV disease. Initially, women focused on restoring their well-being, but later initiated changes to enhance, maintain, and maximize their health. INDEX WORDS: HIV disease, Women, Stigma, Self-in-relation, Health-promoting lifestyle, Health behavior, Health belief
    • Health-Promoting Lifestyles of Women with HIV Disease

      Carr, Rebecca L.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1997-04)
      Women are one of the fastest growing risk groups for HIV infection in the United States, but little is known about how women manage the problems and concerns commonly faced by individuals who are HIV positive. HIV disease results in compromised lifestyles for women as they cope with physiological and psychosocial problems that accompany this disease. The purpose of this focused ethnography was to explore health-promoting lifestyles of women with HIV disease. Research questions guiding this study were: 1) What do women with HIV disease believe they can do to enhance and/or maintain their health after diagnosis? and 2) How do women promote and maintain their health and well-being? Purposive sampling was used to obtain nine European American participants between the ages of 27 and 52 years. These participants were recruited from the southeastern United States. Semi-structured interviews and observation participation were used to obtain data. The majority of participants were interviewed three times. Observation participation occurred during interviews, at conferences, and volunteer group meetings attended by the researcher and the participants. Data analysis was concurrent with data collection enabling the researcher to confirm her interpretations with the participants. Three major themes were identified: 1) Reaching out to others, 2) Searching for meaning, and 3) Buying time. These themes constituted a health-promoting lifestyle that enabled women to adjust to the change in their identity from a healthy person to a person with HIV disease. Initially, women focused on restoring their well-being, but later initiated changes to enhance, maintain, and maximize their health.
    • Heat shock protein 70 promotes HCC by modulating DNA-damage response, MAPK/ERK signaling and cellular senescence

      Wang, Yan; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2015-10)
      The mechanisms that drive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development are not well understood. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a critical role in protein quality control. The HSP70-mediated response has been implicated in the development of different cancer types, however, the detailed mechanisms by which HSP70 supports tumor progression remains to be investigated. In this research work we observed that HSP70 deletion impairs HCC development by modulating the carcinogen-induced DNA damage response. This results in increased sensitivity to p53-dependent apoptosis, activation of MAPK/ERK negative feedback signaling pathway, and induction of cellular senescence. Inactivation of HSP70 may be a strategy to interfere with signaling pathways that drive liver cancer progression thus offering a therapeutic possibility for human HCC treatment. Note: The research data described in this Ph.D. Thesis are not published. Additional experimental work is needed to verify the data and solidify the mechanistic conclusions of this work before we seek publication of the data in a peer reviewed scientific journal. In light of new data generated from additional studies, we may need to modify or revised our mechanistic conclusions.
    • Heat Shock Protein 70I Promotes Carcinogen-induced Liver Tumorigenesis by Regulating Hepatic Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity

      Cho, Wonkyoung; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2011-12)
      Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the world. The treatment options for HCC, however are very limited. In mice, the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induces HCC, which has been proven to be comparable to human HCC in many key aspects. DEN-induced HCC leads to initial hepatocyte death followed by compensatory proliferation and inflammatory response. The cycles of hepatocyte death and compensatory proliferation eventually lead to genomic mutations and HCC development. The inducible heat shock protein-HSP70 (HSP70i) is overexpressed in a number of malignancies, including liver cancer. Tumor cells have metabolic changes which producing intermediates for cell growth and division. We hypothesize that HSP70i plays a role in HCC development through its control of glucose metabolism. To determine the impact of HSP70i in HCC, we treated a cohort of wild-type and hsp70i-deficient mice using the carcinogen DEN. Tumor development in the liver was examined after 8 months. Results show that the deletion of hsp70i leads to a significant delay in HCC development. DEN-treated hsp70i-/- mice exhibit reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum compared to wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting reduced liver damage in hsp70i-/- mice. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms underlying HSP70i inhibition of tumorigenesis, we performed TUNEL assays to detect hepatocyte death, and Ki67 immunostaining to detect hepatocyte proliferation. As expected, hsp70i-/- mice exhibit a lower level of cell death and lower levels of cellular proliferations compared to wild-type mice. In addition, hsp70i-/- mice exhibit increased glucose consumption as evident by an increase in key enzymes involved in both glycolysis and TCA cycle. Low net glucose production induces lower lipid accumulation. Finally, treatment of DEN-treated wild-type mice with 2-phenylethynesulfonamid (PES), which is an HSP70i specific inhibitor, also delays HCC development. Overall, the alterations in the metabolic pathways in hsp70i null mice appear to contribute to delayed HCC development. Therefore, we conclude that HSP70i can be a powerful therapeutic target for HCC.
    • Heterogeneity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat brain / by Deborah Anne Wenger.

      Wenger, Deborah Anne; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology (1983-08)
    • Histochemical study of the effects of aging on articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the rabbit femur

      Nusbickel, Frederick R.; Department of Anatomy (1973-04)
      The distribution patterns of certain hydrolytic en~ymes . and matrix components of undecalcified articular cartilage and subchondral bone were. studied in relation to growth and aging~ The ages of .the rabbits varied from one week to two years •.. The tissues were embedded. in glycol methacrylate and sectioned with glass knives, . there by eliminating the need for decalcif.ication. MicrosomaJ. acid and alkaline phosphatases· decreased with increasing age, being always limited .to the calcified layer of cartUage and subchondral bone. Lysosomal acid phos- . . pbatase increased from a reaction in· the subchondral bone of the younger · animals to a fairly· strong reaction in the calcified. zone,. of cartUage in older groups. ATPase activity on increasing age was seen to move ·. upward from the subchondral bone in the youngest tissues to. the calcified and radial zones of the older. animals. The activity of .5'-riucleotidase was reduced in the younger anima.ls but was· primarUy seen in the radia.l zone and isolated areas of the superficial zone in middle aged and older - . . groups •. The majority' of .the stain' useci to study .the matrix compon_ents· were Vf!rY simUar in .activity. Azure A, colloidal iron, and high iron diamine were all seen to . be very ·reactive throughout· the cartUage and subchondral bone of the youngest tissue. '!his. reactivity decreased with increasing age, with most of the stains _beL"'lg concentrated. in the lower_ ~ial and calcified. layer of eartUage. The periodic acid Schiff reaction was wea.k in the younger tissues-, becoming highly concentrated 1n the radial and calcified zones of the older tissues. The results of the enzyme and matrix procedures give some indication of metabolic variation with age apd region of tissue.
    • A Histologic Examination of the Effects of Flouride on The Gastric Mucosa of The Rat

      Easmann, Ronald; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences (1983-12)
      N?A
    • HLA-G DIMER PROLONGS KIDNEY ALLOGRAFT SURVIVAL BY INHIBITING CD8+T CELL ACTIVATION AND GRANZYME B EXPRESSION

      Ajith, Ashwin; Biomedical Sciences (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      Solid organ transplantation is the preferred therapy for many patients diagnosed with end stage organ failure, however allograft rejection is a significant barrier for graft survival. Patient care involves heavy immunosuppressive drug treatment leading to elevated risk for cancer and other opportunistic infections. Hence there is a need to develop effective alternative approaches to minimize graft rejection. We focused on Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), a nonclassical HLA class Ib molecule critically involved in the maintenance of maternal tolerance to semi-allogeneic fetal tissues during pregnancy and has emerged as a potential therapeutic target to control allograft rejection. We demonstrate here that the level of soluble HLA-G dimer was higher in a group of 90 patients with a functioning renal allograft compared with 40 patients who rejected (RJ) their transplants. The HLA-G dimer level was not affected by demographic status. One of the potential mechanisms in tissue organ allograft rejection involves the induction of granzymes and perforin, which are the main effector molecules expressed by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and function to destroy allogeneic transplants. Using genomics, molecular and cellular analyses of cells from T-cell–mediated RJ and nonrejected kidney transplant patients, cells from leukocyte Ig-like receptor B1 (LILRB1) transgenic mice, humanized mice, and genetically engineered HLA-G dimer, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which HLA-G dimer inhibits activation and cytotoxic capabilities of human CD8+ T cells. This mechanism implicated the downregulation of Granzyme B expression and the essential involvement of LILRB1. Thus, HLA-G dimer has the potential to be a specific and effective therapy for prevention of allograft rejection and prolongation of graft survival.
    • HMGB1-TLR4 Signaling Following Traumatic Brain Injury

      Laird, Melissa D; Department of Neurosurgery (2011-05)
      Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although preventative measures may reduce the incidence of TBI, over 1.7 million Americans suffer a head injury annually1. Brain edema, the abnormal accumulation of fluid within the brain parenchyma, contributes to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), brain herniation, and a poor prognosis following head injury2"4. Clinically, the degree of swelling on the first computed tomography (CT) scan directly correlates with patient outcome, demonstrating the need to limit brain edema following head injury5. Unfortunately, current medical therapies do not effectively control brain edema and neurosurgical approaches to alleviate increased ICP are invasive and of limited utility. A longrange goal of our laboratory is to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms that promote cerebral edema, which may aid in the development of novel therapeutics for head trauma patients. A central premise of our hypothesis is that activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) increases brain edema following TBI. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are membrane proteins within the interleukin-1 receptor superfamily that mediate innate immunity6"8; however, recent evidence suggests TLR are also expressed within the CNS of humans and rodents9"12. Activation of TLR4 exacerbated neuronal injury and neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia13,14, although the involvement of TLR4 following TBI has only just begun to be examined and comparatively little is known15,16. Given the association between inflammation, neurological injury, and patient outcome17, TLR4 may represent an unexplored therapeutic target following TBI. We hypothesize that High Mobility Group Box Protein B1 (HMGB1), a putative endogenous ligand forTLR4, is released via an NR2B mechanism and promotes cellular edema following TBI.
    • HSP90 Inhibitors in Sepsis and Sepsis-induced Acute Lung Injury

      Chatterjee, Anuran; Vascular Biology Center (2007-06)
      Severe sepsis is the leading cause of death for patients in intensive care units. Patients with severe sepsis develop multiple organ failure, including acute lung injury, resulting from a dysregulated inflammatory response. Inhibitors of the ubiquitous chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), block the activity of certain pro-inflammatory mediators, in vitro. We hypothesized that hsp90 inhibitors may ameliorate the inflammation and acute lung injury associated with severe sepsis. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either one of two hsp90 inhibitors, radicicol or 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), at 24, 12, 6 and 0 hr before receiving a lethal dose of endotoxin (6.75 x 104 EU / g body weight). Outcomes included survival and parameters of systemic inflammation (plasma cytokine, chemokine and nitrite/nitrate levels), pulmonary inflammation (lung NF-κB and myeloperoxidase activities, inducible nitric oxide or iNOS expression, iNOS-hsp90 complex formation, leukocyte infiltration), and lung injury (pulmonary capillary leak, expression of endothelial specific cell-adhesion or adherens junction proteins, lung function). Mice pre-treated with vehicle and receiving endotoxin exhibited 100% 24-hr lethality, dramatic increase in all parameters of systemic and pulmonary inflammation, reduced lung function and increased capillary leak associated with reduced expression of functional adherens junction proteins. In comparison, mice receiving either radicicol or 17-AAG prior to endotoxin, exhibited prolonged survival, reduced or abolished increases in systemic and pulmonary inflammatory parameters, normal lung function and attenuated capillary leak with restored expression of adherens junction proteins. Additionally, in an in vitro model of endotoxin and activated neutrophil-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction, we show that pre-incubation of neutrophils or endothelial cells or both with hsp90 inhibitors impart a profound barrier protective effect, which is mediated, at-least in part, through reduced activation of pp60Src kinase (an hsp90 client protein) and phosphorylation of the focal adhesion protein paxillin, a pp60Src kinase substrate. Hsp90 inhibitors are drugs already in use clinically as adjunct cancer treatment. Therefore, these findings point to a potential clinical use of these drugs in sepsis and sepsis induced ALI.
    • Human kidney and urinary arylamidase

      Story, Mary Nell Carbo; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1969-06)