• Spirituality and the Emotional and Physical Health of Black and White Southern Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias.

      Kaye, Judy; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2000-12)
      The primary purpose of this comparative study was to compare Black and White Southern caregivers on spirituality, stress, life satisfaction, social support satisfaction, depression, and physical health. In addition predictors o f depression and physical health were analyzed and an overall conceptual model was tested. Major findings based on a convenience sample o f 130 Black (n = 66) and White (n = 64) Southern caregivers are as follows. White caregivers had higher education p<0.005). After controlling for age, education, and religious background, Black caregivers (M=56.7) compared to White caregivers (M=50.7) reported significantly higher spirituality (p <0.001), whereas, White caregivers (M=24.9) reported significantly more stress (p <0.001) than Black caregivers (M=20.9). Black caregivers (M=47.26) reported significantly greater life satisfaction (F=l 5.989; p <0.001) compared to White caregivers (M=42.13). Black caregivers (M=44.48) reported significantly greater satisfaction with their social support (p <0.001) and significantly less depression (M=27.8) (p <0.001) than the White caregivers (M=39.23;M=34.9). Additionally, Black caregivers (M=1.95) reported significantly better physical health (p<0.009) compared to White caregivers (M=2.34)( 1 =excellent). Lower perceived caregiver stress was predicted by spirituality (p <0.001). Greater life satisfaction was predicted by higher education (p <0.01), lower cognitive impairment of the ill person (p <0.05), higher spirituality (p <0.001) and lower stress (p <0.001). Social support satisfaction was predicted by lower cognitive impairment o f the ill person (p <0.01), lower stress (p <0.001), and higher life satisfaction (p <0.001). Caregiver depression was predicted by race (p < 0.01), higher spirituality (p < 0.05), higher stress (p < 0.001), and lower social support satisfaction (p < 0.01). Health was predicted by race (p < 0.05), lower education (p< 0.05), lower present financial situation (p <0.05), higher spirituality (p <0.05) and depression (p < 0.001). A preliminary conceptual model o f Caregiver Spirituality, Stress, Appraisal and Health was supported. Spirituality had an inverse direct causal relationship (b - .475, p < 0.01) to depression, and a positive causal relationship through the mediator of stress (b .282, p <0.001) to health. Additionally, spirituality had a direct causal relationship to life satisfaction (b .384, p<0.001) and social support satisfaction (b .463, p <0.001). Education (b -.227, p<0.01) and race (b - . 197, p < 0.05) had a direct relationship to health, and race (b -.253, p < 0.05) had a direct relationship to depression. Education (b .136, p <0.05) had a direct relationship to life satisfaction. The path between depression and health was not significant.