• The effect of dentin desensitizers on the retention of full crowns cemented with a variety of luting/bonding agents

      Yim, Nantiya Harnkul; Department of Oral Biology (Augusta University, 1999-04-21)
    • Structural and functional aspects of organic cation transporters

      Wu, Xiang; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 1999-07)
    • Confidence interval estimation for a binomial proportion when no successes are observed

      Wimmer, Courtney; Dias, James; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2009-04)
      Confidence interval estimation for a binomial proportion is a long debated topic, resulting in a wide range of exact and approximate methods. Many of these methods perform quite poorly when the number of observed successes in a sample of size n is zero. In this case, the main objective of the investigator is usually to obtain an upper bound, i.e., the upper limit of a onesided confidence interval. Traditional notions of expected interval length and coverage probability are not applicable in this situation. In this paper we use observed interval length and p-confidence to evaluate nine confidence interval methods for a binomial proportion. We also consider approximate sample sizes needed to achieve various upper bounds near the zero boundary. We show that many popular approximation methods perform poorly based on these criteria and conclude that the-exact method has superior performance in terms of interval length and p-confidence.
    • A Variable prenatal stress paradigm as a valid drug discovery platform for cognitive deficits associatied with neuropsychiatric disorders

      Wilson, Christina Ann; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2012-10)
      Cognitive dysfunction is now recognized to be central to the functional disability of several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, treatment options for the management of cognitive symptoms are limited and the development of novel therapeutics has been made difficult by the lack of appropriate animal models. It has been suggested that variable prenatal stress (PNS) in rodents might be an etiologically appropriate model for some components of schizophrenia. Thus, the overall goal of this dissertation project was to conduct a comprehensive behavioral study of the model to assess face validity, and to make a preliminary assessment of its construct and predictive validity. Our results indicate that exposure to PNS results in elevated corticosterone levels following exposure to acute stress, increased aggressive behaviors, as well as increased locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors. Further, PNS rats had altered innate fear responses to predator odor as well as impaired fear extinction. Additionally, PNS in rats was associated with impairments of sustained attention, inhibitory response control, and recognition memory all of which could be attenuated by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine. Collectivity, these data ,support the premise that PNS in rodents is a valid model system for studying some behavioral components of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as their treatment.
    • Interaction of ET-1 with vasoactive mediators

      WIlliams, Jan Michael; Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University, 2005-07)
    • Expression of connexin 43 in orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

      Whitehead, James D., III; Department of Oral Biology (Augusta University, 1998-12)
    • Relationship between job satisfaction and intent to stay

      West, Myrion J.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1993-01)
    • Effect of structured patient education on level of hope in cancer patient

      Wells, Gayle; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1991-02)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of patient participation in a structured education program on the level of hope in cancer patients. The sample consisted of 34 adult subjects diagnosed with cancer within the last five years. The control group (n = 17) consisted of patients receiving care at a private physician's office. The treatment group (n = 17) consisted of participants in a structured education program (I Can Cope) at three sites in the southeastern United States. The Nowotny Hope Scale (NHS) (Nowotny, 1989) was used to measure.hope. A quasiexperimental non-equivalent control group pretest posttest design was utilized tb test the following hypothesis: Adult cancer patients who attend structured educational classes will score higher on a scale measuring hope than those patients who have not attended such a class. Both groups represent naturally occurring collectives and randomization was not possible. The groups were matched by type of cancer diagnosis. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed no significant difference (p = .139) in the adjusted posttest scores of the two groups; therefore, the hypothesis was not supported. In this study, the level of hope for participants in a structured education program did not differ from the level of a similar group not attending such a program. However, in view of the attention given to the concept of hope as a factor in facing the diagnosis of cancer it is important that research efforts continue to be directed to the discovery of effective interventions to foster hope.
    • Mathematical modeling of the human dental arch and its usefulness in longitudinal analysis of treatment effects

      Weddle, Larry; Department of Oral Biology (Augusta University, 1999-11)
      In the practice of orthodontics, the shape of the dental arches is important in the planning and implementation of treatment. Many mathematical functions have been proposed for the characterization of arch form including catenary, p~lynomials, beta, conic sections, and cubic splines. The purpose of this study was to use linear and nonlinear least squares estimation to fit polynomial, catenary-like and beta-like curves to a longitudinal dataset and evaluate both the curve fits and the longitudinal information obtained. A longitudinal dataset was obtained from a private orthodontist. Dental casts of the upper and lower arches were made at three time points for each of 20 subjects: before treatment, immediately following treatment, and following a post-retention follow-up period of at least two years. Each cast and a calibration strip was scanned into a separate image computer file. Image analysis software was used to mark the (x,y) coordinates of buccal landmarks on each tooth from first molar to first molar. The (x, y) coordinates from each cast were collected into a central database for analysis. It was desired to use least squares for curve fitting due to its wide availability and well known properties. In order to use least squares, the casts were required to have consistent x-axis and y-axis orientation. This was done by orienting the x-axis parallel to the line connecting the centroids of the posterior teeth on the right and left sides of each cast. Eight functions were used in the curves fitting. The linear least squares method was used to fit polynomials of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th order. The nonlinear least squares method was used to fit a generalized 5-parameter beta function and generalized inverse catenary functions with 3, 4, and 5 parameters. Each of the eight functions was fit to each of the 120 dental casts in the study. Curve fits were examined for each function and each subject, arch, and time point. The 4th and 5th order polynomials, the generalized beta, and the 4-parameter and 5-parameter generalized inverse catenary functions fit well. For the 4th and 5th order polynomials, the R2 values ranged from xxx to xxx with acceptable visual fits. For the nonlinear models, the model sum of squares approximated the total sum of squares and the curves yielded good visual fits to the data points. Longitudinal analysis was done using Euclidean distance as the metric in the parameter space of each model. In order to assess the parameter metric in terms of physical measurements, the Euclidean distances in the parameter spaces were correlated with intercanine width, intermolar width, and molar-incisor distance. Consistent correlations were not identified though the curve fits were excellent. A comparison of arch form change between upper and lower arches was also done. Since the upper arches changed more, checking the ability of the parameter metrics of the various models to detect the change was of interest. and 3rd order polynomials, All of the models except 2nd and molar-incisor distance measures were capable of detecting the difference in change between the upper and lower arches (ANOVA p-values ~ 0.05). In summary, this study shows a successful method of orienting the casts for curve fitting by least squares. The models with at least 4 parameters generally fit well across the range of dental casts studied with the 5- parameter models slightly superior. The longitudinal analysis indicates that traditional linear measurements such as intercanine width may not adequately measure the multidimensional aspects of arch form change. The parameter space metrics were able to discriminate between upper and lower arch form changes.
    • Enablers and barriers to the availability of services for HIV-infected persons /

      Walters, Metta L.; School of Nursing (Augusta University, 1990-12)
    • In vitro effects on fibroblast attachment following demineralization by citric acid compared to doxycycline HC1

      Jankowski, Eric P.; Department of Oral Biology & Pharmacology (Augusta University, 1993-05)
    • test

      test, test; test (Augusta University, 2021-05)
    • Do Faculty Members Have A Mindset For Teaching?

      Manning, Kailea; Department of Psychological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      The goal of this study was to test a model that predicted that instructor goal orientation would mediate the relationship between teaching mindset and seeking feedback about teaching in a higher education context. We also aimed to explore whether teaching mindset is associated with teaching adaptations in response to COVID-19. One hundred three full-time faculty members completed measures of general mindset, teaching mindset, teaching goal orientation, and feedback-seeking. Participants generally reported high levels of growth teaching mindset (M = 5.00, SD = .73), growth general mindset (M = 4.47, SD = 1.03) and Mastery goal orientation (M = 4.75, SD = .72). Teaching mindset and feedback-seeking were significantly correlated with goal orientation. Feedback seeking and teaching mindset were not significantly correlated, suggesting teaching mindset is not a good predictor of feedback-seeking, and the model was not supported. Faculty members did report relatively high levels of Mastery goal orientation, which is associated with more often seeking feedback about teaching. These results provide important information for professional development. Those who are Mastery goal-oriented aim to learn and master a skill and thus are more likely to seek feedback because it provides them with information on how to improve and be successful. It may be beneficial for professional development programs to focus on altering an individual’s goal orientation toward being Mastery oriented to improve instructor performance.
    • Autonomic Reactivity to Threatening Images as a Function of Relevance

      Recinos, Manderley; Department of Psychological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Anxiety is among the most prevalent psychological conditions affecting 31% of adults in the United States (National Institute of Mental Health, 2019). Thus, it is important to identify the factors that contribute to anxiety and perhaps the development of anxiety disorders. One important factor that must be considered is how relevant a potential or real threat is to an individual. The theory of threat-relevance proposes that fear stimuli considered relevant to the individual will capture the individual’s attention and/or activate a fear response (De Oca & Black, 2013; Fox et al., 2007). On the other hand, biological theories propose that evolutionary stimuli preferentially activate the fear system due to their threat to human survival (Ohman & Mineka, 2001; Seligman, 1970) . Such disparate positions in the literature strongly suggest a need for more research in the area of threat relevance that examines biological, cultural, and social variables. The purpose of this study is to clarify and extend our understanding of the role relevance plays in triggering anxiety. Participants viewed evolutionarily based (i.e., snakes, spiders) and culturally based threatening images (i.e., guns, knives) while autonomic arousal (electrodermal activity and heart rate) was measured. Participants rated the relevance, valence, and arousal of each image, and completed a self-report measure of anxiety. We found that EDA amplitudes were higher for evolutionary threats than cultural threats, but only when cultural images were viewed first. However, heart rate was similar for both threat types regardless of the order. Cultural threats were found to be more arousing and less pleasant than evolutionary threats. Relevance was not correlated to EDA or HR responses; however, relevance was correlated with the valence and arousal ratings of each image. Relevance was also not correlated to participants’ self-reported trait anxiety. These results indicate that further research is necessary to understand how threat relevance impacts threat responses.

      Lopez, Nicole Hope; Biomedical Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder caused by the βS-globin mutation leading to hemoglobin polymerization, vaso-occlusion, chronic hemolysis and progressive organ damage. SCD affects ~100,000 people of African descent in the United States and millions worldwide. An effective therapy for SCD is fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction by pharmacologic agents such as Hydroxyurea (HU), the only drug with FDA-approval that works via this mechanism. The goal of our study was to determine whether Salubrinal (SAL), a selective protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor, induces HbF expression by the activation of p-eIF2α (phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α) and ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4). ChIP analysis in K562 cells showed ATF4 binding in the locus control region along with the predicted ATF4 binding sites in the y-globin promoter and HBB locus. Sickle erythroid progenitors treated with SAL 9, 18 and 24 µM increased F-cells from 5.2%, 7.7% and 9% (p<0.05) respectively compared to untreated cells and decreased oxidative stress. Western blot analysis showed SAL 24 µM induce HbF by 1.5-fold and mediated dose-dependent increases of p-eIF2α and ATF4 up to 11.1%. In preparation for preclinical studies, pharmacokinetic studies showed plasma concentration of SAL (5mg/kg) peaked 6 hours post IP injection. Subsequent treatments of SCD mice (n=10 per group) were conducted with SAL (3 and 5mg/kg), HU (100mg/kg) and water control (vehicle), 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Flow cytometry showed SAL produced a significant 2.3-fold increase in F-cells compared to a 2.6-fold increase by HU on week 4 (p<0.05); SAL did not produce significant changes in peripheral blood counts. Our findings, supports HbF induction and decrease sickle cell formation by SAL in vivo and the potential this agent might be developed as a novel treatment option for SCD.