Now showing items 1-20 of 1281

    • A grounded theory study of pain management behaviors in nurses caring for preverbal childre

      Noviello, Sheri Reynolds; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2006-05)
      A qualitative study using the grounded theory method was used to explore factors that affect nurses' pain management decision-making when caring for children between the ages of 0 and 3 years. This study was approved by the Human Assurance Committee at Medical College of G~orgia prior to the collection of data. The sample consisted of eleven nurses who were ,employed at three different hospitals in the southeastem part of the United States. Theor~tical sampling was the basis for the selection of participants after the first two interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and were subjected to open and axial coding. The constant comparative method was used during data analysis to identify a core category and related concepts. The basic social process that emerged is engaging in tactics of p'ain management. This process contained two other processes: assessing for pain and managing a pain episode. Intrinsic factors that affected assessing for pain included knowing the territory, personal attributes of the registered nurse (RN), being a parent, and being connected. Extrinsic factors that affected engaging in tactics of pain management included workload and culture of the hospital. The process of ' managing a pain episode included five phases: eliminating other sources of discomfort, ! judging pain, comfortif!g. medicating, and letting go.
    • An interdisciplinary team approach to decision-making about the use of psychotropic medication for individuals with mental retardation

      Natvig, Deborah Ann; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1993-05)
      The purpose of this study was to examine a decision-making model for developing psychotropic medication plans for individuals with mental retardation. The study examined relationships among medication knowledge, acceptance of the interdisciplinary team (IDT)-process, leadership, consensus, and the quality of the psychotropic medication plan. The study was conceptualized using Henderson's Model for Nursing. Henderson (1966) identified the nurse as an active participant on the IDT who helps plan and implement care designed to meet the needs of the individual. Two hundred eight (N = 208) team members from 49 interdisciplinary psychotropic medication review teams participated in the study. Teams from all four large regional Intermediate Care Facilities for the Mentally Retarded UCFs/MR) in one southeastern state participated. Multiple regression and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to test the hypotheses. The first hypothesis, that consensus would be predicted by medication knowledge, acceptance of the IDT process, and leadership was partially supported. Leadership was a significant predictor of consensus. The second hypothesis, that the quality of the psychotropic medication plan would be predicted by medication knowledge, acceptance of the IDT process, and leadership was not supported. The third hypothesis, which added consensus to the model, did not explain any additional variance in the quality of the psychotropic medication plan. As part of this study, The Psychotropic Review for Interdisciplinary Decisions and Evaluation (PRIDE) scale was developed to assess the quality of psychotropic medication plans. Several threats to statistical conclusion validity were identified, which may have affected the results of the study. These included: small sample size, lack of independence of teams, low variability of responses to instruments, and multicollinearity. Psychotropic medication plans from some ICFs/MR were superior to those produced by others. Characteristics of the I CFs/MR, such as, the amount of guidance given to teams through written guidelines and policy, and the degree of administrative support reflected through availability of staff to participate in the review process, may have been the most significant factors influencing the quality of psychotropic medication plan produced.
    • Post traumatic stress disorder: insights from cat hair and catfish

      Nalloor, Rebecca Ipe; Medical of Georgia (Augusta University, 2012-06)
    • Estrogenic regulation of Leydig cell development in the rat

      Myers, Russell Butler; Department of Physiology and Endocrinology (Augusta University, 1989-05)
    • Phylogenetic and structural studies on the interaction of calcyon and clathrin assembly polypeptides/

      Muthusamy, Nagendran; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2010-11)
      Calcyon is a member of a vertebrate specific gene family which includes Neuron Enriched Endosomal Protein of 21 kDa (NEEP21), and P19. Calcyon interacts with clathrin light chain, stimulates clathrin mediated endocytosis in brain, and regulates activity dependent excitatory synaptic transmission. Calcyon is required for internalization of excitatory neurotransmitter receptors and expression of long-term synaptic depression. Phylogenetic analyses (Muthusamy et a!. 2009) revealed a high degree of sequence homology between calcyon and the gene family members NEEP21 and P19. Like NEEP21 and calcyon, in situ hybridization in zebra fish shows that P19 is highly expressed in brain. Extensive database searches indicate that the gene family members could not be identified in invertebrates. Furthermore, calcyon orthologs were retrieved only from mammalian databases. Phylogenetic analyses led to the identification of sequence motifs recognized by the 1.1 subunit of Clathrin Assembly Polypeptides (AP) that are present only in calcyon and not in either NEEP21 or P19. Heterotetromeric complexes AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4 regulate int~malization of cargo as well as the trafficking of cargo from the trans- Golgi network to endosomes, lysosomes, and related organelles. Studies show that AP-1 is involved in polarized trafficking of neuronal proteins. In neurons, while AP-2 is prominantly involved in synaptic vesicle endocytosis, AP-3 has been implicated in synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis, as well as in the compensatory endocytosis and targeting of SV proteins. AP 1.1 subunits interact with YXX0 type motifs and the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon contains two such tyrosine motifs. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down experiments show that calcyon directly interacts with AP-1, AP-2, and the ubiquitous as well as the neuronal isoforms of AP-3 in vitro and in brain. Pull down experiments with point mutations or C terminal truncations suggest that the second tyrosine motif of calcyon is essential for AP interaction. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null-alleles of calcyon. Calcyon deletion in mice preferentially, yet not exclusively, altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 funtion. To test this hypothesis we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3 and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections for the content of Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4Klla), two well-defmed AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KIIa immunostaining is significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype associated with loss of AP-3. Taken together our data suggests that calcyon directly interacts with AP-3 via a YXX0 type motif, and preferentially regulates targeting of AP-3 cargoes destined to synaptic vesicles.
    • The effects of rhBMP-2 on human osteosarcoma cells and human gingival fibroblasts, in vitro

      Murphy, Mary Gail; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2000-06)
    • Intracellular activity of antistaphylococcal agents on methicillin- resistant strains of staphylococcus aureus

      Morton-Turner, Adrienne; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (Augusta University, 1989-08)
    • The Effects of pp60v-src (superscript v-src) expression on the development of the chicken optic tectum

      Morgan, John C.; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 1999-03)
    • The effects of blue light on the rate of cell repopulation in vitro

      Millan, Claudia; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2010-04)
    • haracterization of cervical and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas by proteomic analysis

      Merkley, Mark Asher; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2009-06)
    • In vivo dentin bonding: the effects of remaining dentin thickness and tooth type

      McGuckin, Richard S.; Department of Oral Biology (Augusta University, 1989-06)
      Bond strengths of adhesive resins to ~dog dentin was measured in vivg on buccal and lingual surfaces of cuspids and molars. Sequential reductions in dentin thickness were made to compare bond strengths to superficial middle and deep dentin. Three resin systems were compared. Scotchbond, HEMA/Scotchbond and Scotchbond 2 The first two agents were applied to smear layer covered dentin, while Scotchbond 2 Primer was designed to remove the smear layer. Cuspid dentin bond strengths were greater than molars at all levels _ of remaining dentin thickness and across all agents. Agents bonded to smear layers formed bonds which were approximately half as strong as those achieved by the system which removed the smear layer. Across all teeth and agents, in vivo dentin bond ;strengths decreased in deeper dentin. Dentin bond strengths were expressed as percentages of enamel bond strengths. The dog as a bonding model is discussed.
    • Early initiation of shaving and sexual activity as risk factors for prostate cancer

      Matthews, Brian Edward; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2006-02)
      Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Prostate cancer has a complex etiology; presently, age, ethnicity, and family history are the most consistently reported risk factors associated with disease. Other potential risk factors have also been suggested. The aim of this study was to identity a potential relationship between early onset of shaving initiation and first sexual activity in the development of prostate cancer. We also examined the pathologic stage, Gleason sum, and age of prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to early onset of shaving initiation and first sexual activity in the development of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective case-control study. 167 veterans referred for prostate needle biopsy, due to an elevated PSA or abnormal DRE, to evaluate for the presence of prostate cancer, during a 31-month period completed questionnaires. 7 4 cases were identified from the group as having prostate cancer, as evidenced by a positive prostate biopsy. 93 veterans from the group were identified as not having prostate cancer, as evidenced by at least one negative prostate biopsy. Assessment of exposed and non-exposed members of the group was accomplished by their responses to the questionnaire querying their age at initiation of shaving and age they became sexually active. The age responses to the shaving and sexual activity questions were divided into tertiles with the youngest tertile considered the "exposed" population with early onset of hormonal influences. The risk of prostate cancer was modeled using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Additional analyses usmg X 2 • two-sample !-tests, Univariate Analysis of Variance, and Log Linear equations were conducted to determine differences in means for individual variables. Variables examined included age of prostate cancer diagnosis, race, PSA levels, DRE findings, Gleason sum, pathologic stage, height, weight, BMI, age of shaving initiation and first sexual activity. Results: Of the 35 early onset of shaving exposed patients 13 (3 7.1%) had prostate cancer, while 22 (23.7%) did not. There was no increased risk of early onset of shaving with cancer in exposed (p = 0.513). Of the 42 early age of first intercourse exposed patients 20 (27%) had prostate cancer, while 22 (52.4%) did not. There was no correlation of early age of first intercourse with cancer in exposed (p = 0.882). PSA levels demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.007) by Jt- and two-sample !-tests. There was a significant difference in the mean age of diagnosis of prostate cancer for Caucasians (64.8) and African Americans (59.9). We also found partial associations between age of first sex category by race category (P=0.0233) and age of first sex category by family history category (P=.0493). Conclusions: We found no significant increased risk of prostate cancer in veterans referred for prostate biopsy who reported an early onset of shaving initiation and an early age at first sexual activity.· Rising PSA was found to be the strongest predictor of prostate cancer in our population. We also found no statistically significant differences in mean pathologic stage, Gleason sum, or age of prostate cancer diagnosis for age of first shave and age of first sex. We identified a significant difference in the mean age of diagnosis for Caucasians (64.8) and African Americans (59.9). We also found partial associations between age of first sex category by race category and age of first sex category by family history category in relation to pathologic stage. Although higher or earlier peaks in pubertal androgen levels may contribute to the relation of early onset of shaving, early age of first intercourse and prostate cancer, our data did not support this. Additional research will be required to further evaluate the conflicting results of past research in regards to hormone levels and the incidence of prostate cancer.
    • Periodontal disease measures and gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1β in down syndrom

      Martinez, Josean; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2008-05)
    • Development of a predictive model of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw

      Marino, Karen L.; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2010-02)
    • The effect of fluoride on the shear bond strength of resin composite applied to bovine enamel

      Margeson, Dallas H.; Department of Oral Biology (Augusta University, 1994-06)
    • Maintenance of self-esteem in childre

      Manus, Helen E.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1989-08)
      The purpose of this study was to examine whether obese children differ in global self-worth from normal weight children, and to explore whether the differences between obese children who have high global self-worth and those with low global self-worth are related to discounting and cognitive distortion. Global selfworth was tapped using a multidimensional measurement tool that assesses global self-worth· independently of self-perceptions in specific domains. Results of this study revealed that obese children differed from normal weight peers in how they perceived their physical appearance, whether they were socially accepted, and how they felt in general about themselves. In other words, obese children had lower global self-worth, felt bad about their relations with others, and were unhappy with· the way they looked. However, obese children did use defensive cognitions when answering questions about the self and their physical appearance. Use of these defenses appeared to enhance global self-worth, but not enough to prevent obese children from being in the category of tow in global self-worth.
    • Regulation of the caudal ventrolateral medulla by glutamatergic and respiratory-related input

      Mandel, Daniel A.; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2008-10)
      Many prevalent human conditions, including chronic pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, and obesity, are characterized by concomitant changes in respiratory and cardiovascular function. Mounting evidence suggests the hypertension that presents in many of these patients is attributable to a chronic elevation in sympathetic nerve activity to the vasculature that may be related to changes in central respiratory drive. The neural network that regulates central respiratory drive provides a significant input to the neural network that promotes sympathetic vasomotor tone, as evident by respiratory-related activity in peripheral sympathetic nerves. Changes in central respiratory drive are known to cause changes in arterial pressure via changes in sympathetic nerve activity, but the neural circuitry that connects these systems is not known. We hypothesized that neurons within the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), in addition to their well established role conferring homeostatic changes in sympathetic nerve activity during acute changes in arterial pressure, have an underappreciated role in the promotion of respiratoryrelated activity in the sympathetic nerves that control cardiovascular function. The principal findings from specific aims designed to investigate this hyp.othesis are: 1) glutamatergic inputs to the CVLM are enhanced under conditions of elevated central respiratory drive, 2) CVLM neurons have distinct patterns of respiratory modulated activity that are not dependent upon cardiovascular-related inputs, 3) CVLM neurons resp~nd to hypoxia in a way that may support hypoxia-induced, respiratory-related changes in sympathetic nerve activity, and 4) glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs to the CVLM, most likely of respiratory origin, modulate the magnitude of the sympathetic response to hypoxia. These data are the first to implicate the CVLM as a primary site for cardio-respiratory integration and further suggest these neurons participate in the complex physiological responses to acute hypoxia.