• The job performance of nurses educated at the baccalaureate level was compared with nurses educated at the associate degree level. This descriptive study was conducted with the use of a Demographic Data Questionnaire and Schwirian's (1978) Six Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance which measured job performance in the areas of leadership, critical care, teaching/collaboration, planning/evaluation, communication and professional development. The only significant results of this study indicated that associate degree nurses self reported more leadership behaviors than did baccalaureate nurses. This finding did not support the conceptual frrunework and this researcher concluded that no inferences could be drawn. Further investigation in the area of job performance is recommended.

      Taylor, Nancy Begin; School of Nursing (1984-04)
      The job performance of nurses educated at the baccalaureate level was compared with nurses educated at the associate degree level. This descriptive study was conducted with the use of a Demographic Data Questionnaire and Schwirian's (1978) Six Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance which measured job performance in the areas of leadership, critical care, teaching/collaboration, planning/evaluation, communication and professional development. The only significant results of this study indicated that associate degree nurses self reported more leadership behaviors than did baccalaureate nurses. This finding did not support the conceptual frrunework and this researcher concluded that no inferences could be drawn. Further investigation in the area of job performance is recommended.
    • Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Among Registered Nurses in The Hospital Setting

      Cromer, Pamela; Department of Nursing (1988-03)
      The purpose of this study was to utilize Herzbe~g's approach to deter~ine the factors within a nursers job and.work environment ·that are most important to the registered. nurse. A convenience sample of 107 registered nurses from two acute care hospitals in the southeast United States participated in this survey and answered questions on the Longest (1974) questionnaire. This instrument is a 6-point Likert type tool designed to.1determine the nurses' pe~ception of the importance of Herzberg's ten motivation/hygiene factors to job satisfaction. A pilot study indicated that the instrument was understandable and easily com~leted. Face and content validity of the instrument were established by a review panel of three experts. A reliability coefficient of 0.5 was obtained. Dat~ analysis showed that these nurses rated both the motivation and hygiene factors as moderately important to very important in terms of job satisfaction. Using the paired t-test to compare mean· ratings of each subject on each factor, there was no significant difference between the means of the hygiene and motivation factors. A comparison of overall .job satisfaction .between medical/surgical nurses and those employed in other clinical areas of practice was conducted. A chi square test produced significant findings between the two practice groups. Nurses in medical/surgical areas reported more dissatisfaction in their jobs than did nurses working non-medical/surgical areas. Recommendations for further resea~ch include ./ further testing and refinement of the Longest questionnaire so that reliability is enhanced and further terminology/vocabulary·specific to the nursing profes~ion can be incorporated.,~ . Results of this study . should be utilized proactively by nurse executives in developing incentives and programs that create an attraction to the nursing field an~ an appealing image of the nurse and her work. Finally, a similar study in other geographical areas with a comparatively larger sample of nurses is suggested.
    • A Key role for BIM in executing ER positive breast cancer cell death and it's potential regulation by RB

      Takhar, Suchreet; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2013-10)
    • Knowledge, attitude, and compliance concerning infection control standards among nurses

      Johnson, Margaret M.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1992-05)
      The purpose of this study was to identify and correlate the knowledge of, attitude toward and compliance with infection control standards of staff nurses. The study utilized a descriptive correlational methodology. A questionnaire developed by the researcher measured the variables, knowledge, attitude and compliance. Staff nurses were mailed a copy of the questionnaire and asked to complete and return it to the researcher. One hundred fifteen staff nurses participated in the study. A significant correlation was found between attitude and compliance. No statistically significant relationship was identified between knowledge and compliance. A negative relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude. Stepwise multiple regression correlation revealed a significant correlation between attitude, knowledge, and compliance. Attitude, as a lone predictor, may influence compliance levels. Knowledge, as a lone predictor, does not appear to influence compliance. When paired, both knowledge and attitude appear to influence compliance.
    • Large Scale Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Insight into Pathways Related to Type 1 Diabetes and Associated Complications

      Carey, Colleen M.; Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine (2013-08)
      Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from complex interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system, ultimately leading to the destruction o f pancreatic islet cells and insulin deficiency. Previous studies have examined the series o f molecular, cellular, and protein changes occurring within subsets of individuals and how these are associated with particular disease states. Genome wide association studies have revealed a large number o f genetic susceptibility intervals including those implicated in disease pathogenesis, the identification o f various markers for risk assessment, the classification o f disease or complications, and finally markers for monitoring therapies for disease. However, none of these studies to date is without seriously limitations. First, although microarray based gene expression profiling is a powerful tool in discovery; results must be validated by alternate techniques. Second, due to the inherent heterogeneity of the human population large sample sizes in each group must be used in order to handle the expected large expression variations among individual subject. Third, for accurate normalization of Real-Time PCR expression data appropriate reference genes must be selected. We proposed a large scale gene expression validation study to address the limitations of previous studies. Validation studies were performed using high throughput Real-Time RT-PCR on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) o f 928 individuals with T1D and 922 individuals as antibody negative (AbN) controls, recruited through the Prospective Assessment in Newborns of Diabetes Autoimmunity (PANDA) study. This dissertation work validated the gene expression changes among 28 genes shown to have differential expression in T1D patients as compared to controls. These genes were selected based on their function, role in inflammatory or the immune response, and any previously documented reference to a role in T1D. Our aims were to 1) identify gene expression changes which may be occurring specifically in diabetic complications, and 2) identify gene expression changes which may result in an increased state o f oxidative stress in the diabetic state. For validation studies, we divided the 28 genes into two subsets based on related function to ask whether any gene expression signatures could be associated with diabetes, diabetic complications, or oxidative stress in the diabetic state. Our studies revealed genes that are involved in inflammation, immune regulation, and antigen processing and presentation are significantly altered in the PBMCs o f T1D patients. Eight genes (S100A8, S100A9, MNDA, SELL, TGFB1, PSMB3, CD74, and IL12A) were shown to have higher expression, with three genes (GNLY, PSMA4, and SMAD7) having lower expression, in T1D when compared to controls. The data also suggested that inflammatory mediators secreted mainly by myeloid cells are implicated in T1D and its complications (Odds ratios OR = 1.3-2.6, adjusted P value= 0.005- 1.08 x 10 8), and particularly in those patients with nephropathy (OR=4.8-7.9, adjusted P value < 0.005). Validation studies also revealed nine genes (LAT2, MAPK1, APOBEC3B, SOD2, NDUFB3, STK40, PRKD2, ITGB2, and COX7B) with higher expression in T1D. These genes are involved in general pathways of inflammation and immune response; however SOD2, NDUFB3, and COX7B (OR=l.l-1.27, adjusted P value= 0.007-0.47) are functionally involved in the mechanisms o f the mitochondria and may play a role in the increased state of oxidative stress seen in T1D. In these studies we have validated and confirmed the gene expression differences between T1D and control subjects initially suggested by microarray. Our experimental design has addressed each of the limitations posed by earlier studies in the largest scale study to date on gene expression profiles in human T1D. We have demonstrated that gene expression is significantly different between autoantibody negative (AbN) controls and T1D patients without any complications. Genes implicated in immune function (S100A8, S100A9, MNDA, IL12A), immune regulation and promotion (TGFB1, SELL), antigen processing and presentation (CD74, PSMB3), and mitochondrial function (SOD2, NDUFB3, COX7B) have higher expression in T1D and support the notion that chronic inflammation and cellular oxidative stress contribute to the development of T1D and associated complications. The understanding gained from our results implies a translational potential for the use o f gene expression profiles in the classification o f at risk individuals for both T1D and complication. Further, our understanding into the role that the immune system plays in cellular oxidative stress leading to the diabetic state may serve to provide prevention therapies however there remains much to be learned before this is attainable.
    • LEADERSHIP PROCESSES DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: IMPLICATIONS FOR LEADERSHIP PREPARATION AND TRAINING

      Workman, Joseph Barnett; Advanced Studies Innovation
      The roles of school leaders have transformed significantly over time, making necessary shifts to place student learning at the core of what principals do. School leadership preparation has also evolved to keep up with the changing responsibilities and challenges that principals encounter. Although effective school leaders are recognized for their character and exemplary practices that contribute to and build collaborative school communities, principals have multiple responsibilities and often experience challenges while leading their schools. The role of the school leader has changed over the course of history. In response to these role shifts, the standards and practices providing the structure for post-secondary preparation and training programs, state certification, and formal evaluation programs have also had to adjust to keep up with societal changes and responsibilities of school leaders. While principals perform their regular responsibilities, with accompanying challenges, the COVID-19 pandemic has created a myriad of new challenges for school leaders around the globe. Although challenges are not new to the principalship, this study seeks to investigate the challenges K-12 school leaders experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, how their leadership preparation and training did or did not prepare them to manage these challenges, and investigate the solutions principals implemented to counter the challenges experienced.
    • LEADERSHIP PROCESSES DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: IMPLICATIONS FOR LEADERSHIP PREPARATION AND TRAINING

      Glover, Michell; Advanced Studies Innovation (Augusta University, 2022-05)
      The roles of school leaders have transformed significantly over time, making necessary shifts to place student learning at the core of what principals do. School leadership preparation has also evolved to keep up with the changing responsibilities and challenges that principals encounter. Although effective school leaders are recognized for their character and exemplary practices that contribute to and build collaborative school communities, principals have multiple responsibilities and often experience challenges while leading their schools. The role of the school leader has changed over the course of history. In response to these role shifts, the standards and practices providing the structure for post-secondary preparation and training programs, state certification, and formal evaluation programs have also had to adjust to keep up with societal changes and responsibilities of school leaders. While principals perform their regular responsibilities, with accompanying challenges, the COVID-19 pandemic has created a myriad of new challenges for school leaders around the globe. Although challenges are not new to the principalship, this study seeks to investigate the challenges K-12 school leaders experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, how their leadership preparation and training did or did not prepare them to manage these challenges, and investigate the solutions principals implemented to counter the challenges experienced. Keywords: , , , professional development
    • Leadership Processes During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Leadership Preparation and Training

      Bogans, Adrianne Melva; Educational Leadership
      The roles of school leaders have transformed significantly over time, making necessary shifts to place student learning at the core of what principals do. School leadership preparation has also evolved to keep up with the changing responsibilities and challenges that principals encounter. Although effective school leaders are recognized for their character and exemplary practices that contribute to and build collaborative school communities, principals have multiple responsibilities and often experience challenges while leading their schools. The role of the school leader has changed over the course of history. In response to these role shifts, the standards and practices providing the structure for post-secondary preparation and training programs, state certification, and formal evaluation programs have also had to adjust to keep up with societal changes and responsibilities of school leaders. While principals perform their regular responsibilities, with accompanying challenges, the COVID-19 pandemic has created a myriad of new challenges for school leaders around the globe. Although challenges are not new to the principalship, this study seeks to investigate the challenges K-12 school leaders experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, how their leadership preparation and training did or did not prepare them to manage these challenges, and investigate the solutions principals implemented to counter the challenges experienced.
    • The level of loneliness experienced by adolescent mothers related to social support and locus of contro

      Paisley, Janet A.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1991-05)
      The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a relationship between the level of loneliness. the degree of social support, and perceived locus of control of adolescent mothers. An ex-post facto correlational design was used in this study to examine whether there was a relationship between the variables. Results of this study revealed no significant relationships between level of loneliness, so~ial support, and locus of control. However, when social support was broken down into family total functional support and peer total functional support, some significant relationships were found. Family support was found to be related to decreased levels of loneliness for adolescent •others. Peer support was found to have a curvilinear relationship with loneliness, demonstrating that increasing peer suppori is associated with ·decreasing loneliness until a certain point, beyond which loneliness increases.
    • Leveraging Medical Simulation to Teach Interprofessional Education (IPE): A Pilot Study

      Hernlen, Kathleen; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Interprofessional education (IPE) is a term used to describe an educational technique that involves two or more learners from various professions learning from each other and with each other to increase collaboration among the learners and improve health care for their patients. Medical simulation can be described as any type of aid that can simulate a technique that is used in a clinical setting. The goal of this pilot study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an IPE medical simulation faculty training program that employed an IPE teaching method using the example of medical simulation which was lacking on the health sciences campus. A mixed methods study was developed to explore whether medical simulation could be used as a delivery method for an effective IPE faculty training program, and the extent to which IPE knowledge and perceptions changed as a result. A pre- and post-survey was given to faculty participants to evaluate their knowledge and perceptions of IPE. Following the training, faculty participants participated in a focus group. Data analysis included coding of focus groups responses and consolidating the codes into themes, and statistical analysis of the pre- and post-survey data. The findings of the pilot study included a statistically significant increase in knowledge and perceptions of IPE by the participating faculty which was corroborated by the focus group responses.
    • Leveraging Medical Simulation to Teach Interprofessional Education: A Pilot Study

      Etheridge, Rebecca Johnson; Department of Advanced Studies and Innovation (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Interprofessional education (IPE) is a term used to describe an educational technique that involves two or more learners from various professions learning from each other and with each other to increase collaboration among the learners and improve health care for their patients. Medical simulation can be described as any type of aid that can simulate a technique that is used in a clinical setting. The goal of this pilot study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an IPE medical simulation faculty training program that employed an IPE teaching method using the example of medical simulation which was lacking on the health sciences campus. A mixed methods study was developed to explore whether medical simulation could be used as a delivery method for an effective IPE faculty training program, and the extent to which IPE knowledge and perceptions changed as a result. A pre- and post-survey was given to faculty participants to evaluate their knowledge and perceptions of IPE. Following the training, faculty participants participated in a focus group. Data analysis included coding of focus groups responses and consolidating the codes into themes, and statistical analysis of the pre- and post-survey data. The findings of the pilot study included a statistically significant increase in knowledge and perceptions of IPE by the participating faculty which was corroborated by the focus group responses.
    • Leveraging the Bioenergetic Profile of Neurofibromatosis Type 1

      Tritz, Rebekah; Biomedical Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disorder resulting from mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations for NF1 are rare due to the large number of NF1 mutations and role of modifier genes in manifestations of NF1; however, emerging reports suggest that persons with NF1 display a distinct anthropometric and metabolic phenotype featuring short stature, low BMI, increased sensitivity to insulin, and protection from diabetes. Here, we sought to identify whether Nf1 heterozygous (Nf1+/-) mice recapitulate the anthropometric and metabolic features identified in persons with NF1 and whether these metabolic features may be leveraged to elucidate disease mechanisms of NF1. Littermate wildtype (WT) and Nf1+/- C57B/6J mice were subjected to anthropometrics using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), indirect calorimetry, and glucose/insulin/pyruvate tolerance testing at 16 weeks. Nf1+/- mice are leaner with reduced visceral and subcutaneous fat mass, which corresponds with an increased density of small adipocytes and reduced leptin levels. Additionally, Nf1+/- mice are highly reliant on carbohydrates as an energy substrate and display increased glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity and are protected from diet-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. We leveraged these organismal observations to understand how neurofibromin promotes macrophage-mediated inflammation, a common observation in NF1-related tumors and manifestations. BMDM from neurofibromin deficient animals were more sensitive to LPS/INF-γ, resulting in higher levels of M1 cells and lower levels of M2 cells. Energy phenotype, glucose utilization (Seahorse) and uptake were measured in WT and neurofibromin-deficient macrophages. We found that neurofibromin-deficient macrophages experienced rapid glucose uptake with enhanced glycolysis that corresponded with over-expression of GLUT1 in neurofibromin-deficient tissues and cells. Incubation with a specific GLUT1 inhibitor (BAY-976) significantly reduced glucose uptake and utilization, and blunted neurofibromin-deficient macrophage capacity to respond to polarizing cytokines. These metabolic differences were mirrored when neurofibromin was knocked down in a human macrophage line (THP1). Altogether, our data suggests that Nf1+/- mice closely recapitulate the anthropometric and metabolic phenotype identified in persons with NF1 and that the enhanced glycolysis might be a driving factor in inflammation characteristic of NF1. These key metabolic findings will impact the interpretation of previous and future translational studies of NF1.
    • Life changes and perceived psychosocial implications for child victims and their families following disclosure of incest

      Stephenson, Grace H; School of Nursing (1987-01)
      This study addresses the ps-ychosocial implications of life changes occurring for children after disclo~ure of an incestuous relationship. Subjects ~ere 11 families obtained from the cas~load of .a county Depart~ent 6f Family and Child. Protective Services .. The· subjects w~re··f~male with ·a~e~ fr6m 5-17, black and white subjects we~e .. ~epr~sented. This was a descriptive study with data obtained from interviews with lawyers, therapists, mothers, and caseworkers. A content analysis approach was used for data analysis. Synthesis of the data revealed all families continued to experience turmoil yeats after the disclosure. Eleven categories. representing life changes were obtained from the data. The categories of famili di~ruption and"mother's inability t6 provide emotional support for her daughter were the most represented categorie~.
    • Linkage of characters and variation in recombining capacity in compatible nocardiae

      Walsh, Richard S. III; Department of Molecular Biology (1971-04)
    • Lipid mobilization by mouse stomach carcinoma #2663

      McChesney, Daniel Gerad; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1975-12-15)
    • Local cardiac effects of substance P and its role in myocardial dysfunction during ischemia and reperfusion

      Chiao, Hsi; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (Augusta University, 1994-08)
      Substance P (SP) is widely distributed in mammalian hearts. It can be released by different chemicals and during path~logical conditions. These facts are consistent with the opinion that SP in heart has physiological or pathological ' relevance. This study was designed to investigate the cardiac effects of SP and the mechanisms involved in its actions. The role of SPin myocardial dysfunction during myocardial ischemia/ reperfusion was also investigated. Local cardiac effects ~f SP were studied in isolated guinea pig heart and atrial preparations. In heart and right atrial preparations, SP caused negative changes in rate and force. Both chronotropic and inotropic changes were dose- or concentration- related. In electrically stimulated left atrial preparations, SP had no significant effect on contractile force at concentration up to 3x10-5 M. A series of experiments was conducted to understand the mechanisms involved in the actions ofSP~ It was hypothesized that cholinergic neurons modu1ate the effects of SP. Atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonlst, at a concentration of 1 o- 6 M significantly blocked the negative rate and force effects of SPin both heart and atrial preparations. Depletion of acetylcholine (ACh), achieved by concomitant el~ctrical stimulation of the vagus nerves and perfusion with hemicholinium-3, also significantly antagonized the negative effects ofSP. There was no significant effect of SP observed in hearts with ACh depletion or with muscarinic receptor blockade. These results suggest that SP elicits its effects mainly through the release of ACh. The role of adrenergic neurons in the effects of SP was evaluated by use of adrenergic receptor blocka~~ and norepinephrine (NE) depletion. Phentolamine and nadolol (a- and J3--adrenergic receptor antagonists, respectively) at a concentration oflQ-6 M significantly blocked the rate and force effects of isoprotenolol but did not affect the actions of SP. This finding suggests that SP does not affect adrenergic neurons. However,_ depletion ofNE by reserpine pretreatment significantly potentiated both rate and force effects of SP. One explanation for this observation could be that reserpine exerts a non-selective supersensitivity within the tissue. Our observation that reserpine pretreatment increased the sensitivity of muscarinic receptors to ACh appears to support this explanation. Nitric oxide (NO) can be synthesized in the heart and may be involved in the negative rate and force effe_cts mediated by or produced through cholinergic neurons. Many actions of SPin other tissues have been reported to be mediated by NO. Therefore, we hypothesized that NO formation in heart mediates the effects of SP. Nitric oxide is fortl;led from L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS) and elicits its effects by stimulating soiuble guanylyl cyclase (GC) and the formation of cGMP. We utilized NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor) or methylene blue (a soluble GC inhibitor) to block the actions of endogenous NO. Methylene blue and L-NAME significantly attenuated the rate and force effects of SP. Subsequent addition of L-arginine reversed the blocking effects of L-NAME. These data suggest that NO mediates the cardiac effects of SP. Post-ischemic ventricular dysfunction (myocardial ~tunning) has been characterized by an impairment of myocardial contraction during reperfusion after a short ischemic period. Due to its negative actions in the heart and a report that SP release is iricreased during myocardial hypoxia, we, hypothesized that SP may mediate this post-ischemic cardiac contractile dysfunction. Our model was isolated guinea pig hearts su~jected to15 minutes of global ischemia and followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The hearts.~xhibited a recovery in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) to 54% of the pre-ischemic baseline. After pretreatment of the heart preparations with neurokinin-1 (NKl) receptor antagonists, CP-99,994-01 or span tide, LVDP recovered to 78% and 88% of the pre-ischemic baseline, respectively. Depletion of SP by pretreatment with: capsaicin also significantly enhanced recovery of the LVDP. These results suggest that SP is a mediator of post-ischemi~ myocardial dysfunction. In summary, SPhas both negative inotropic and chronotropic effects in heart. The release of ACh mediates the effects of SP. Nitric oxide also mediates-the effects of SP. Substance.P can be·~eleased in heart during ischemia and reperfusion and appears to play a role in :post-ischeinic cardiac contractile dysfunction.
    • Lysis of cells and cell walls of bacillus psychrophilus

      Mattingly, Stephen Joseph; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (1972-08)
    • Macromolecular incorporation of tritium from body water

      Sanders, Samuel Marshall Jr.; Department of Radiobiology (1973-12)