• Differences in reported benefits in older adults after participation in a nutrition incentive program

      Cook, Miranda; Kane, Rachael; Emory University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: A healthy food incentive program doubles the value of food stamp dollars at farmers’ markets, addressing financial barriers to healthy eating for low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), or food stamps, recipients. Older adults sometimes have more trouble purchasing and eating healthy food due to illness, a lack of social support, or mobility problems, in addition to financial reasons. Methods: Surveys were administered to 87 SNAP recipients redeeming healthy food incentives at farmers’ markets. Data were stratified by age in order to test benefits experienced from program participation and the program’s efficacy in reducing barriers to healthy eating. Results: Older program participants (aged 66+) were less likely to report experiencing community benefits from the program than younger participants (age 66+: 20.0% vs. age 18-65: 62.9%; p=0.0292). However, older participants were more likely to report experiencing other benefits (age 66+: 60% vs. age 18-65: 8.6%; p=0.054). Reported health benefits did not differ significantly by age group (age 66+: 40.0% vs. age 18-65: 54.3%; p = 0.09502). Additionally, no difference was detected between age groups reporting price as their biggest barrier to healthy eating (p = 0.2569). However, older program participants were less likely to report that the healthy food incentive program addressed their barrier (age 66+: 66.7% vs. age 18-65: 96.1%; p=0.0092). Conclusions: Older program participants may be experiencing different benefits than younger ones, with younger participants reporting more community benefits such as feeling more connected to one’s community or supporting local farmers more often and older program participants reporting other benefits more frequently.
    • Different Types of Inequality in Body Image

      Johnson, Chloe; Powell-Williams, Melissa; Department of Sociology, Criminal Justice, & Social Work (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • Discussion of public health education and training, and the needs of the future public health workforce.

      Nelson, Gary; Healthcare Georgia Foundation (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Georgia enjoys a wealth of public health capacity ranging from governmental public health to academic programs as well as local, state, and internationally acclaimed organizations. Leadership is evident across public health policy, practice and research. In the closing plenary of the 2017 Annual Meeting-Faces of Public Health, GPHA engages leaders in our field in a spirited conversation on the public health workforce. The esteemed panel representing state, national, and international public health organizations will reflect on the needs of a 21st Century workforce: prepared to respond beyond emergencies and identified threats; able to adapt to an increasing complex technological, political and economic environment; committed to affecting the economic and social determinants of health inequities; and collaborating to advance the knowledge base aligned with core public health functions and essential services. Are professional standards, qualifications and credentials appropriately calibrated for the needs and opportunities ahead? How has the underlying science base for public health practice, leadership and research changed? As stewards of population health, is the workforce equipped to provide thought leadership on health policy and legislation? What’s working and what’s not working in the recruitment, preparation, and retention of Georgia’s large and diverse public health workforce? The audience will be invited to join the panel in this engaging dialogue.
    • Disparities in health insurance coverage among children and young adults in Georgia and the U.S.

      Attell, Brandon; Georgia Health Policy Center (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: In this brief report, I compare rates of health insurance coverage for children and young adults in Georgia and the United States. Methods: Utilizing data from the 2014 American Community Survey, I performed two-sample tests of weighted proportions for a variety of health insurance coverage indicators. Results: Although there is little difference between Georgia and the United States in the proportion of those covered by Medicare and Medicaid, in Georgia there are fewer individuals with private health insurance and more uninsured individuals. Conclusions: Progress toward universal coverage will require continued examination of insurance status at both the state and national level.
    • Distribution of Leptin Receptor-Expressing Cells in Various Regions of Mouse Brain

      Kudchikar, Arsheen; Lei, Yun; College of Science and Mathematics; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • Does actual overweight or perception of overweight elevate suicide risk in bullied vs. non-bullied students?

      Kalle, Ashley; Chung, Yunmi; Yoo, Wonsuk; Augusta University; Emory University; (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: For individuals in Georgia aged 10-14 and 15-24, suicide is the third leading cause of death. Those who are overweight are often bullied by their peers, and being bullying can lead to higher risks of suicidality. There is, however, mixed evidence about the relationship between high weight and suicide. Weight perception may be a stronger predictor of suicide than actual weight. The aim of the present study was to examine, in a national sample of high school students, the interaction between weight and bullying on suicide outcomes. Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed with data from the 2015 Youth Behavior Risk Surveillance Survey (YRBSS), a cross-sectional survey of high school students nationwide conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The predictor variables analyzed were actual overweight, overweight perception, and bullying. The outcome variables were suicide ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempts. Results: For non-bullied students, perception of overweight was a predictor of suicide risk. Whether actual overweight or perception of overweight increases suicide risk in bullied students depended on the type of bullying. For being bullied at school only and being bullied at school and online, overweight perception increased suicide risks. For being bullied online, actual overweight increased suicide risks. Conclusions: Interventions that target bullied students and decrease body dissatisfaction may lower suicide attempts.
    • Does Chronic Ketone Salt Supplementation Alter BP, CBC, or CMP Results in Adults Diagnosed with PTSD?

      Locklin, Jordan; Holland, A. Maleah; Moore, Andrew; Department of Kinesiology; Department of Social Sciences; Department of Psychological Sciences (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • Does the Presence of a USG Institution Impact Economic Variables within Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Areas?

      Tychsen, Megan; Medcalfe, Simon; Hull College of Business (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • Domestic violence intervention for Latino families: Baseline program evaluation data

      Cormier, Jacque-Corey; Nava, Nancy; Mora, Charmaine; Rodriguez, Rebecca; Georgia State University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: In the United States, Latino families affected by domestic violence (DV) often face unique challenges influenced by changing ecologies and personal/political histories. Caminar Latino is Georgia’s first and only comprehensive DV intervention program for Latino families. The program is geared towards helping family members begin their journey towards non-violence. The purpose of this evaluation is to better understand how Caminar Latino is benefiting families within the program. Baseline data of interest included perceptions of power in the relationship among family members and whether mothers and/or youth had safety plans. Methods: A longitudinal, quasi-experimental research design was utilized to collect quantitative and qualitative data. This study was approved by Georgia State University’s Institutional Review Board. Study participants (N = 82) were men, women, and youth (8 – 17 years old only) selected from families that started the program between August 2014 and August 2015. Members of the research team read the survey questions in English or Spanish to all participants. A univariate analysis was utilized to assess baseline data. Results: There were major inconsistencies found regarding power distribution in the relationships. Half of women (50%) reported their partner having more power in the current relationship, while majority of men (77%) reported their partner and themselves sharing equal power. All men and women felt power should be equal in an ideal relationship. Only 13% of mothers and 44% of youth had a safety plan pertaining to violence. Conclusions: By examining DV in a manner consistent with the needs and preferences of families, and offering support directly within communities, community practitioners have the opportunity to capitalize on existing strengths and abilities of Latina women and families. Findings from this program evaluation provide Caminar Latino with a better understanding of the ways in which they can promote wellness and non-violence in Latino communities.
    • E-cigarette use among undergraduate liberal arts and health sciences students: A study protocol

      Dicks, Vivian; Stone, Rebecca; Georgia Regents University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
      Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine as an inhaled vapor. Use of E-cigarettes has gained in popularity since 2007, and their use is often promoted as a safer alternative to tobacco smoking. A concern among public health experts is whether e-cigarettes can be used as an alternative method for tobacco cessation or whether they lead to nicotine dependence and use of other tobacco products. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of use of e-cigarettes among young adults between the ages of 18 and 25, but varying results on the association between their use and perceptions of harm. For the present survey, this age group was selected because, in this group, addiction to tobacco and the likelihood for adverse effects would be lower. Thus, for this group, the chances of not starting or consideration for quitting would be higher. The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about using tobacco products, smoking, and e-cigarettes among undergraduate students on liberal arts and health sciences campuses of a university. Methods: Participants will be invited via email and directed to a secure website where the survey can be completed anonymously. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, the survey will include validated questions based on recommendations by the World Health Organization ((2000) appendix A)). Anticipated Results: We anticipate that the results will show an improvement in the behavioral aspect among undergraduates at the liberal arts and health sciences campuses. We also expect that results will show an improvement in knowledge among liberal arts students but less improvement in knowledge for health sciences students. Finally, we predict an overall improvement in attitudes about tobacco use and e-cigarette use.
    • Early Extubation in Infancy and Early Childhood Following Heart Surgery: Outcome Analysis and Predictors of Failure

      Esquivel, Raquel; Geister, Emma; Crethers, Danielle; Weatherholt, Danalynn; Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Munoz, Gustavo; Biological Sciences, Medical College of Georgia (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-05)
      This item presents the abstract for a poster presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • The Eating and Cooking Healthy (TEACH) Kitchen: A Research Protocol

      White, Sashia; Alva-Ruiz, Roberto; Chen, Lucia; Conger, Jason; Kuang, Christopher; Murphy, Cameron; Okashah, Najeah; Ollila, Eric; Smith, Selina A.; Ansa, Benjamin E.; et al. (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: Diet-related chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia have affected millions of individuals, resulting in disease-related complications and mortality. Strategies that may improve the outcome of chronic disease management include modification of lifestyle risk factors such as unhealthy diets. TEACH Kitchen is an experiential education program related to community nutrition, the goal of which is to teach patients management of chronic disease through dietary change. Methods: Adults (n=144) ≥18 years old and their children (n=144) 7-17 years old will complete four 2-hour sessions. Components of each session will include brief nutrition education (20 min), an interactive cooking session (1 hr), and after-dinner discussion (40 min). Pre- and post-session questionnaires will be administered to all participants for self-reported demographics, knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about healthy nutrition. Medical records will be used to collect information about adult participants’ demographics and clinical indicators (hemoglobin A1c, lipid profile, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index [BMI]). Descriptive analyses will be performed to determine socio-demographic characteristics using frequencies and proportions for all categorical data, and means for continuous variables. T-tests and multiple logistic regression analysis will be accomplished to compare the differences in means. Results: Differences in the pre- and post-session knowledge, attitude, and beliefs related to healthy eating will be evaluated for adults and children. The anticipated outcomes include enhanced education promoting healthy eating in the community, prevention of chronic disease complications related to poor diet, and prevention of obesity-related chronic diseases in children. Conclusions: Enhancement of chronic disease management among patients, and the prevention of obesity among children, can be accomplished through healthy cooking and diet.
    • Ebola: Working through fear

      Fitzgerald, Brenda; Georgia Department of Public Health (Georgia Public Health Association, 2015)
    • Educational attainment and self-rated health among African-Americans in Pitt County, NC

      Chandrasekar, Eeshwar; Banta, Zimo; Ragan, Kathleen; Schmitz, Michelle; James, Sherman; Emory University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: To help fill the knowledge gap regarding relationships between educational attainment and self-rated health (SRH) in minority populations, we analyzed the data of a community-based cohort of African-Americans residing in Pitt County, NC, between 1988 and 2001. Methods: Data from the Pitt County Study (a community-based, longitudinal survey of risk factors for hypertension and related disorders disproportionately affecting African-Americans) were used to explore associations between educational attainment and SRH, stratified by sex, in a cohort of individuals from 1988 (n=1,773), 1993 (n=1,195), and 2001 (n=1,117) using continuous, ordinal, and binary correlated data analyses. Results: For males and females with less than a high school education, the odds of reporting poor or fair health (compared to excellent, very good, or good health) were 2.75 (95% CI: 1.54-4.91) and 1.78 (95% CI: 1.15-2.75) times greater, respectively, than among those who completed a college degree or higher. Conclusions: Across all analyses, individuals with lower educational attainment reported lower SRH scores, and the association differed by sex. Social support may be a factor in these differences. More research is needed, however, to assess relationships between educational attainment, social support, and SRH for African-Americans and other minority populations.
    • The effect of a nutrition intervention on parents living in a rural Georgia community

      Elliot-Walker, Regina; Hayes, Dawn; Oraka, Emeka; Lewis, Rashunda; Leon, Andre; Brenau University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      Background: Childhood obesity is a concern for public health organizations. Nearly one in four children living in rural communities are obese, and children living in rural Georgia communities are no exception. For rural communities, prevention efforts are needed to address challenges to reducing childhood obesity. The objective of the present effort was to increase the knowledge of parents in a rural community of the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption and other healthy options. Methods: The “We Can Energize Families” curriculum, developed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute was implemented in a rural Georgia community. Pender’s Health Promotion Model, which encompasses the theory of persons taking a self-management approach in their health lifestyle, provided the framework. Participating in the study were 21 parents who had at least one child between the ages of 9-13. Outcome measures, adapted from the 16 measures relevant to the original “We Can Energize Families” objectives, were assessed, incorporating measures related to energy balance, portion size, healthy eating, physical activity, and screen time. Paired-T tests were used to evaluate increases in parents’ knowledge of the benefits of consumption of fruits and vegetables. Statistical significance was determined at p < 0.05. Results: There were improvements in 9 of the 16 measures, including knowledge of research and energy balance; attitudes regarding energy balance, portion size, and healthy eating; and behaviors regarding healthy eating, healthy food, physical activity, and screen time. However, improvements were not evident for behaviors related to portion size, knowledge or attitudes pertaining to physical activity, or attitudes regarding screen time. Conclusions: Particularly in rural communities, parents can contribute to prevention of childhood obesity. The present results demonstrate
    • Effect of Medicaid status on up–to-date vaccination rates among two-year-old children in Georgia, 2015

      Machado, Fabio; Tuttle, Jessica; Drenzek, Cherie; Georgia Department of Health (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: The annual Georgia Immunization Study (GIS) employs a retrospective cohort design to determine the up-to-date (UTD) immunization rate of 24-month-old children in Georgia. Previous results have shown lower vaccination rates in the second year of life, particularly for DTaP. We sought to determine if a discontinuation of Medicaid coverage after the infant year contributed to lower immunization rates in the second year. Methods: A stratified random sample of 2,002 Georgia children born in January 2013 was drawn from electronic birth records. Immunization history and Medicaid status were obtained from the Georgia Registry of Immunization Transactions and Services (GRITS). Parents and providers of children inadequately immunized according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ (ACIP) immunization schedule were contacted for additional information. UTD immunization rates were compared among participants based on Medicaid status (Medicaid both years, first year only, second year only, never on Medicaid). The relationship between Medicaid status and specific immunizations was also explored. Reasons for loss of Medicaid among children who were not UTD were sought via parent interview. Significance testing was performed using Chi-Square tests in SAS version 9.4. Results: Children covered by Medicaid both years or never covered by Medicaid were more likely to be UTD by 24 months (90.4% and 84.5%, respectively) than children no longer covered by Medicaid in their second year of life (49.2%). These children also demonstrated a significantly lower immunization rate for the 4th DTaP dose (p<0.0001). Conclusions: A discontinuation of Medicaid coverage after the first year of life was associated with a lower UTD immunization rate among 24 month old children, particularly the 4th DTaP dose. Although reasons for discontinuation of Medicaid were beyond the scope of this study, lower vaccination levels among this group may reflect a lack of understanding of vaccine support services, and deserves further examination.
    • The Effect of Selective Deletion of Leptin Receptor in Endothelial Cells on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Vascular Endothelial Function

      Mehta, Vinay; Atawia, Reem T.; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J.; Vascular Biology Center (Augusta University Libraries, 2021-05-18)
      This item presents the abstract for a presentation at the 2021 Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference at Augusta University.
    • The effectiveness of text message reminder-recalls on Human Papilloma Virus vaccination coverage in Georgia

      Moon, Tamira; Dally, Nocolle; Sloat, Ben; Bryant, Kia; Grady, Sherrionda; Georgia Department of Health (Georgia Public Health Association, 2016)
      the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for adolescents ages 11 to 12 years, yet vaccine coverage remains low. The Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Control Program and Georgia Immunization Program implemented and evaluated a text-messaging campaign aimed at improving HPV vaccination coverage, using the Georgia Immunization Registry (GRITS). Methods: The text message reminder-recall campaign, aimed at the parents of adolescents 9 – 18 years, was launched in July 2015. A total of 208,792 adolescents in the GRITS database met the inclusion criterion, receipt of at least one dose of the three-dose series HPV vaccine. We determined the rate of HPV vaccine series completion for adolescents with a valid parent/guardian mobile phone number and for those without. Results: A total of 9,711 text messages were successfully sent to parents of adolescents 9 – 18 years. HPV vaccine series completion was 16% among adolescents whose parent/guardian received a text message as compared to 7% among those who did not. Conclusions: Text message reminder-recalls have a positive effect on HPV vaccine series coverage for adolescents in Georgia. Text messaging reminder-recalls may be an effective strategy to improve HPV vaccination coverage statewide.
    • Efficacy of chronic disease self-management among low-income Black males with behavioral health disorders: Pilot study

      Collard, Carol; Robinson-Dooley, Vanessa; Patrick, Frances; Farabaugh, Kayla; Kennesaw State University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: This study examined the effectiveness of Stanford University’s Chronic Disease Self-management Program (CDSMP) among men living with co-morbidities of chronic physical health disease and behavioral health disorders. Methods: The study was conducted at a community-based, non-profit organization in partnership with a large suburban university. Two pilot studies were completed with the population of interest. Low-income adult males with behavioral health disorders were recruited to participate in the program provided by a local behavioral health agency. Facilitators trained in the CDSMP program administered it at the agency site, and participants attended weekly meetings. Descriptive data collected included health history, demographic information, and assessments of knowledge with the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale and the Chronic Disease Self-Management Questionnaire created by the Stanford Patient Education Research Center. Due to the small sample size, n=12, the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to evaluate before and after differences in the sample. Results: For the participants, there were increases in overall activity, stretching activities, and equipment activities. Additionally, participants experienced a decrease in the number of days affected by poor physical or mental health. However, there was no significant increase in perceived self-efficacy, a factor in patient confidence and possibly compliance. Limitations included the small sample size, lack of a control group, and convenience sampling. Conclusions: Various aspects of the program were helpful to some participants, but cultural factors made other areas less compatible for this population. A larger study, utilizing a comparison group, could generate data relevant to hypotheses based on these observations. By collecting qualitative data, focus groups could contribute to understanding the experiences and needs of the participants. Development of a curriculum for self-management of chronic disease with a focus on intercultural competence is presently of interest.
    • EMS 2020: A multi-year SWOT and financial analysis of Georgia’s emergency medical services system

      Owens, Charles; Georgia Southern University (Georgia Public Health Association, 2017)
      Background: As Georgia’s Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system approaches 50 years in operation, the Georgia EMS Association and Georgia Southern University’s Center for Public Health Practice and Research began an evaluation of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing Georgia’s EMS system. Methods: During the first year of the study, eight meetings were held across Georgia involving EMTs, physicians, hospital administrators, emergency planners, and state policy makers to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing the system. Results: Results obtained during the first year of this study offered valuable insight into current and future factors affecting the ability of Georgia’s EMS system to provide effective care to an expanding population. Conclusions: Quality of care, financial solvency, community paramedicine models, and reimbursement strategies were discussed and numerous strategies were evaluated to improve EMS operations in both urban and rural populations.