• Coliphage as an indicator of the quality of beach water to protect the health of swimmers in coastal Georgia

      Gallard-Gongora, Javier; McGowan Mark, Kathryn; Jones, Jeff; Aslan, Asli; Georgia Southern Universit (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: Gastrointestinal disease affects millions of people in the United States and places a substantial economic burden upon healthcare systems. Recreational waters polluted with fecal material are a main source for transmission of gastrointestinal disease. Georgia beaches are monitored for the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, but these bacteria are not well associated with enteric viruses. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has recently proposed coliphage (a virus of Escherichia coli) as an alternative indicator of fecal contamination in recreational waters. The present study compares fecal indicator bacteria and coliphage concentrations at two Georgia beaches with adjacent creeks that have a history of pollution. Methods: For one year, samples and environmental data were collected from four sites on Jekyll Island, GA, during the peak swimming season and the off-season. Samples were processed using US EPA-approved methods for membrane filtration and plaque formation. Statistical analyses were performed using t-tests and Spearman correlations. Results: The highest numbers of enterococci and significant differences with coliphage were found at Saint Andrews Creek during the swimming season and the off-season. The enterococci concentrations at Clam Creek sites did not exceed recommended recreational water criteria. During the off-season, concentrations of enterococci and coliphages were different at Clam Creek sites, indicating a potential risk for presence of enteric virus when enterococci could not be detected. Conclusions: The US EPA has proposed to adapt coliphage concentrations as an alternative indicator of water pollution for routine beach monitoring nationally. The present study provides a background for adoption of this method in Georgia. Measures of enterococci do not provide sufficient information about the associated human health risk. Inclusion of these viral indicators will improve decision making for beach closures and for protection of the health of swimmers.
    • Collecting physiological stress measures in research among high-risk parents for child maltreatment: A qualitative investigation

      Tiwari, Ashwini; Self-Brown, Shannon; Robinson, Charles; McCarty, Colleen; Carruth, Laura; Georgia State University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      among parents at high risk of child maltreatment (CM). However, no known studies on these programs have examined physiological biomarkers for stress, such as impaired levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and telomere length. Further, no details are known regarding the feasibility of collecting biological markers from parents. This research examined qualitative findings from a multidisciplinary neurobiology and public health study that examined physiological responses to a six-week, evidence-based, behavioral parenting program, among a maternal population at risk of CM perpetration in Atlanta, Georgia. Methods: Eighteen high-risk mothers were assessed at pre-intervention and post-intervention for parental stress and behavior (i.e., self-report, observational), and non-invasive physiological markers for cortisol, DHEA, and telomere length, Hormones were measured using two salivary methods, passive drool and Salivette swabs, as well as hair samples. Telomere length was assessed using cheek swabs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at baseline to examine the feasibility of collecting biological samples for parental stress research among a sub-sample of participants (n=13). Results: Early qualitative themes suggest interest in providing hair and cheek swab samples. Notable suggestions were made to improve saliva collection. Particularly, participants showed clear preference for swabbing methods over passive drool collection. Conclusions: These study findings add novel results to the parenting literature on parental stress and provide emerging evidence on parental willingness to engage in physiological research. Acceptance of collection methods encourages further examination of biomarker correlates using non-invasive and inexpensive methods in biobehavioral research.
    • Colon cancer knowledge, screening barriers, and information-seeking in Northeastern Georgia

      Springstion, Jeffrey; Hou, Su-I; University of Georgia; University of Central Florida (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: The present study assessed utilization of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and knowledge, barriers, and information-seeking among adults in northeastern Georgia. Methods: A total of 245 people aged 40 years and older from selected rural, suburban, and small towns in northeastern Georgia participated in this cross-sectional survey. Results: Respondents aged 50 years and older were more likely to think that they “don’t need screening at their current age” as compared with those in their 40s. Higher information-seeking correlated with lower screening barriers (p<0.001), and colonoscopy history correlated with higher levels of information-seeking (p=0.001). Discussion: Respondents generally had a low level of knowledge about CRC. Individuals with lower perceived screening barriers indicated a higher likelihood to seek more information about CRC and therefore might be more likely to be screened by colonoscopy.
    • Community engagement to address socio-ecological barriers to physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

      Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Chubb, Brittney; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ansa, Benjamin E.; Augusta University, SISTAAH, Institute of Public and Preventative Health, Department of Community Health and Preventative Medicine (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: With high rates of obesity, low levels of physical activity (PA), and lack of adherence to physical activity guidelines (PAGs) among African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCSs), culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to participation in PA are needed. Methods: To develop intervention content, members of an AA breast cancer support group participated in four 1-hour focus group discussions (related to the barriers to PA, strategies for overcoming them, and intervention content), which were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed. Results: The support group collaborated with researchers to construct the Physical Activity Intervention Developed (PAID) to Prevent Breast Cancer, a multi-component (educational sessions; support group discussions; and structured, moderately intensive walking, strength training, and yoga), facilitated, 24-week program focused on reducing multi-level barriers to PA that promote benefits (‘pay off’) of meeting PAGs. Conclusions: Community engagement fostered trust, promoted mutuality, built collaboration, and expanded capacity of AA BCSs to participate in developing an intervention addressing individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community barriers to PA.
    • Community preparedness: Expanding existing partnerships with academia to build resilience through experiential learning

      Cleveland, Nina; Palen, Mark; University of Georgia (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: Sustainability and mitigation in preparedness after grant money is gone has suddenly become a hot topic in the public health emergency preparedness world. By the same token, funding provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for individual preparedness initiatives has not had the desired mitigation impacts. The question becomes, are there alternative approaches that reach more individuals to build a culture of preparedness in communities? One solution involves the leveraging of academic and regional public health partnerships with their Medical Reserve Corps Units (MRC), to train college students in individual preparedness. The purpose of this study is to describe best practices and discuss the incorporation of experiential learning and training activities into an Introduction to Public Health course at the University of Georgia. It also describes the development of a strong academic and practice partnership though the use the agencies’ MRC units. Methods: Three experiential learning activities, rooted in the constructs of perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and self-efficacy were introduced into the course. First, didactic elements addressing the purpose and structure of public health response, individual preparedness and the role of Medical Reserve Corps volunteers in response were incorporated. Second, the public health partner developed a lecture covering public health emergency preparedness and response using a real world-sheltering example and coupled it with a tabletop exercise. Finally, students were given a final exam option where they built a home emergency kit. Results: Over the course of 3 years, approximately 500 students have been trained in individual preparedness. Students have demonstrated an increased foundational knowledge about the Medical Reserve Corps and public health preparedness in general. Furthermore, this collaboration increased the numbers of new MRC Volunteers and provided for a strong academic practice partnership. Conclusions: Through this collaboration, more students know how to take care of themselves and their families, decreasing the number of potential well worried. This collaboration has also strengthened the ties between the two institutions, leading to more opportunities for partnership.
    • Community-based approaches to reduce chronic disease disparities in Georgia

      Rollins, Latrice; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Hermstad, April; Cooper, Dexter; Goodin, Lisa; Beane, Jennifer; Spivey, Sedessie; Riedesel, Amy; Taylor, Olayiwola; Lyn, Rodney; et al. (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: Among underserved and racial/ethnic minority populations in Georgia, there are profound health disparities and a burden of chronic diseases. Such diseases, which are preventable, are influenced by risk factors, including poor nutrition, physical inactivity, lack of quality health care, and tobacco use and exposure. Awardees of the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) and Partnerships to Improve Community Health (PICH) are implementing community-based initiatives using evidence-based, policy, systems, and environmental approaches to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities and the chronic disease burden in underserved urban and rural Georgia communities. Methods: Within the context of a social ecological framework, the REACH and PICH awardees selected interventions. Their impact in the areas of tobacco use and exposure, chronic disease prevention and management, and nutrition are described. Results: To date, the interventions of Georgia’s PICH and REACH awardees have reached approximately 805,000 Georgia residents. Conclusions: By implementing strategies for community-based policy, systems, and environmental improvement, Georgia’s PICH and REACH awardees are reducing tobacco use and exposure; increasing access to healthy foods; and providing chronic disease prevention, risk reduction, and management opportunities for underserved communities in urban and rural Georgia communities. Their efforts to address chronic disease risk factors at various social and ecological levels are contributing to a reduction in racial/ethnic health disparities and the chronic disease burden in Georgia.
    • Community-based participatory research principles for the African American community

      Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Ansa, Benjamin E.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.; School of Medicine; Georgia Regents University; University of Massachusetts; Morehouse College (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      Background: Numerous sets of principles have been developed to guide the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, they tend to be written in language that is most appropriate for academics and other research professionals; they may not help lay people from the community understand CBPR. Methods: Many community members of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer assisting with the Educational Program to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (EPICS) had little understanding of CBPR. We engaged community members in developing culturally-specific principles for conducting academic-community collaborative research. Results: We developed a set of CBPR principles intended to resonate with African-American community members. Conclusions: Applying NBLIC-developed CBPR principles contributed to developing and implementing an intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among African Americans.
    • Community-based participatory research principles for the African American community

      Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Ansa, Benjamin E.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Blumenthal, Daniel S. (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      Background: Numerous sets of principles have been developed to guide the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, they tend to be written in language that is most appropriate for academics and other research professionals; they may not help lay people from the community understand CBPR. Methods: Many community members of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer assisting with the Educational Program to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (EPICS) had little understanding of CBPR. We engaged community members in developing culturally-specific principles for conducting academic-community collaborative research. Results: We developed a set of CBPR principles intended to resonate with African-American community members. Conclusions: Applying NBLIC-developed CBPR principles contributed to developing and implementing an intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among African Americans.
    • A comparison of hospital utilization in urban and rural areas of South Carolina

      Dicks, Vivian; Augusta University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: Previous studies have described health care utilization based on insurance status and ethnicity. Few investigations, however, have looked at rural populations in relation to distance in securing health care. Methods: The 2008 to 2009 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Database (SID) for South Carolina was used to assess the relationship of living in rural versus urban communities and the demographic variables related to insurance coverage. By use of bivariate and multivariate analyses, patient socio-demographic characteristics were explored for working-aged groups in relation to their income and for payer status (Medicaid or uninsured) relative to those privately insured. Results: Of hospitalizations, 68.89% were for those living in urban areas, 20.52% in large rural areas, 6.57% small rural areas, and 4.02% in isolated rural areas. Blacks lived predominantly in small rural (53.65%) and isolated rural communities (51.55%). As income decreased, the percentage of hospital admissions increased, from 5.83% for those earning $66,000 to 43.29% for those earning between $1 and $39,999. Conclusions: Hospital admissions may not be entirely dependent on race, income or insurance, but could also be influenced by geographic access. Further, having private insurance, higher incomes, and living in urban areas are positive predictors for better health outcomes.
    • Competitive Balance in Women’s Collegiate Golf

      Jones, Austin; Finance and Economics (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
      This item presents the abstract for a poster presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • Conjugation of Tryptamine to Biologically Active Carboxylic Acids in Order to Create Prodrugs

      Miller Jr., Colin; Lebedyeva, Iryna O.; Department of Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • Context matters: A community-based study of urban minority parents' views on child health.

      Bolar, Cassandra L; Hernandez, Natalie; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; McAllister, Calvin; Ferguson, Aneeqah S; Rollins, Latrice; Wrenn, Glenda; Okafor, Martha; Collins, David; Clem, Thomas; et al. (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Among children, there are substantial ethno-racial minority disparities across a broad range of health-related behaviors, experiences, and outcomes. Addressing these disparities is important, as childhood and adolescence establish health trajectories that extend throughout life.
    • A cross sectional study of mostly African-American men examining mental health and child behavior

      Jackson, Matt; Osborne, Melissa; Self-Brown, Shannon; Georgia State University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: Home visiting receives bipartisan support at both the state and federal level, because several models have demonstrated significant results in both reduction of child maltreatment as well as parenting behavior modification. Yet, parenting research and services lack further engagement and involvement as a primary component. That is, even though research has shown that fathers play an integral role in child development, there is very little research done in which fathers are the primary focus; most of this research focuses on mothers. When it comes to serving children who are victims of child abuse and neglect, this is a problem at both the programmatic and legislative level. Methods: This study took place within the context of a broader NIH funded trial to examine the efficacy of an adapted (technologically enhanced) version of an evidence-based parenting program, SafeCare, for fathers. This was a cross-sectional examination of the results from a survey in which mostly African-American, at-risk fathers (n=84), reported on – using putative measures – parenting practices, mental health, and behavior of their children. This initial assessment used linear regression to examine the association between fathers’ mental health and their child’s externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors. Results: On average, higher levels of father depression and anxiety corresponded to higher scores for child behavior problems. That is, there was a significant correlation between the fathers’ anxiety and depression and the child’s problem behaviors. Conclusions: These findings suggest a need for acknowledging the father’s role in child development as well as any potential external factors that might have a pernicious effect on the father’s mental state[s]. In addition, more attention should be given to separating data within studies that examine both mothers and fathers in order to assess individual effects by each parent.
    • Cross-training and sustainability in environmental health-based mosquito control programs

      Kelly, Rosmarie; Georgia Department of Health (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: In Georgia, only a few county environmental health programs still do mosquito surveillance and control. This is partly due to a lack of sustainability in these seasonal programs and a pressure to move personnel from mosquito control to programs that are mandated by the state. There is also a lack of training available for mosquito control workers. Methods: Richmond County Mosquito Control (RCMC), a program within the Richmond County Environmental Health office, is one of the sustainable programs, and the RCMC program has dealt with these issues in some innovative ways. It is sustainable because it partners with other agencies to provide an integrated mosquito management (IMM) approach to local mosquito control. Because training and education are important components of an IMM program, RCMC provides annual training for all mosquito control personnel. Because mosquito control is largely a seasonal program in Georgia, Richmond County has hired retired people to do mosquito control work during the mosquito season. These employees are seasonal workers; one person is kept on full time to manage the program. Richmond County Mosquito Control collaborates with the Phinizy Center for Water Sciences to provide surveillance and mosquito identification. Richmond County Mosquito Control approaches training in several ways. First, RCMC is active in the Georgia Mosquito Control Association. Second, by collaborating with the Phinizy Center for Water Sciences both students and mosquito control employees can learn from one another to the benefit of both programs. Finally, there is a yearly training for all employees with guest speakers providing information on various topics of interest, including: a review of the data that have been collected, information on new and existing treatments and practices, a review of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) pesticide discharge management plan procedures, and an overview of business decisions to improve the program and update procedures. Results: Recently, the RCMC program has expanded to deal with the potential threat of Zika virus transmission in Georgia. In addition to its swimming pool remediation project and its goats in retention basin enclosure project, the special projects group has added another project, maintaining retention/detention ponds to help reduce local mosquito breeding. In order to train the mosquito control employees and Phinizy Center students to do this job, they are working with the county engineer to learn the inspection requirements for an MS-4 permit. Finished inspection forms are provided to the county and to the Environmental Protection Division of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. In addition, employees are training at the Phinizy Center to learn mosquito identification and surveillance, and to look at the fate of stormwater after it exits the ponds.
    • Cultural Changes in a Pandemic through an Anthropological Lens

      Cook, Lindsey; Bratton, Angela; Department of History, Anthropology, & Philosophy (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • Curcumin Conjugates as Potential Therapeutics for Breast Cancer

      Tran, Queen; Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-04)
      This item presents the abstract for an oral presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • The Cytotoxic Effects of Novel Persin Analogues on a Breast Cancer Cell Line

      Jones, Keri Leigh; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University Libraries, 2016-10)
      Roberts, Gurisik, Biden, Sutherland, and Butt (2007) and Butt et al. (2006) previously found that persin, a compound isolated from avocado leaves, can induce apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in mammary epithelial cells of lactating mice in vivo and in certain human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. It has also been found that at higher doses, persin is cardiotoxic in mice and causes necrosis in mammary glands of lactating mammals (Oelrichs, 1995). Therefore, compounds with reduced mammary gland necrosis and cardiotoxicity but with the apoptotic effects of persin on breast cancer cells could be potential chemotherapeutic agents. Six novel analogues of persin have been synthesized to test their effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells. Cells cultured from each cell line were treated with each analogue at varying concentrations to determine potential cytotoxic doses. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was determined by a commercially available Cell Proliferation Assay. Compounds that were significantly cytotoxic were tested for apoptotic activity using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three compounds were found to be cytotoxic to both cell lines, whereas the others had little to no impact on cell viability.
    • Dealing with West Nile Virus: Evaluate, re-evaluate, respond

      Rosmarie, Kelly; Georgia Department of Public Health (Journal of the Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
    • Degradation of EGFR Contributes to Anti-Cancer Effects of HDAC Inhibitor in Head and Neck Cancer

      Duncan, Leslie; Jensen, Caleb; He, Leilei; Lang, Liwei; Biological Sciences, Oral Biology & Diagnostic Sciences, Georgia Cancer Center (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
      This item presents the abstract for a poster presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • Delusional Disorder in the Narrator of Maud

      Ravula, Havilah; English and Foreign Languages (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-04)
      This item presents the abstract for an oral presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.