• Hepatitis C and injection drug use: Testing and linkage to care

      Sutton, Marie; Youngner, Cole; Holloway, Winona; Emory University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: The recent outbreak of HIV infection in Indiana linked to injection drug use demonstrates the importance of timely HIV and Hepatitis C surveillance and rapid response to interrupt disease transmission. An estimated 2.7 – 3.9 million Americans have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Of those, 50 – 70% are unaware of their infection. People who inject drugs account for more than half of new HCV cases. Within 5 years of beginning injection drug use, 50 – 80% of injection drug users (IDUs) become infected with HCV. Since 2007, HCV-related deaths have surpassed HIV-related deaths. CDC reported 19,368 death certificates listing HCV as a cause of death in 2013, adding that this figure represents a fraction of deaths attributable to HCV. Method: Imagine Hope, supported by a grant from a pharmaceutical company, initiated HCV rapid testing in April 2015. The Georgia-wide project includes 10 agencies serving substance-using populations, including 4 methadone clinics. The project offers free, routine HCV testing and linkage to care. Results: Over the first 12 months of testing, 3,226 clients received HCV antibody testing. Of those, 344 (10.7%) were HCV antibody positive (Ab+), with 186 completing confirmatory RNA testing. Confirmatory tests yielded 132 (71%) RNA positive cases; 56 (42.4%) of these were linked to care. Five clients have achieved sustained viral load suppression which is considered a cure for hepatitis C. Numerous others have begun direct acting antiviral regimens. Conclusion: HCV testing in substance abuse facilities is feasible. Among substance users, HCV prevalence is high and awareness of infection risk is low. Linkage to care is enhanced by the use of a navigator. RNA screening prior to the 1st medical appointment expedites linkage to care; RNA positive clients are more motivated to keep appointments and RNA negative clients do not clog an already burdened system of care for the uninsured.
    • HIV Rates in the State of Georgia: A Growing Threat among Predominantly African American Populations

      Raychowdhury, Swati; Tedders, Stuart H.; Georgia Southern University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2009)
      Background: US rates of HIV/AIDS continue to rise with over 55% of new cases identified in southern states in 2003. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of HIV/AIDS cases in rural southeast Georgia in comparison to urban areas of the state. Methods: County level data was acquired using OASIS. Rates of HIV infections by gender and race (black vs. white) were aggregated over a five year period (2000–2005) and indirectly adjusted using Georgia as the standard. Rates for rural counties, (populations less than 35,000), were statistically compared to urban rates (α = 0.05). Results: HIV infections in urban counties were significantly higher as compared to rural counties. Statistically high infection rates in urban areas were also evident when controlling race and gender. Black males and black females in urban counties were the groups most heavily impacted. Conclusions: HIV/AIDS is an increasingly complex problem throughout the state of Georgia. Although urban areas continue to be significantly impacted, HIV infections among rural populations, especially black residents, represent a serious and growing threat.
    • How can we promote mentored student research in Georgia?

      Webb, Nancy C; Smith, Selina A; Augusta University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
    • How Does Economic Turmoil Affect Alcohol Consumption?

      Bruker, Augustus; Finance and Economics (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
      This item presents the abstract for a poster presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • How Does Industrial Concentration Prepare an Economy for Business Cycle Change?

      Walker, Aaron; Business (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-04)
      This item presents the abstract for an oral presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • Human papillomavirus-associated cancers in Georgia, 2008-2012

      Solomon, Irene; McNamarea, Chrissy; Bayakly, Rana A (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause most anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers, and virtually all cervical cancers. In 2014, in Georgia (GA), fewer than half of adolescent females and males aged 13-17 years received the three doses of the HPV vaccine. Increasing vaccination coverage among this age group, education of adolescents in regard to HPV risks, and cervical cancer screening of adults can prevent HPV-associated cancers. Methods: The incidence of HPV-associated cancers for 2008-2012 in GA was obtained from GA Comprehensive Cancer Registry data. Case definitions for HPV-associated cancers were based on standard definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data for anatomic sites known to have HPV-associated cancers, including the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx, were analyzed. Also derived were ageadjusted rates, age-specific incidence rates, the percentage of each cancer found attributable to HPV, and ageadjusted incidence rates by geography. Results: During 2008-2012, a total of 6,056 HPV-associated cancers were diagnosed (males, 2,408; females, 3,648). Of these, 4,629 cancers were attributable to HPV (males, 1,574; females, 3,055). The most common cancers attributable to HPV were oropharyngeal cancers among males (1,182); and cervical cancers (1,862) among females. Females living in smaller urban counties had a higher cervical cancer incidence rate than females living in metropolitan counties and metro areas (1 million or more population). Males living in rural counties had a lower oropharyngeal cancer incidence compared to the state incidence rate. Conclusions: Since HPV vaccination at age 11-12 years can prevent HPV-related cancers in adulthood, clinicians should promote HPV vaccination along with routine immunizations to adolescents. Surveillance of HPVassociated cancers using GA cancer registry data is needed to track future changes in incidence data due to administering the HPV vaccine, increasing cervical cancer screening, and educating youth in GA about HPV risk factors.
    • “Illegal”: Job Attainment and Socio-Economic Status Among First-Generation Mexican Americans, 1980s-2000s

      Esteban, Isabella; History, Anthropology, and Philosophy (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
      This item presents the abstract for an oral presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • Immunization policies for employees of childcare facilities within the North Central Health District of Georgia

      Kamara, Paula; Lian, Brad; Smith, Jimmie; McChargue, Judy; Mercer University, North Central Health District (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      ABSTRACT Background: Since the early 1980s, vaccinations have generally been required for children in licensed daycare and school settings. In these settings, vaccinations have reduced disease rates. Adults occupy these settings as well, and ensuring they are vaccinated should also reduce the potential for disease and disease transmission. Yet, there are few vaccination requirements for adults employed at daycare facilities, although such requirements have been recommended (CDC Adult immunization schedule, 2015; ACIP General Recommendations, 2011). The objective of this study was to examine current vaccination policies among childcare facilities within Georgia’s North Central Health District (District 5-2) and the climate for possible policy directives in the future. Methods: A 10-item questionnaire regarding vaccination requirements and policies and the importance of vaccination education was mailed to administrators of all 271 licensed childcare facilities within the North Central Health District in Georgia. A total of 76 questionnaires were returned, representing a 28% response rate. The district has approximately 530,000 residents and is comprised of 13 counties. Results: Of the childcare facilities, 79% have no vaccination policies in place. However, most facility directors (75%) indicated that such policies should be required, and 93 % stated that vaccination education is important for their staff members. Conclusions: Vaccination requirements can help protect children and their caregivers from communicable diseases. From a policy perspective, the climate may be favorable for the implementation of such requirements, in that most childcare directors recognize the importance of such policies and state that they should be required.
    • Impact of 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic on mortality rates in Savannah, GA, and implications for future epidemic prevention

      Plasphol, Sara; Dixon, Betty; Armstrong State University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      Background: The Spanish Influenza pandemic struck the United States in waves from September 1918 through March 1919. This study investigates the impact of the Spanish Influenza on Savannah and Chatham County, Georgia. Methods: Primary death records from the Chatham County Health Department were examined and analyzed for the years of 1917, 1918, and 1919. Historical mortality rates in the Savannah area were compared to those for other parts of the United States and world. Results: Mortality rates attributed to the Spanish Influenza within Savannah closely paralleled similar flu-related mortality rates for comparison populations in New York, London, and Madrid. Conclusions: These local primary data enable Savannah public health officials to understand the historical trends of communicable disease mortality in relation to other parts of the world, and have the potential to serve as a reference when channeling future resources into epidemic prevention in Chatham County.
    • The Impact of Cardiac Rehabilitation on CVD Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

      Thomas, Eyana; Lian, Eric; Roberts, Kimberly; Nursing (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-04)
      This item presents the abstract for a poster presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • Impact of Chlamydia & Gonorrhea in Georgia: An Urban/Rural Comparison (2000-2004)

      Raychowdhury, Swati; Tedders, Stuart H.; Jones, Sarah K.; Georgia Southern University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2008)
      Background: In 2005, 33,562 cases of chlamydia and 15,860 cases of gonorrhea were reported in the State of Georgia, respectively corresponding to 3.4% and 4.7% of all cases reported nationally (CDC, 2005). Disparities of infection with respect to race and gender are evident for both diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of chlamydia and gonorrhea in rural Georgia compared to urban areas of the state. Methods: County level data necessary for analysis were acquired using the Georgia Division of Public Health’s Online Analytical Statistical Information System database (GDHR, 2007). Rates of infection by gender and race (black vs. white) were aggregated over a five year period (2000 – 2004) and indirectly adjusted using Georgia as the standard. Rates for rural counties, defined as populations less than 35,000, were statistically compared to urban rates using a test of proportions (α = 0.05). Additionally, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to further quantify risk. Results: Although variation exists, data suggest infection of both diseases in Georgia is an urban problem, disproportionately impacting black residents. For chlamydia, adjusted rates for white males (21.0/100,000) and black males (313.9/100,000) were significantly higher in urban counties. Quantified risk as indicated by rate ratios [RR] and 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] suggest an 18% increase of risk among white males (RR = 1.18; 95%CI = 1.07, 1.30) and 33% increase of risk among black males (RR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.27, 1.38). Among females, rates in rural areas of the state were higher for whites (121.9/100,000) and blacks (1,045.5/100,000). However, these differences were not significant. For gonorrhea, rates in urban areas were significantly higher among white males (15.5/100,000), black males (519.6/100,000), and black females (414.2/100,000) as compared to rural populations. Additionally, elevated risk of gonorrhea among these groups ranged from a 10% increase among black females (RR = 1.10; 95%CI = 1.07, 1.14) in urban areas to a 65% increase among white males (RR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.43, 1.85) in urban areas. Conclusions: The State of Georgia continues to report two of the most common sexually transmitted infections at an alarming rate. The disproportionate impact of minorities is evident, although further assessment of the variation between urban and rural areas is warranted to more fully explain risk of infection.
    • The Impact of Vegetarians and Vegans on the Meat, Egg, and Dairy Industry

      Cantenot, Marie; Finance and Economics (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
      This item presents the abstract for a poster presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • Impacts of Cultural Barriers on Healthcare

      Mahoney, Eden; Allied Health Sciences, Communication, History, Anthropology & Philosophy (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
      This item presents the abstract for an oral presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • Implementation and evaluation of the Carrera Program for delaying teen sex in Georgia

      Tucker, Tressa; Langley, Mary; Morehouse School of Medicine (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: In three geographic areas in Georgia, rural, micropolitan, and urban, Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) implemented the evidence-based Children’s Aid Society Carrera Program at community organizations with Boys and Girls Clubs (BGCs) as the comparison group. This study attempted to replicate the findings of reduced teen pregnancy and birth found for the New York Carrera Program. Methods: For this longitudinal study with a quasi-experimental design, the sample included 400 youth who were in 6th or 7th grade. A total of 220 were enrolled in the intervention group and 180 in the comparison group. The study was performed in the fall of 2012, 2013, and 2014. The following data sources were utilized: paper-and-pencil surveys, daily attendance, component attendance, observation forms, focus groups, and interviews. There was one analytic sample (N = 204) for the primary research questions. Data were pooled separately across the intervention and the comparison sites. A hierarchical logistic regression model was used to test for program impact. Covariates included selected demographic variables, site geography (urban vs. rural), and previous sexual history. For answering the two primary research questions the 0.025 significance level was used to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results: After one year of the intervention, the Carrera group was significantly lower in “ever had sex” than the BGC group. At years two and three, however, there were no appreciable differences between these two groups, a result possibly due to implementation issues, particularly attendance. Conclusions: When implemented with fidelity, Carrera can have a positive effect, even in rural communities. Programs should seek to achieve the required intervention dosage and address the reasons why teen pregnancy is often higher in these communities.
    • Implementation of the SafeCare model in Georgia for preventing child maltreatment

      Whitaker, Daniel; Glasheen, Theresa; Georgia State University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: The SafeCare model is a behaviorally-based parenting model used in the prevention of child maltreatment. SafeCare targets three proximal risk factors for child neglect and abuse: parent-child interactions, home safety, and child health. SafeCare is one of only a few evidence-based practices for preventing child neglect, the dominant problem in child welfare, accounting for over 75% of child maltreatment cases. SafeCare has been broadly implemented in several states in the US, including Georgia, and is disseminated by the National SafeCare Training and Research Center (NSTRC) at Georgia State University. The presentation will (1) describe SafeCare and associated data, (2) describe the SafeCare implementation. Methods: SafeCare has been implemented in Georgia since 2008 using a rigorous implementation model, which includes on-going quality assurance of SafeCare providers and skill acquisition evaluation in families. Providers of child welfare services have been trained to deliver SafeCare and have been coached by trainers from NSTRC. Evaluation data are regularly collected which include provider fidelity via observed sessions, family outcomes relating to completion of SafeCare, and skill acquisitions (i.e., changes in parenting behaviors, reductions in home hazards, and increases in knowledge and behaviors regarding child health care). Results: Recent evaluation data (2013-2015) indicate 115 families have been referred to a SafeCare provider and 100 families completed at least one session. Thirty-eight (38%) have completed the program in its entirety. Provider fidelity data collected monthly indicate high program fidelity (mean of 91% of desired behaviors performed). Family behavior data indicate excellent skill acquisition among families completing each SafeCare model. Parenting skills increased by 104%; home hazards were reduced by 85%, and child health care skills increased by 34%. Conclusions: The SafeCare model is an effective parenting program for reducing child maltreatment, and has been implemented successfully in Georgia. Broader impact of SafeCare will require increased implementation of the model to increase reach.
    • Implementing an Algorithm for Locating Complex Zeros of Analytical Functions in the Complex Plane

      McKinney, Nellie; Guerrero-Millan, Josefa; Department of Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • Implementing the Healthy University Approach to Mental Health at Augusta University

      Jackson, Lauren; Psychological Sciences, Chemistry and Physics, Population Health Sciences (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
      This item presents the abstract for an oral presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • The Implicit Computational Complexity Flavor of Automata

      Holcomb, Mark; Aubert, Clément; School of Computer and Cyber Sciences (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • The importance of early brain development

      Fitzgerald, Brenda; Georgia Department of Health (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
    • The Importance of Encompassing Medical History in Pre-Medicine

      Alapatt, Vinaya-Ann; Department of Art and Design (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-03)
      This essay presents an argument on the integration of medical humanities in pre-medical undergraduate curriculum. This project culminated from an assignment of the Drawing II course in the spring 2018 semester, which included a short paper on a research topic of interest, and a drawing.