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  • Parenting a child in the hospital : factors influencing maternal role alteration stress

    Bennett, Nancy R.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1993-03)
    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to investigate factors influencing parental role alteration stress of mothers with a child hospitalized on a general care pediatric unit. The subjects consisted of 30 mothers whose children were 7 to 59 months (4 years 11 months) and had no previous hospitalizations. The relationship of parent role alteration stress to perception of competency with normal child rearing tasks, the child's acuity of illness, and whether the child's admission was expected, not planned, or unexpected was investigated. The stress scores were low for the subjects' (mean 35.27) out of a possible range of 16-80. No significant relationship was obtained between parent role alteration stress and either competency or acuity. There were no significant differences among the stress scores when the children's admissions were expected, not planned or unexpected.
  • Biomechanical behavior related to structure in normal and congenitally disordered elastic arteries

    Beall, Arthur C.; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (Augusta University, 1992-12)
  • The effects of retinoic acid-induced differentiation on neurotransmitter receptor content and signal transduction in a human neuroblastoma cell line

    Baumgartner, Melissa K.; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology (Augusta University, 01/23/1993)
    The purpose of the present study was to establish the effects of retinoic acidindttced differentiation on muscarinic receptor populations and signal transduction pathways in the human neurroblastoma Sk-N-SH cells. The human neuroblastoma cell line Sk-N-SH was induced to differentiate by treatment with 1 uM retinoic acid for 7 days. Differentiation was characterized by profuse neurite outgrowth, a decrease in cell growth, and a 2~3 fold increase in the protein content of each cell. Muscarinic receptors were labelled-using [3H]N-methyl scopolamine. Muscarinic receptor density increased by approximately 36% after treatment for 7 days with retinoic acid (Bmax, control = 126 ± 13 fmol/mgprotein; Bmax, retinoic acid-treated= 170 ± 17 fmol/mg protein; p<0.05), corresponding to a 170% increase in receptor content per cell. The affinity of [3H]NMS for the receptors was somewhat lower in the differentiated cells (KD, control = 0.14 ± 0.04 nM; KD, retinoic acid-treated = 0.25 ± 0.0.4 nM; p<0.05). The guanine nucleotide sensitivity of agonist (carbamylcholine) binding to Sk-N-SH muscarinic receptors Was slightly decreased by differentiation. Reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using muscarinic receptor subtype specific primers revealed that the undifferentiatied Sk-N-SH cells transcribed mRNA for all 5 receptor subtypes; this pattern was not affected by differentiation. [3H]NMS displacement curves with subtype- selective receptor ligands (pirenzepine, m1; AFDX-116, m2; 4-DAMP, m3) indicated the predominant expression of m1 and m3 receptor subtypes, and differentiation did not affect the pharmacological profile of the expressed muscarinic receptor populations. Differentiation did not affect basal G protein GTPase activity. However, acetylcholine (100 uM) stimulation of G protein GTPase activity was decreased in differentiated cells (18 ± 1.8 pmol/min/mgprotein) compared to the undifferentiatied cells (23 ± 1 .0 pmol/ min/ mg protein) (p<0.05). Inhibition of acetylcholine--stimulated GTPase activity with selective muscarinic receptor antagonists indicated that the m3 antagonist (4-DAMP) was as effective as atropine in inhibiting activity by 80-100%. Selective m1 and m2 antagonists were less effective (30-40%) at inhibiting stimulated GTPase activity. There were no differences in inhibition of stimulated GTPase activity after differentiation. Immunoblots of control and retinoic acid-treated cells revealed no change in Goa, Gsa or Gp content after differentiation; however, 0.1% ethanol and retinoic acid-treated cells displayed a 30% decrease in expression of Gia3, and Gqa. Muscarine (0.1-100 uM) stimulated 45Ca influx into Sk-N-SH cells, and this uptake was inhibited by preincubation with atropine. The magnitude of the muscarinic receptor-mediated uptake was 50-60% lower in the differentiatied cells. Basal adenylate cyclase activity was depressed in the differentiated cells (2.5 pmol / min / mg protein) compared to the undifferentiated cells (8.4 pmol / min / mg protein) (p< 0.05). Forskolin (5 - 50 uM)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not altered, however fractional stimulation was significantly (p<0.0001) increased in the differentiated cells. Differentiated cells displayed a slightly greater receptor-mediated inhibition of the adenylate cyclase activity by carbamylcholine (1 uM- 1 mM). It is demonstrated that in Sk-N-SH cells, retinoic acid-induced differentiation: 1) increases the size of the muscarinic receptor population (Bmax) while decreasing [3H]NMS binding affinity, 2) does not alter muscarinic receptor pharmacology, or the expression of. muscarinic receptor subtypes, 3) decreases muscarinic receptor-stimulated 45Ca flux 50-60% compared to undifferentiated cells, 4) depresses basal adenylate cyclase activity, increases fractional stimulation of forskolin-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase, and may increase muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, 5) does not alter basal G protein GTPase activity but depresses muscarinic receptor-stimulated high affinity GTPase activity suggesting muscarinic receptor-G protein coupling is altered, and 6) does not alter expression of Goa, Gsa and Gp content while Gia3 and Gqa are depressed in differentiated as well as in 0.1% e.thanol treated cells.
  • The effect of reminiscing group therapy on personal control of nursing home elders

    Baumann, Martha A.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1990-04)
    A non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group nested design was utilized to measure the effect of reminiscing group therapy on personal control of nursing home elders. Personal control, or the belief that one has the ability to influence one's environment, has much support in the literature as a correlate of psychological well- being. Therefore, a treatment that will increase personal control is projected to increase psychological well-being and subsequent total well-being. Reminiscing group therapy is hypothesized to increase personal control by helping elders generalize past competencies to present day environmental situations. In this study personal control was measured by the Desired Control Measure. Four nursing homes were selected and randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Subjects (N = 40), who met the selection criteria, were assigned to the group in the nursing home in which they were living. The experimental subjects (n = 20) participated in reminiscing groups of 10 subjects each which met weekly for 8 weeks. Analysis of variance using a nested design demonstrated no significant difference in personal control between the experimental and control groups. However, additional analysis suggested an increase in self-rated health in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Implications for future research were cited.
  • Toxicity of visible light-cured denture resins

    Barron, Dara Jewell; Department of Oral Biology (1992-04)
    In this study three commercial formulations of visible light-cured (VLC) denture resins have been analyzed. The products used are those suggested for the reline, repair and fabrication of dentures to improve their fit. The biocompatibility of these resins was investigated by measuring RNA and DNA synthesis of oral epithelial cells in vitro. The extent to which oral cells recover from toxic resin exposure, the conversion of monomer into polymer, the presence of inorganic filler, and resin leacha~ility have also been studied. It was shown that VLC denture resins inhibit the synthesis of RNA and· DNA relative to a heat-cured resin control (p~0.05). Although epithelial cells appeared to recover from toxic resin exposure, this recovery was inconsistent among experiments. Infrared spectroscopy illustrated chemical group differences that occurred before and after photo-polymerization. Using these differences, the conversion of monomer into polymer ranged from 77% to 97%. This conversion was significantly affected (p< .003) by the type of curing unit, duration of photo-polymerization, and surface exposed to visible light. Soluble substances in cured and uncured resin products were analogous using HPLC. The range of inorganic filler present was 0-15%. These investigations suggest that visible light-cured denture resins may impair the replication of oral epithelial cells. This effect may be related to the leachability of unpolymerized resin constituents, the presence or absence of filler particles, or polymerization by-products.
  • A Retrospective study of patients orthodontically treated without extraction for angle class I malocclusion: correction and relapse of mandibular anterior crowdin

    Azizi, Mozhgan; Medical College of Georgia (1997-06)
    Correction and relapse of mandibular anterior crowding were evaluated in a cohort of 58 Angle Class I malocclusion patients treated by Dr. Andrew J. Haas using tandem mechanics without extraction of per.manent teeth. The subjects were evaluated, retrospectively, from records taken before treatment (BT), post-treatment (PT), to postretention (PR) . The PR period averaged 8 years with a minimum of 4 years and a maximum of 20 years. Each subject received maxillary expansion as part of the therapy: Group A (N=32) had rapid palatal expansion using a Haas appliance, Group B (N=26) subjects had a headgear with an expanded inner bow and an expanded archwire. The response variables measured at each of the three time intervals were: overbite, overjet, intercanine distance, inter.molar distance and irregularity index. Groups A and B were not significantly different for either subject age (A 14.8, B 14.5 years), retention time (A 7.1, B 6.8 years), or post.-retention time (A 8.2, B 7.8 years). Moreover, groups A and B did not show significant difference for any of the response variables at BT. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the treatment times of Group A (2.2 years), and Group B (2.7 years) (p=0.0133). A statistically significant treatment effect was observed for most response variables in Groups A and B. Overbite, overjet, and irregularity index were significantly reduced, intermolar distance was significantly increased,· and intercanine distance showed no significant change in Groups A and B. In the post-retention p~riod, there was a tendency for variables to change slightly toward BT values but no compromise of orthodontic correction was noted. Irregularity index in Group A was corrected from 4.8 to 1.1 mm and remained at 1.1 mm in the PR period. Irregularity index in Group B was corrected from 5.1 to 1.2 mm (p=.0001) and changed slightly from 1.2 to 1.7 mm (p=.0540) in the PR period. Contrary to many published ~eports, the irregularity index in this cohort of subjects was quite constant at an average of eight years of post-retention follow-up.
  • Role of protein kinase D in keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal tumorigenesi

    Arun, Senthil Nathan; Medical College of Georgia (2010-05)
  • Unplanned pregnancy and elective abortion for african-american adolescents

    Andrews, Janet L.; Medical College of Georgia (1997-03)
    The purpose OI this focused ethnography was to generate an interpretive theory about how African American adolescents experience unplanned pregnancy and elective abortion. How African American adolescents experience events and circumstances surrounding pregnancy and elective abortion is not understood. Research questions were: 1) How do African American adolescents view unplanned pregnancy?; 2) How do African American adolescents go about deciding to seek abortions?; and 3) What factors do they consider when making their decisions to abort their pregnancies? Purposive sampling was used to obtain a sample of 12 participants within the ages of 15 to 18 years. Participants were drawn from clients at a nonprofit clinic designed to provide women's health services including abortion. Data were Collected by continuous interviews and observation participation. First interviews took place as the participants awaited their abortion procedures. Second interviews were conducted at a time and place convenient for the participants. Four themes were generated during data analysis: 1) Relationships with partners, 2) ·Confiding·in others: finding support, 3) Unselfish decision for self and 4) Resolution of the crisis. The integral pattern of Empowerment:~: emerged from the four themes. Through their experiences with unplanned pregnancy and elective abortion.
  • Alterations of rabbit craniomandibular joint tissues following experimental induction of anterior disk displacement : histochemical and immunohistochemical studiea

    Abdel-Hamid Ali, Ayman Mohammed; Department of Oral Biology and Microbiology (1996-04)
    The purpose of this study was to test the ·hypothesis · that surgical induction of anterior disk displacement (ADD) in the rabbit craniomandibular joint (CMJ) leads to cellular and extracellular alterations similar to those that occur in human ADD. The right joint of each of 35 rabbits was exposed surgically and the discal attachments of the CMJ were severed except for the posterior attachment (bilaminar zone). Then the disks were displaced anteriorly and sutured to the zygomatic arch. The left joint~ were treated as surgical controls. Twenty joints from ten additional rabbits were used as non-operated controls The rabbits were· anesthetized, perfused with fixative 24 hours (5 rabbits), 1 week (10 rabbits), 2 weeks (10 rabbits) and 6 weeks (10 rabbits) following induction of ADD. CMJ tissues were then removed after fixation, processed and stained for general histology using H&E stain, glycos.aminoglycans (GAGs) using alcian blue stain, elastic fibers using resorcin-fuchsin stain and nerve fibers. using. silver nitrate stain. In addition, immunohistochemical localization of . . type-I, type-II, type-III, type-VI, type-IX collagens and fibronectin (FN) as well as various GAGs, such as keratan sulfate (KS), chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition to the link protein (LP) and neurofilaments (NF). The results showed a statistically significant enla.rgement of the condyles in the treated joints compared to controls (P < 0.01). The enlargement was characterized by statistically · significant increases in the cartilage thickness and the surface area of the condyle when compared to controls (P < 0.01). In addition, the results showed neovascularization, cell clustering and fibrillation of the displaced · disks, as -weli as, fibrosis of the bilaminar zone. The subchondral bone showed hemorrhage, fibrosi,s and cyst formation. The osteochondral junction showed _ splitting from . the subchondral bone. Condylar .cartllage in ADD joints showed neovas·cularization, cell clustering and hyperplasia. The· articular eminence showed. cell clustering along _ with hyperplasia of chondroid bone ·and synovial membrane. There was a loss of elastic fibers in the displaced disks and the loaded bilaminar zone, and there were fine elastic fibers among the chondrocytes in the condylar cartilage which were· not present in the cartilage of th~ control condyle. The results of the immunohistochemistry showed statistically significant depletion of KS, C4S, C6S, FN, HA (P < 0.05) at 2 weeks. Also, loss of LP, reduction. in type-II (P < 0.05), type-VI and type-IX collagens at 2 weeks compared to controls. Some areas even showed a switch in the type of collagen from type-II to type-I collagen. At 6 weeks there was statistically significant increases in the level of C4S, FN, HA and type-II collagen (P < 0.05). Also, there were increases in type-VI and type-IX collagens levels compared to controls. In addition, newly formed type-III collagen was seen in the osteoarthritic cartilage which was absent in control condyles. Link protein did not reappear for up to 6 weeks. In the bilaminar zone there were statistically significant increases in KS, C4S, C6S, FN (P < · 0.05). Also, type-III, type-VI and type-IX collagens were increased in the experimental groups compared to controls. In additio~, the appearance of newly formed type-11 collagen was seen which was absent in control bilaminar zone. Histological nerve fiber staining and immunostaining both showed that the control and. experimental bilaminar zones were heavily innervated. The bilaminar zone adhesions were also innervated. Some nerves were seen ~perieterating the condyle. It is concluded that surgical induction of ADD in the rabbit CMJ leads to cellular and extracellular alterations comparable to those found in human ADD, · osteoarthritis of the human knee joint and induced osteoarthritis of the knee joint in various animal models.
  • The Role of trigger factor in campylobacter jejuni pathogenesi

    Agee, Willie Andrew III; School of Graduate Studies (2010-04)
  • Recognition of a candidate protein involved in chromatin organization at the base of nuclear pores

    Adams, Donna L.; Department of Immunology and Microbiology (1995-12)
  • Intrinsic motivation and health-promoting behaviors of the elderl

    Adamo, Kathleen; School of Nursing (1991-03)
    The Surgeon General's Report, Health People (1979) and Healthy People 2000 {1990) propose that 50% of the deaths in the United States and a major portion of chronic illness are due to unhealthy lifestyles·. Recognition of the consequences of unhealthy life-styles has led nurses and . ot~er health professionals toward an increased focus on health promotiO'n. This focus is especially crucial in the growing population Qf older adults and points to the need to investigate those factors which promote positive .health-seeking behaviors. This study examined the relationship between intrinsic motivation and health-promoting behaviors in the elderly~ The, sample for this study cons~sted of 48 community-based well elderly ·volunteers aged 60 to 80 recruited from retirement communities, senior residential centers, churches and local residents. In this study, which . utilized a cross-sectional correlational design, subjects completed· a demographic questionnaire and two paper and pencil tests: (1) the Health Self-Determination Index (HSDI) and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP). A Pearson correlation coefficient was computed to determine the relationship between the subjects' scores on the HS·DI and HPLP. Additionally, regression analysis was utilized to more closely investigate the relationship between scores on the HSDi and subscale scores on the HPLP.
  • Statistical Methods for reaction Networks

    Odubote, Oluseyi Samuel; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology
    Stochastic reaction networks are important tools for modeling many biological phenomena, and understanding these networks is important in a wide variety of applied research, such as in disease treatment and in drug development. Statistical inference about the structure and parameters of reaction networks, sometimes referred to in this setting as model calibration, is often challenging due to intractable likelihoods. Here we utilize an idea similar to that of generalized estimating equations (GEE), which in this context are the so-called martingale estimating equations, for estimation of reaction rates of the network. The variance component is estimated using the approximate variance under the linear noise approximation, which is based on partial dierential equation, or Fokker-Planck equations, which provides an approximation to the exact chemical master equation. The method is applied to data from the plague outbreak at Eyam, England from 1665-1666 and the COVID-19 pandemic data. We show empirically that the proposed method gives good estimates of the parameters in a large volume setting and works well in small volume settings.

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