• The relationship of self-esteem and goal-orientation to adolescent contraceptive compliance

      Schoffitt, Tamsen Hicks; School of Nursing (1986-08)
      A comparative correlational design was used to examine the relationship between self-esteem and goal-ririentation ahd contraceptive behavior among four gr_oups of· -adolescent females. The four groups included those· who were compliant J ' with contraceptives, those who were not sexually active, those who were sexually act'ive without contraceptives, and thqse who were pregnant. The 47 adolescent females were administered the Coopersmith Self-Esteem.Inventory as a measure,of self-esteem and the Offer_Self-Image Questionnaire for Adoles_cents as a measure of goalorientation. Three hypotheses were tested. The first, which stated there would be-· a positive relationship between , se·lf-esteem and goal-orientation. was no't supported using Pearsonian Correlational_Statistics. The second hypothesis stated there would be significant differences in the selfesteem scores among the four -groups. This hypothesis was . ' tested.and not supported. using one-way.analysis of variance techniques. The third hypothesis _stated there would be significant ·differences in the goal-or~entation scores· among the four groups. This hypothesis· was also not supported using one-way· analysis.of·variance techriiqu~s. Although .none of the. three hypotheses were supported, two interesting findings did emerge related to contraceptive usage and trends in the self_.esteem scores among the_four groups. Those adolescents who stated they were using_ contraceptiyes had significantly higher_selfesteem and goal-orientation scores than those who were not using contraception. The n;tean.score of those adolescents who were compliant with contraceptives was higher than that of the other. three groups of adolescents. Recommendations t·o be considered in the future -by those working with adolescent pregnancy are included.
    • Changes in parental perceptions of stress in a pediatric intensive care units

      Sharp, Emily A.; School of Nursing (1985-05)
      . Pare~tal perceptions of stress associated wfth having a thild hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit {PICU) were studied. The Parental Stressor Scale: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit .{Miles & Carter, 1983) and a Demographic Data Sheet were used to assess nineteen parents• stress who had a child hospitalized in a PICU of a southwestern hospital {n = 19). Results of. the study indicated that parental perceptions of stress did not significaritly differ at three different times during their child's hospitalization in a PICU. The parental stress was assessed at the beginning, at the midpoint, and ·at the end of their child's hospitalization in the PICU. The parental stress was also analyzed for correlation with the child's age, admi~sion status, and parent's educational level. The parental stress was significantly greater if the. child's admission to-the PICU was unplanned., The study provides I some interesting data to be considered by profess-ionals caring for parents with a child hospitalized in a PICU.
    • The effects of maternal anxiety on posthospitalization behaviors of the young child

      Settle, Carol; School of Nursing (1984-05)
      The purpose of the study was to help determine if a toddler's behavioral reaction to hospitalization is affected by the level of the mother's anxiety during hospitalization. Twelve children, aged 15 to 46 months, .who were scheduled for a minor surgical procedure, were included in the study. Their mothers were interviewed before hospitalization,. on the evening of admission,.and eight to ten days posthospitalization~ Trait and state anxiety were measured all three times using the Taylor Mani·.fest Anxiety Scale (MAS) and the Zuckerman (Now-Today) checklist. The ·child's behavior was reported by the mother pre and posthospitalization using the Vernon Posthospitalization beha~ior items on a Liker.t· scale. Trait anxiety was found to be significantly correlated with child behavior before hospitalization. State anxiety was significantly correlated with child behaviors pre and posthospitalization. There was an i.ncrease i.n n.egative child:behavi.ors posthospitalization, but the difference was not statistically significant. Implications for nurses and further research are discussed.
    • Psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward caring for suicide attempters

      Screene, Myrtis Delores; School of Nursing (1983-06)
      The two pu_rp ses of this study were 1 to develop an instrument to measure psychiatric nur es attitudes toward_ caring for suicide attempters and 2 to determine if there is a correlation between the perceived intention of the suic de attempter and psyihiatric nurses attitudes toward caring for these patients A descriptive correlational research approach was utilized using the Psychiatric Nurses Attitudes T ward Carin For Suicide Attempters Questionnaire A questionnaire consisting of 12 vignettes describing suicide attempters and a set of djectives on a semaritic differ ntial scale was develdped and admini tered to 15 psychiatric registered nurses employed at two hospitals The data collected were analyzed using descript ve statistics and the Spearman Rho Correlation Coefficients to determine if a relationship existed between perceived in tention of suicide attempters and psychiatric urses attitudes toward caring for_patients who have made suicide attempts The vignettes were sequentially ranked showing the overall means and standard deviations for the 12 vignettes intention check list nd set of adjectives The correlation of the summated score for each vignette with int nt was analyzed and these coefficients ranged from 18 to 35 Responses to the 12 vignett s sho ed n6 statistically_ iignificant differences p 25 Results of the data did not support the proposed hypothesis of the i nvesti gator
    • Relationships between aid, affective and affirmative social support; and sense of coherence in older adults

      Schear, Nancy Kappus; School of Nursing (1988-05)
      This study described the relationship b~tween three types of functional social support (affective, affirmative, and aid) and perceived wellness in older adults. It also examined whether functional measures of social support were more highly correlated with wellness than- structural measures. Fifty eight older adults (mean age 70.3, SO 5.7, range 60-86) were recruited at community seniot citizen sites in a southern metropolitan area. The questionnaire data obtained from the Norbeck Social Support Scale (Norbeck, Lindsey, & Carrieri, 1981) and the Sense of Coherence (SOC) Scale·(Antonovsky, 1987) was analyzed using Pearson product-moment-correlation. Results show significant correlations (p < .001) between sense of coherence and three types of functional support (affective r = .4629, affirmative, r = .5095, and aid r = .4522) A test for differences between dependent correlations ·shows stronger correlations of total functional social_ support with SQ.C ~han the correlation of tot~l structural social support with SOC (t = 2.58, df= 55, p ·.< .025~.· The results suggest functional social support is related to .wellness in older persons and demonstrate th~ utility of measuring . functional as well.as structural social suPP<>rt.
    • The Influence of Porphyromonas gingivalis Fimbrial Expression on Human Dendritic Cell Signaling and Innate Immune Homeostatic Functions

      Meghil, Mohamed; Biomedical Sciences
      Perturbation of fundamental processes of immune homeostasis, such as apoptosis and autophagy, can result in dire consequences such as autoimmune diseases. Periodontitis is an inflammatory oral disease that is characterized by oral microbial dysbiosis, and deregulation of the host immune response. The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) manipulates dendritic cell (DC) signaling to perturb immune homeostasis. Using a combination of Western blotting, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis, we show a pivotal role for the minor (Mfa1) fimbriae of P. gingivalis in nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Akt and FOXO1. Mfa1-induced Akt nuclear localization and activation ultimately induced mTOR. The upregulated Akt/mTOR axis was shown to downregulate the intracellular levels of LC3II, an autophagy protein also designated Atg8, required for autophagosome formation and maturation. Further studies utilizing the allosteric panAkt inhibitor MK2206 and rapamycin an mTOR inhibitor confirmed that the activation of Akt/mTOR signaling by P. gingivalis inhibited autophagy in DCs. Concomitant with inhibiting autophagy, we show a pivotal role for Mfa1 fimbriated P. gingivalis in induction of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2, decreased caspase-3 cleavage and decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bim in infected DCs, ultimately blocking programmed death of infected DC cells. Importantly, we show that, by using ABT-199 peptide to disrupt interaction of antiapoptotic BCL2 and its proapoptotic partners BAK/BAX, we can restore programmed cell death to P. gingivalis-infected DC cells. In summary, we have identified the underlying mechanism utilized by P. gingivalis to promote the survival of its host immune cells while preventing its own autophagic elimination.
    • Bone and soft tissue regenerative response following alveolar ridge augmentation using polysulfone implants with and without demineralized bone powder in macaca fascicularis

      Fouad, Salama S; Department of Oral Biology (1987-06)
      Successful augmentation of bone surfaces has great clinical application, particularly to the face and oral cavity regionso More than 24 mi 11 ion Americans are edentulous and must depend upon dentures to eat and to restore their norma 1 speech and appearance o Porous po lysul fane (PPSF) is frequently used to fill osseous voidso The purpose of this study was to· test tooth soft, ti.ssue and bone response to porous po lysul fane (PPSF), with and without demineralized bone powder (DBP) in Macaca fascicularise Six adult female monkeys, 12-15 year~ of ~ge, were used in this study. One animal was sacrificed and used as a bone donor and the other five were recipientso All mandibular molar teeth were extracted and masstve alveolectomies were performedo The wounds were left to heal for 5 to 8 1/2 months postoperativelyo At the time of implantation~ PPSF with DBP was inserted subperiosteally into the left mandibular edentulous areas while PPSF alone was inserted into the right sideso The. animals were sacrificed at 42, .60, or 90 days following implantationo Each mandible was cut- into 3mm thick coronal sections which were then examined and photographed with a dissecting microscopeo Some specimens were then decalcified, embedded in paraffin and sect i a ned and stained With. H & Eo Other specimens were processed undecalcified in glycol and methylmethacrylate for histomorphometric measurements and tetracycline labe1ling·., Also, some specimens were processed for scanning electron microscopyo No inflammation or untoward reaction of the 'implantation sites were noted at the time of sacrifice. Histologically, the 42 day specimens of the' DBP-PPSF side· (experimental side) revealed penetration of fibrous tissue rich in fibroblasts and vessels into the pores of PPSF comparirig to the PPSF side (control side)., The fibrous tissue also surrounded the implant., Some multinucleated giant cells and macrophages were present., At 60 days, the PPSF side showed more organized fibrous tissue and bone grew only for a. short distance into the polysulfone. In contrast, the PPSF-DBP side showed large amounts of .bone formation within the pores of the polysulfone and almost covered the implant., The newly formed bone contained osteocytes and was -surrounded by osteob 1 asts. At 90 days, the PPSF side showed more bone tormation on the lower half of the. implant" These res~lts suggested that PPSF is a suitable non-resorbable material that accommodates bone and soft tissue formation. A 1 so :p the use of DBP enhanced both rate and amount of the new bone., In· conclusion; PPSF with and without DBP is a suitable material that can be used successfully for alveolar ridge augmentation.
    • MICROVASCULAR DYSFUNCTION IN HEART FAILURE WITH PRESERVED EJECTION FRACTION

      Davila, Alec Christopher; Biomedical Sciences
      Background. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is often manifested as impaired cardiac and microvascular reserve, for which no current effective therapies are available. We sought to determine if conducted vasodilation, which coordinates microvascular resistance longitudinally becomes compromised in HFpEF. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of adenosine kinase (ADK), the major adenosine-metabolizing enzyme and novel therapeutic target, augments conducted vasodilation; therefore, improving tissue perfusion and left ventricle (LV) diastolic function. Methods and Results. Conducted vasodilation was assessed ex vivo in coronary arterioles isolated from right atrial appendages of patients with or without HFpEF diagnosis and in skeletal muscle arteries of the rodent model of HFpEF, ZSF1 rats. Obese ZSF1 rats displayed LV diastolic dysfunction over a 20-week lifespan as indicated by reduced E/A ratio and increased deceleration time of mitral flow velocity observed on echocardiogram. Conducted vasodilation in both HFpEF patients and obese ZSF1 rats were significantly reduced, which was associated with increased vascular expression of ADK. Isolated arterioles incubated with ADK inhibitor, ABT-702 (0.1 μM) displayed an improved conducted vasodilation. In vivo treatment of obese ZSF1 rats with ABT-702 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p. for 8-week) prevented LV diastolic dysfunction, and in a crossover design, ADK inhibition improved conducted vasodilation and LV diastolic function. Furthermore, ABT-702 treatment reduced surrogate markers of myocardial hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 expression and fibrosis) in obese ZSF1 rats. Moreover, mice with endothelium-specific deletion of ADK exhibited augmented vasodilation and were protected against the development of transverse aortic constriction-induced LV dysfunction. Conclusion. Collectively, upregulation of microvascular ADK impairs conducted vasodilation in HFpEF. Pharmacological inhibition of ADK improves microvascular vasodilator function and provides beneficial effects on myocardial perfusion and LV diastolic function in HFpEF.
    • The regulatory role of fibronectin on the immune response to TNP-KLH in vitro

      Rybski, James Andrew; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1985-12)
    • A search for [alpha] and [gamma] globin gene anomalies among SS and SC patient

      Ryan, Robrt Frederick; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1987-12)
    • The effect of control on patients' perceptions of noise in an intensive coronary care unit

      Rhodes, Ellen V; School of Nursing (1988-08)
      The purpose of this study was to ascertain if perception of control was effective in reducing noise annoyance in the Intensive Coronary Care Unit (ICCU) setting. The sample consisted of 30 adult subjects admitted to a 16"!"'bed ICCU in a rural 275 b.ed hospital in the southeastern United States. A Noise Annoyance Questionnaire (NAQ) was the instrument utilized to measure noise annoyance. The randomized post-test only experimental design tested the following hypothesis: Patients who are issued earplugs as a means' to control noise will score lower on a scale measuring annoyance to noise in the ICCU than will patients who are not issued earplugs. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=15) or control group (n=15). Experimental group participants were issued earplugs with instructions for their use and applicati.on. At 24 hours post-ICCU discharge, all patients were asked to complete the NAQ. The t-test for independent means revealed no significant difference (R =.06). in the mean noise annoyance scores between the groups; therefore, the hypothesis was rejected. This finding indicates that in this study, the total noise annoyance scores from participants receiving earplugs did not differ from the scores of participants who did not receive earplugs. S.ince the nursing intervention (offering earplugs to ICCU patients) was not effective in this sample of patients, other nursing interventions need to be explored as a measures of control of noise annoyance.
    • Neutrophil function studies with respect to antibiotic tolerant staphylococcus aureus and patients with recurring infection

      Raynor, Robert H; Depatment of Cell and Molecular Biology (1980-08)
      Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from s~ven patients who experien<;: ed recurring staphylococcal infections, were tested in order to establish if measurements of phagocytic and bactericidal capacity would reveal a functional cause for the repeated episodes of disease. Using a microprocedure developed for this 'purpose, the results for six of these patients were found to be comparable to normal values. PMNs from one patient, however, showed a deficiency in their ability to both phagocytize and kill s. aureus. This defect could not be attributed to serum deficiencies or ascribed to any previously defined class of nel.ltrophil function. In other studies, six clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were compared for their relative susceptibilities to the killing effects of oxacillin. Three of the strains had minimum bactericidal concentrations which were >10 times the minimum bacteriostatic concentration for this antibiotic and were designated tolerant (Tol+). The other st;r-ains had minimum bactericidal concentrations which were comparable to the minimum bacteriostatic concentration (Tol-). Lysis curves of these strains revealed that the Tal+ strains exhibited a diminished rate of lysis when inhibited by oxacillin. This reduced rate of lysis was reflected also in a reduced rate of viability loss when the cells were exposed to oxacillin. Cells of each phenotype, previously labeled with [ 14C]Glycerol, secreted radioactivity when inhibited by oxacillin. However,. the Tal+ strains rele.ased over twice as much labe 1 as the Talstrains. The behavior of 60 to 65%_ of the labeled material released by. inhibited cells during both sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and Sepharose 6B chromatography corresponded to that of lipoteichoic acid. When the major component of secreted material was added to oxacillin-inhibited Tol- strains, an inhibition of the lytic response was observed. These results suggest that oxacillin tolerance in S. aureus could be related to the enhanced secretion of an autolysin inhibitor, such as lipoteichoic acid. Several investigators have recently reported an increase in the severity of infections due to Tol+ strains. Since the enhanced'excretion of LTA by Tol+ staphylococci is the only knownphenotypJ.c difference between these two strains, the effect of this molecule on neutrophil function was measured using the microprocedure. The addition of LTA to the incubation mix·ture res1..1lted in a dose dependent inhibition of phagocytosis •. The decrease~ uptake of. S. aureus in the presence of LTA was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the number of organisms surviving in the presence of the phagocytes. Additional studies suggested that LTA interferes with the process' of opsonization, prior to engulfment.