• An early 'phosphoinositide effect' in poliovirus infected HeLa cells

      Pickard, Cheryl Lewis; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1985-06)
    • Early adolescents' physical activity and nutrition beliefs and behaviors in an urban cluster in the southeastern United States

      Hawks, Miranda R.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2016)
      Obesity in early adolescents is a significant public health problem that has adverse health consequences, to include increasing the risk of developing type two diabetes and hypertension. Factors such as the environment, nutrition, and physical activity contribute to obesity in early adolescents. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the physical activity and nutrition beliefs and behaviors of early adolescents in an urban cluster in the southeastern part of the United States. The researcher recruited early adolescents at a community organization and collected data using three ethnographic methods: semi-structured interviewing, participant observation, and collection of artifacts. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to shed light on the meaning of early adolescents’ communications about their physical activity and nutrition beliefs and behaviors. Themes that emerged from data analysis included recognizing benefits of physical activity and healthy eating, family influences, connecting with the community, peer influences, electronic media influences, and developing a sense of self. This study contributes to nursing science in three ways. First, all early adolescents recognized both physical activity and healthy eating as beneficial for promoting their health and improving the quality of their lives. Second, early adolescents described their mothers as the most influential family member for both their physical activity and healthy eating behaviors. Third, the community organization was identified as the main facilitator of early adolescents’ physical activities within their immediate environment outside their home. These findings explain three different points of entry that the nursing community can use, separately or together, for their health promotion strategies to encourage physical activity and healthy eating among early adolescents.
    • Early cellular events in periodontal and alveolar peri-implant wound healing

      Coleman, Brandon; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2010-04)
    • Early Events in the Periovulatory Interval: Steroidogenesis and Proliferation in Macaque granulosa cells

      Fru, Karenne N; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2006-06)
      The periovulatory interval is defined as the period of time between the ovulatory stimulus and ovulation of the ovarian follicle. It is initiated by a midmenstrual cycle release of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary and initiates a cascade of events that eventually lead to extrusion of a fertilizable oocyte as well as remodeling of the follicle into the corpus luteum. Previous experiments looking beyond 12hr after the ovulatory stimulus have identified multiple changes to the preovulatory follicle while little is known of the early periovulatory interval. In spite of the paucity of information available about this time period, it was hypothesized that multiple unknown changes occur early in the interval that are critical to normal ovulation and luteinization. Two endpoints were examined in the periovulatory interval; steroidogenic changes as well as mural granulosa cell proliferation. The novel observation of CYP 21 induction was made as well as identification of 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) synthesis in response to hCG both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, mineralocoritoid receptor (MR) is expressed by granulosa cells thus establishing their potential for corticosteroid sensitivity. Antagonism of MR ablates the normal synthesis of progesterone in response to hCG although the mechanism remains unclear. It was also concluded that even though mural granulosa cells are less likely to proliferate in response to exogenous stimulus in the form of epidermal growth factor (EGF) after hCG, proliferation can be enforced in even luteinizing granulosa cells using insulin. Moreover, mural granulosa cells express EGF family members in response to hCG and express EGF receptor constitutionally. However, more work needs to be done to elucidate the absence of EGF driven proliferation in luteinizing but not non-luteinized granulosa cells.
    • Early events in the periovulatory interval: Steroidogenesis and proliferation in Macaque granulosa cells

      Fru, Kareene Ntsang; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2002-06)
      The periovulatory interval is defined as the period of time between the ovulatory stimulus and ovulation of the ovarian follicle. It is initiated by a mid- . menstrual cycle release of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary and initiates a cascade of events that eventually lead to extrusion of a fertilizable oocyte as well as remodeling of the follicle into the corpus luteum. Previous experiments looking beyond 12hr after the ovulatory stimulus have identified multiple changes to the preovulatory.·follicle while little is known· of the early periovulatory interval.· In spite of the paucity of information available about this time period, it was.hypothesized that multiple u·nknown changes occur early in the interval that are critical to normal ovulation and luteinization. Two endpoints were examined in the periovulatory interval; steroidogenic changes as well as mural granulosa cell proliferation. The novel observation of CYP 21 induction was made as well as identification of 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) synthesis in response to hCG both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, mineralocoritoid receptor (MR) is expressed by granulosa cells thus establishing their potential for corticosteroid sensitivity. Antagonism of MR ablates the normal synthesis of progesterone in response to hCG although the mechanism remains unclear. It was also concluded that even though mural granulosa cells are less likely to proliferate in response to exogenous stimulus in the form of epidermal growth factor (EGF) after hCG, proliferation ·can be enforced in even luteinizing granulosa cells using insulin. Moreover, mural granulosa cells express EGF family members in response to hCG and express EGF receptor constitutionally. However, more work needs to be done to elucidate the absence of EGF driven proliferation in luteinizing but not non-luteinized granulosa cells.
    • Early initiation of shaving and sexual activity as risk factors for prostate cancer

      Matthews, Brian Edward; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2006-02)
      Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Prostate cancer has a complex etiology; presently, age, ethnicity, and family history are the most consistently reported risk factors associated with disease. Other potential risk factors have also been suggested. The aim of this study was to identity a potential relationship between early onset of shaving initiation and first sexual activity in the development of prostate cancer. We also examined the pathologic stage, Gleason sum, and age of prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to early onset of shaving initiation and first sexual activity in the development of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective case-control study. 167 veterans referred for prostate needle biopsy, due to an elevated PSA or abnormal DRE, to evaluate for the presence of prostate cancer, during a 31-month period completed questionnaires. 7 4 cases were identified from the group as having prostate cancer, as evidenced by a positive prostate biopsy. 93 veterans from the group were identified as not having prostate cancer, as evidenced by at least one negative prostate biopsy. Assessment of exposed and non-exposed members of the group was accomplished by their responses to the questionnaire querying their age at initiation of shaving and age they became sexually active. The age responses to the shaving and sexual activity questions were divided into tertiles with the youngest tertile considered the "exposed" population with early onset of hormonal influences. The risk of prostate cancer was modeled using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Additional analyses usmg X 2 • two-sample !-tests, Univariate Analysis of Variance, and Log Linear equations were conducted to determine differences in means for individual variables. Variables examined included age of prostate cancer diagnosis, race, PSA levels, DRE findings, Gleason sum, pathologic stage, height, weight, BMI, age of shaving initiation and first sexual activity. Results: Of the 35 early onset of shaving exposed patients 13 (3 7.1%) had prostate cancer, while 22 (23.7%) did not. There was no increased risk of early onset of shaving with cancer in exposed (p = 0.513). Of the 42 early age of first intercourse exposed patients 20 (27%) had prostate cancer, while 22 (52.4%) did not. There was no correlation of early age of first intercourse with cancer in exposed (p = 0.882). PSA levels demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.007) by Jt- and two-sample !-tests. There was a significant difference in the mean age of diagnosis of prostate cancer for Caucasians (64.8) and African Americans (59.9). We also found partial associations between age of first sex category by race category (P=0.0233) and age of first sex category by family history category (P=.0493). Conclusions: We found no significant increased risk of prostate cancer in veterans referred for prostate biopsy who reported an early onset of shaving initiation and an early age at first sexual activity.· Rising PSA was found to be the strongest predictor of prostate cancer in our population. We also found no statistically significant differences in mean pathologic stage, Gleason sum, or age of prostate cancer diagnosis for age of first shave and age of first sex. We identified a significant difference in the mean age of diagnosis for Caucasians (64.8) and African Americans (59.9). We also found partial associations between age of first sex category by race category and age of first sex category by family history category in relation to pathologic stage. Although higher or earlier peaks in pubertal androgen levels may contribute to the relation of early onset of shaving, early age of first intercourse and prostate cancer, our data did not support this. Additional research will be required to further evaluate the conflicting results of past research in regards to hormone levels and the incidence of prostate cancer.
    • Early Life Environmental Exposure and Hormonal Exposure and Race-Related Influence on the Human Stem Cell Populations in Fibroid and Myometrial Tissues Lead to Compromised Genomic Integrity and Increased Tumorigenesis

      Prusinski Fernung, Lauren; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (5/22/2018)
      Though benign, uterine fibroids (UF) are the most significant benign neoplastic threat to women’s health and most common indication for hysterectomy. The elusive etiology of UF inhibits significant improvement in quality of care for affected women. Somatic mutations in the MED12 gene are currently thought to arise in myometrial stem cells (MSCs) converting them into UF tumor-initiating cells. Defective DNA repair increases the risk of tumorigenic somatic mutations, suggesting that additional mutations arising in fibroid stem cells (FSCs) ultimately contribute further to tumor growth and development. In addition, a significant ethnic disparity exists in UF prevalence, occurring in African American (AA) four times more as compared to Caucasian (CA) women, a phenomenon that has been observed for more than 120 years, but the molecular attributes behind UF’s ethnic disparity are still not fully realized. Our goal is to determine the mechanism by which the physiology of these human uterine MSCs is altered by changes in utero during early development of the epigenetic regulators of DNA-damage repair genes and how these stem cells lead to the origination of MED12 mutations and, ultimately, UF development later in adult life. Using a rat model of early-life environmental exposure, in which rats undergoing early uterine development were exposed to an endocrine disruptor, we compared the DNA repair capacity of exposed, "at-risk" myometrial stem cells to those from unexposed animals. In addition, we utilized human myometrial and fibroid tissue samples to characterize the myometrial stem cell populations from normal versus fibroid-containing uteri and compared the DNA repair capacity of human fibroid stem cells to the stem cells of adjacent myometrium. We determined that DNA repair in both exposed rat MSCs and human FSCs was decreased/altered compared to unexposed murine MSCs and human adjacent MSCs, respectively. In exposed rat MSCs, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair was significantly impaired both in untreated cells and in cells in which DNA DSB damage was induced. Similar phenomena were observed in human FSCs as compared to adjacent MSCs. These data suggest impaired DNA repair in exposed MSCs and in human FSCs may contribute to initiation and perpetuation of UF tumorigenesis.
    • Early Recognition of Patient Problems in Critical Care: An Interpretative Study

      Minick, Ptlene; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing; American Nurses' Foundation (1992-05)
      Early recognition of patient problems is crucial in the critical care setting, however the process of early recognition remains elusive. The literature reflects growing consensus that expert clinicians routinely use “intuitive knowing” (embodied intelligence) in critical decision-making situations (Benner, 1984; Benner & Wrubel, 1989). The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the embedded knowledge used by critical care nurses in the early recognition of patient problems. Heideggerian hermeneutical analysis was chosen as the theoretical perspective and research method because of its usefulness in revealing contextual understanding of obscure constructs. A purposeful sampling technique was used to recruit the 30 critical care nurses as participants for this study from one of two hospitals in the North Georgia area. All 30 participants had a minimum of three years of experience in critical care nursing and were interviewed once. Eight of the participants were interviewed a second time; in addition, two key participants reviewed and confirmed the interpretation for a total of 40 interviews. Two patterns considered constitutive of the nurses’ Being were found implicitly and explicitly in every interview and were entitled: (a) the perception of early recognition: engendered through care and (b) practical knowing: embodied intelligence. Major themes that were identified were: (a) experience is requisite for early recognition, (b) communication between nurses and physicians, (c) technology: help or hindrance and (d) what sustains me in nursing. A meaningful understanding of process of early recognition of patient problems contributes to nursing science, nursing education and most importantly, to the improvement of patient care.
    • Educational kinesiology with learning disabled children : an efficacy study

      Cammisa, Kathryne; School of Allied Health (Augusta University, 1991-09)
      Educational Kinesiology (EK) is a treatment which utilizes specific movements to access different parts of the brain in an attempt to maximize learning potential. EK has been recommended for use with learning disabled children; however studies validating its effects are limited. The school records of 27 students ages seven to 17 with a diagnosis of specific learning disability were examined for pre and post test scores on academic and perceptual motor skill measures following an EK program. The Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) served as a measure of academic achievement. The Perceptual Motor Assessment for Children (P-MAC) provided a measure of perceptual motor ski'll. Results indicate a significant improvement in perceptual motor skills following EK. The change in academic skills was not significant. EK is recommended as a treatment to improve perceptual motor function in learning disabled children. Other .variables affecting the. study, as well as clinical and research implications are discussed.
    • The Effect of a Brief Relaxation Response Intervention on Physiologic Markers of Stress in Patients Hospitalized with Coronary Artery Disease

      Johns, Robin F.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2009-05)
      Activation of the neuroendocrine response to stress results in numerous physiologic changes that can have an untoward effect on glucose levels and hemodynamic status, especially in the patient hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). This experimental study tested the effects of a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response (RR) intervention on physiologic markers of stress including capillary blood glucose (CBG), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate-pressure product (RPP) in addition to self-reported stress levels (SRSL) in patients hospitalized with CAD. In this randomized clinical trial, subjects (n = 48) were assigned to either the experimental or control group. Pretest measures of CBG, HR, SBP, DBP, RPP and SRSL were obtained for all subjects. Subjects in the experimental group were taught to elicit the RR and asked to practice the technique for 20 minutes. Subjects in the control group were instructed to rest quietly for 20 minutes. Posttest measures of CBG, HR, SBP, DBP, RPP and SRSL were obtained for all subjects following the 20 minute study period. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) demonstrated a significant difference in adjusted mean scores between the experimental and control group (p = .002). Follow-up univariate analyses of covariance demonstrated significant decreases in CBG (p = .008), HR (p = .024) and RPP (p = .044) in the group receiving the relaxation response intervention. The findings indicated that in patients hospitalized with CAD, a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response intervention was more effective in lowing CBG, HR and RPP than a usual care approach. Thus, a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response intervention may prove a novel method for hemodynamic and metabolic modulation of the stress response to include the prevention and treatment of stressinduced hyperglycemia among patients hospitalized with CAD.
    • The Effect of a brief relaxation response intervention on physiologic markers of stress in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease

      Johns, Robin F.; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2009-05)
      Activation of the neuroendocrine response to stress results in numerous physiologic changes that can have an untoward effect on glucose levels anJ hemodynamic status, especially in the patient hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). This experimental study tested the effects of a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response (RR) intervention on physiologic markers of stress including capillary blood glucose (CBG), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate-pressure product (RPP) in addition to self-reported stress levels (SRSL) in patients hospitalized with CAD. In this randomized clinical trial, subjects (n = 48) were assigned to either the experimental or control group, Pretest measures of CBG, HR, SBP, DBP, RPP and SRSL were obtained for all subjects. Subjects in the experimental group were taught to elicit the RR and asked to practice the technique for 20 minutes. Subjects in the control group were instructed to rest quietly for 20 minutes. Posttest measures ofCBG, HR, SBP, DBP, RPP and SRSL were obtained for all subjects following the 20 minute study period. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOV A) demonstrated a significant difference in adjusted mean scores between the experimental and control group (p = .002). Follow-up univariate analyses of covariance demonstrated significant decreases in CBG (p = .008), HR (p = .024) and RPP (p = .044) in the group receiving the relaxation response intervention. The findings indicated that in patients hospitalized with CAD, a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response intervention was more effective in lowing CBG, HR and RPP than a usual care approach. Thus, a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response intervention may prove a novel method for hemodynamic and metabolic modulation of the stress response to include the prevention and treatment of stressinduced hyperglycemia among patients hospitalized with CAD.
    • Effect of a novel calcium phosphate coating on osseointegration of titanium implants: a study in rabbits

      Poulos, Nicholas; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2008-01-15)
    • The Effect of a Tobacco Cessation Service-Learning Project on CNL Student Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Intentions to Intervene with Tobacco Dependent Pregnant Women

      Inglett, Sandra B.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2011-10)
      This dissertation was a three group comparison study about the effect of a tobacco service-learning project, known as COMMIT (Circle of Motivated Moms for Infants to be Tobacco-Free), has on CNL (Clinical Nurse Leader) student’s knowledge, confidence, and Theory of Reasoned Action beliefs to intercede and educate pregnant women and/or patients. This was compared to CNL students who did not participate in a tobacco cessation service-learning project but were at the same point in their coursework and new CNL students who are just beginning their course of study. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action as a framework the Rx for Change: Clinician-Assisted Tobacco Cessation Pre/Post Test Survey was administered to 70 CNL students divided among 3 Groups. Group 1 (COMMIT) consisted of 14 CNL students, Group 2 (students at the same point in education but without a tobacco service-learning project), and Group 3 (CNL students at the beginning of their program). Factors such as demographics, knowledge, self-efficacy, confidence, control beliefs, subjective beliefs, normative beliefs, and perception of service-learning project were examined in relation to the dependent variable intentions. Qualitative data gained from structured interviews was analyzed for themes from Group 1 and Group 2. Five themes were identified and consistent between Group 1 and Group 2. They were: 1) translational, 2) student value, 3) patient value, 4) awareness, and 5) frustration. The quantitative findings revealed that Knowledge, Confidence to Counsel, and Intention scores had significant effects. There were no effects for Ability to Counsel, Subjective, Normative, or Control Beliefs. There was no correlation between the SELEB (Service-learning Benefit) scale and Intentions to Intercede nor was the regression analysis significant between SELEB and Intentions. However, there were significant correlations between SELEB and Confidence to Counsel, Ability to Counsel, Subjective Beliefs and Control Beliefs.
    • The effect of age and soluble mediators on macrophage function in vitro

      David, Cynthia Lynne; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1990-05)
      Macrophages from young (8-10 m·onths old) and old (22-24 . mon'ths old) F344 .rats were examined in_ vitro to determine whether macrophage function was compromised in old rats. Thioglycollateelicited macrophages were us~d. The inflammatory response in old . - rats yielded 75% fewer macrophages than_ young rats. However, age did not have any effect on the expression of alkaline phosphodiesterase I activity, which functions as a marker of. macrophage activation. Similarly, macrophages from old rats performed as well as macrophages from young rats in their ability to inhibit tumor cell growth in cytostasis assays using both ·rat.and mouse tumor cell lines. Yet macrophage function in vivo depends not only on intrinsic functional.ability but also upon environmental stimuli. Plasma fibronectin (Fn) increases in concentration during aging in many orga~sms, including Sprague-Dawley rats. Fn had a differential effect on marker ectoenzyme activities in the Sprague-Dawley --·model; it enhanced activation in young macrophages, while decreasing activation in old macrophages. In the cytostasis assay system, fibronectin enhanced cytostasis of . both young and old F344 macrophages, but the old macrophages were 30% less sensitive to Fn's effect. Macrophages from young and . old rats were equally responsive to the activating effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cytostasis assay. Thus, whil~ some intrinsic macrophage functions are unimpaired during aging, macrophage function in vivo will be due to the complex environment of stimulatory and inhibitory signals in the aging environment.
    • The Effect of an acute knee effusion on lower extremity performance

      Boglas, Lori A.; Medical College of Georgia (1997-08)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the relatio~ship between an acute knee effusion and lower extremity performance. Nine subjects performed the single hop, cross-over hop and 6 meter timed hop test using the dominant limb~ ·Afterward, ~hey received either a 30 ml or 60 ml saline injection into; the knee and repeated the tests. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in pre- and post-injection test scores and 30 ml and 60 ml effusions. Only, the timed hop had changes in performance which occurred following a 60 ml injection (p < • 05) • The timed hop was the only one sensitive enough to detect changes in performance. Reasons for the other 2 tests having. no changes include compensatory mechanisms, fluid dispersal in the joint, lack of test sensitivity, absence of an inflammatory process and a limited sample size (n=9). These results imply the need for further research on the relationship between an acute knee effusion and lower extremity performance.
    • Effect of an Er,Cr:YSGG Laser on P. Gingivalis-Contaminated Titanium Alloy Dental Implant Surfaces In Vitro

      Strever, Jason; Department of Oral Biology (2016-04)
      Implant dentistry has become a widely accepted modality to replace missing teeth. However, dental implants are susceptible to biofilm-mediated inflammatory lesions (peri-implant mucositis / peri-implantitis), similar to that seen around natural teeth (gingivitis / periodontitis). These lesions, in turn, threaten the longevity of implants as anchors for dental prostheses. Because of the similarity in etiology and presentation, comparable treatment modalities are applied to resolve peri-implant and periodontal inflammatory lesions. Such a shared treatment includes mechanical debridement, with or without surgical repositioning of the soft tissue complex. However, most contemporary dental implants feature threads to engage the alveolar bone and a micro/nano-textured surface to stimulate bone-implant contact (osseointegration). Therefore, when the implant threads become exposed and contaminated by biofilm, subsequent surface debridement / decontamination becomes considerably more complex than with that of a natural tooth, which is usually debrided using a metal curette or ultrasonic device. The micro/nano-textured surface of a dental implant is easily damaged by instrumentation using a metal curette. If an efficient method of dental implant surface decontamination could be established, then clinical protocols may be developed that effectively clean the implant surface to achieve peri-implant tissue health. To this end, lasers have been introduced; however, directly applied laser energy may also affect implant surface characteristics, including micro/nano-structure and composition, essential to osseointegration. Therefore, lasers may have disadvantageous clinical effects, in turn compromising peri-implant tissue consolidation and health: the very aspects its use is attempting to provide. Commercially available Er,Cr:YSGG lasers have been used to remove such implant-attached deposits, however the efficacy in removal of bacteria and the safety to the implant surface integrity have yet to be demonstrated quantitatively.
    • The Effect of Atrial Pacing on Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects

      Crawford, Lyndia Diana Widgeon; Department of Adult Nursing (Medical College of Georgia, 1992-07)
      This study investigated the relationship between atrial pacing and blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. It was hypothesized that BP and medication requirements would be reduced in patients with constant atrial pacing (CAP). The study design was descriptive correlational. Retrospective chart review was used to examine a nonprobability, convenience sample of 23 subjects with hypertension .(HTN) and atrial pacemakers. Those 1'7ith malignant HTN were excluded. Subjects were divided as to constant atrial pacing (CAP) or intermittent atrial pacing (IAP). BP was recorded before implant, and at 24 hours, 1-3 weeks and 2-3 months post-implant. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in the BP of the two groups. T-tests showed differences in the systolic BP at 1-3 weeks (p= 0.04), and 2-3 months (p= 0.03), with lower BP readings in the IAP group. Changes in HTN medications revealed differences in the two groups (using chi square p= 0.03), with the CAP group requiring fewer increases. The hypotheses were not supported.
    • The effect of blood flow rate on PMN adherence and protection against injury in the isolated blood perfused canine lung lobe stimulated with PMA

      McCloud, Laryssa; School of Graduate Studies (1998-05)
      In the lung neutrophil (PMN)-endothelial interactions contribute to the endothelial damage that occurs in many disease states, such as the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Current literature states that. PMN adherence is greater at low blood flow rates. How high blood flow rates affect PMN-mediated injury in the lung has not been investigated. This study was designed to determine the effects of increased blood flow on the ability of phorbol myristate acet~te (PMA) to cause lung injury in the isolated canine lung lobe and on the ability of agents to protect against this injury. Injury was assessed by examining luminal endothelial bound angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), pulmonary artery pressure (Pa), double vascular occlusion pressure (Pdo ), and the capillary filtration coefficient (Kr). PMN sequestration was measured using circulating white blood cell· counts [WBC] and differentials and 51Cr labeled PMN retention by the lung~ Lung lobes were perfused at low flow (LF, 0.599±0.001 L/min) or high flow (HF, 1.185:f::0.004 L/min) and divided into four groups. Group I, LF PMA, Group II, LF Control, Group III, HF PMA, and Group IV, HF Control. Groups I and III received PMA (1 o·7M) while Groups II and IV were treated with the PMA vehicle. PMA decrea~ed ACE activity and [WBC] at both flows while Pa, PVR and Kr were increased. PMA ( 'L caused lung injury independent of blood flow rate. Isoproterenol (ISO) has been shown to protect against some forms of lung injury. To study the effect of flow rate on the ability of ISO (10-5M) to protect against PMAinduced injury, lobes were perfused at either 0.603±0.003 or 2.015±.0.064 L/niin ~d .. were pretreated with either saline (Group I, LF Vehicle + P MA) and (Group II, HF Vehicle + PMA) or ISO (Group III, LF ISO + P MA) and (Group IV, HF ISO + P MA) for 20 min before PMA. After PMA ·Group I and II lobes showed significant decreases in ACE activity and increases in Pa and PVR. Kr measurements after injury. could be completed in only three of the six lobes in Group II due to severe edema. Pa and PVR increased after injury in Group III lobes. In Group IV lobes ISO protected against the increases in Pa and PVR and decreases in ACE activity but caused an increase in Kr that was further increased after PMA. Thus, ISO protected against endothelial ectoenzyme dysfunction and partially protected against hemodynamic changes after PMA in lungs perfused at high blood flow rate. Lobes perfused at a low flow rate were not protected from the hemodynamic effects of PMA by ISO pretreatment. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is another agent reported to provide protection against various forms of lung injury. To study the ability of PTX (10-3M) to protect against PMA-induced injury, lobes w~re perfused_at low flow (LF, 0.601±0.002 L/min) or high . flow (HF, 1.170±0.005. L/min) and divided into four groups. Group L LF PTX Control, - . . ~ ·, Group II, LF :eTX + PMA , Group Ill, HF PTX ~ontrol, and Group IV, HF PTX + PMA. Lobes were treated with PTX 30 min before PMA or vehicle. [WBC] and blood smear differentials were performed. PTX increased [WBC] in all groups but did not change any other measured parameters. In the presence of PTX, PMA resulted in no changes in ACE activity, Kr or hemodynamic parameters. PMA decreased [WBC] (l><O.OS) in both the presence and absence of PTX. PTX provided protection against PMA-iliduced l~g injury at both flow rates. The injury to PMA was found to occur in lung lobes perfused at both hig~ and low flow. PMA increased Pa, PVR and ·the ~r while decreasing circulating WBC counts, circulating PMN counts, Ama/Km, and% metabolism of 3H~BPAP. Although the injury to PMA was found to occur independently of flow. rate, the ability of ISO to protect · against PMA-induced injury was foun,d to .be greatest during high- flow perfusion. At high flow, ISO completely protected against increases in Pa, Pdo and PVR while attenuating the increase in the Kr. Plasma cAMP lev~ls were also significantly increased by ISO pretreatment and were not alter~d .by PMA in the high flow group. At low flow ISO did notprevent PMA-induced increases in Pa, Pdo or PVR. ISO did however protect . ' . . . ' against increases in the.Kr and tended to increas~ plas.ma cAMP_levels. Unlike ISO, PTX provided protection against PMA.,.induced lung injury independently of flow rate. During both high and low flow perfusion PTX protected against PMA-induced increases in Pa, · PVR and ~e Kr'Yhile protecting against decreases in ACE enzyme activity. PTX caused the release of WBC from the lung significantly increasing both total WBC and PMN counts. PTX did not prevent the sequestration of PMN or the release of superoxide in response to PMA.