• Ray Abundance and Diversity in the Satilla River

      Silliman, Brennan; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-12)
      Over the past 100 years, the Satilla River has been cut several times for logging and navigational purposes. The most notable cut is Noyes Cut, located adjacent to Umbrella and Dover Creeks. Due to changes in local economic pursuits, Noyes Cut is not used except by a few local fishermen and has potentially altered water flow and salinity gradients. Ultimately, this affects habitats of animals, such as rays. The Satilla River is home to 52 different kinds of species of saltwater and freshwater fish. These include sunfish, sharks, catfish, seatrout, and tarpon (Kenakrow, 2020). Rays are found worldwide and are the most diverse of cartilaginous fish; they play a vital role in determining the health of an ecosystem by influencing/controlling where certain fish, mollusk, and crustacean populations are. Rays can indicate if an ecosystem is in distress. Four locations in the Satilla River were sampled using experimental gill nets, otter trawls, and a multi-parameter water quality probe from July 2014 through September 2019. All rays were identified by species with total length and disc width recorded to the nearest centimeter (cm). At least 3 species of rays (possibly more), which include the Atlantic Stingray, the Smooth Butterfly Ray, and the Southern Stingray, call this area home. Additionally, this five year data set will be compared to a creel survey currently being conducted on the Satilla River. We hope to make comparisons between our 2018-2019 sampling year and the 2019-2020 creel survey. Since rays are an indicator species, it may be possible to determine if they’ve been affected by Noyes Cut. Noyes Cut was originally constructed around 1910 as a way for Edward Noyes to float logs to his lumber mill business. He used this waterway until 1933 when the U.S. Army Corps seized it and deepened the cut as an inland waterway. Over several decades, channel sedimentation has gradually affected salinity gradients which ultimately altered the natural water circulation patterns within the estuary.
    • Re-examining Metoclopramide’s Role in Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and/or Vomiting

      Masiongale, Amy; Garvin, Jane; Murphy, Marguerite; Looney, Stephen W. (2015-11)
      Postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) continue to be two of the most undesirable and distressing complications following general anesthesia, affecting 20-30% of all surgical patients and up to 70% of patients with multiple known risk factors. Clinical guidelines recommend identifying PONV prophylactic interventions based on risk score. While the guidelines recommend several antiemetics, metoclopramide was not recommended. However, evidence used to support the guidelines is no longer considered valid. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to re-examine the use of metoclopramide and describe the incidence of subsequent PONV stratified by risk scores among adult ambulatory surgical patients.
    • Reaching At-Risk African-American Women for Diabetes Prevention: Fit Body and Soul

      Garvin, Jane; Williams, Lovoria B.; Joshua, Thomas V.; Sattin, Richard W. (2013-05)
      Aims: Describe baseline predictors of diabetes in African American women enrolled in the faith-based diabetes prevention program: Fit Body and Soul (FBAS); Describe retention of the women over the one-year study
    • The Real "Monster" in Frankenstein

      Urizar, David O.; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University Libraries, 2016-10)
      The story of Frankenstein is typically seen as a battle between Victor Frankenstein and the “monster” of the story. However I argue that that the real “monster” of the story is in fact Victor Frankenstein who is suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and that the “monster” is really just a delusions that Victor uses to cope with the idea that he in fact is the killer of the story. This concept is evident in the fact that no one in the story has ever seen both Victor Frankenstein and the “monster” alive in the same place. The characteristics of the “monster’ also point towards the idea that the “monster” could not possibly exist. Even the way that Victor acts throughout the book point to the idea that he does not really care for the safety of his loved ones. Overall the actions that play out in the story point towards the idea that Victor Frankenstein is the real “monster” of the story.
    • Rebecca Harding Davis: Spatial, Gender, and Labor Roles in Literary Realism

      Humphrey, Katie; Department of English and Foreign Languages (Augusta University, 2017-05)
      Rebecca Harding Davis, a West Virginia writer, explores how conceptions of gender shifted in the United States, especially during the Industrial Revolution. Davis published her novel in six separate issues of The Atlantic literary magazine from October of 1861 until March of 1862 in monthly installments. These pieces were eventually published as a novel entitled Margret Howth in 1862. This story explores the life of the young woman after whom the book is named. Davis’s approach emphasizes the recording of daily life as it is happening, commenting especially on the relationship between women and labor during the early Civil War period in the United States. Davis’s focus on the daily details of life allows her to bring attention to gender and labor inequalities in the nineteenth century Midwest. Davis’s female characters depict how women felt unable to make decisions, especially if their decisions brought them out of their home and away from the family. She also brings light to women’s treatment from both men and the upper class, who marked them as unable to do work outside the home because they believed they were physically and emotionally built only for domestic life. [Introduction]
    • Reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart.

      Maddox, Dennis M; Manlapat, Anna K; Roon, Penny; Prasad, Puttur D; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Department of Ophthalmology (2003-10-29)
      BACKGROUND: Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine). Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively. RESULTS: In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.
    • Reducing Tobacco Dependence: Evaluation of Tobacco Cessation Education on a Stroke Unit

      Cook-McKnight, Crystal; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2016-03)
      Background: Tobacco use is the number one preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States.It is a leading cause of cerebrovascular disease, and tobacco users are three times more likely to have a stroke compared to non-tobacco users. Georgia is among the highest rates of tobacco use and stroke in the U.S. Evidence based tobacco cessation interventions are available; however, they are are underutilized by clinicians. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to evaluate if a brief educational intervention related to tobacco cesssation interventions compared to the current practice impacted the attitudes, beliefs, intentions and knowledge of tobacco cessation counseling of healthcare professionals on a stroke unit.Methods: A 45 minute presentation based on a guideline with the most current recommendations was provided to clinicians on a stroke unit. A pre-post survey evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and intentions of 29 nurses and a respiratory therapist related to tobacco cessation interventions in a tertiary care hospital in Georgia.Results:Tobacco counseling and treatment knowledge increased significantly from pre- to post-training. Average correct answers post survey was 76% versus the pre survey of 24%. Attitudes, beliefs and intentions were moderately correlated to improved self confidence. Conclusion: Overall, healthcare professionals exhibited improved tobacco cessation knowledge. Attitudes, beliefs and intentions were moderately impacted.
    • Reducing Waist Circumference among African Americans in the Fit Body and Soul Study

      Garvin, Jane; Sattin, Richard W.; Looney, Stephen W. (2014-11)
      This study aimed to determine if waist circumference decreased following the FBAS intervention when compared with the health education comparison group.
    • Reese Library Infographic

      Halder, Bithika; Department of English and Foreign Languages (Spr. 2019)
      A class assignment presents an infographic of Reese Library.
    • Regarding diagnosis and management of Spigelian hernia.

      Bittner, James G.; Department of Surgery (2009-6-26)
    • Regime Type and Cyber Terrorism

      Rutland, Josh; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      Various characteristics of a state and its government affect how it is viewed by potential attackers. The structure of a state’s regime is a critical one of those aspects that can influence many others such as economic policy, cultural ideology, and other components related to a state’s perceived and actual vulnerability. This research will explain how a state’s regime type holds significance in determining its likelihood to be targeted by a cyberterrorist. Different regime types can widely vary in the strength of their overall cyber security and in specific elements of cyber security and policies related to government involvement, security standards, and cultural norms may play significant roles in how different states go about protecting themselves from cyber threats.
    • Regulation of Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells Behaviors by Endogenic Oct4 Expression Control

      Kim, Jung Hwan; Jee, Min Ki; Lee, So Young; Han, Tae Hee; Kim, Bong Sun; Kang, Kyung Sun; Kang, Soo Kyung; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2009-09-24)
      Background: To clarify the role of the POU domain transcription factor Oct4 in Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells (ATSCs), we investigated the regulation of Oct4 expression and other embryonic genes in fully differentiated cells, in addition to identifying expression at the gene and protein levels. The ATSCs and several immature cells were routinely expressing Oct4 protein before and after differentiating into specific lineages.
    • Regulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase by Subcellular Localization and

      Zhang, Qian; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (2007-04)
      Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is regulated by post-translational modifications that target eNOS to the plasma membrane (PM) and the perinuclear/Golgi region. It has been shown in COS-7 cells that targeting of eNOS to the Golgi or PM regulates the mechanism and degree of eNOS activation. However, little is known about the functional significance of eNOS targeting in endothelial cells (ECs). Our first goal was to isolate these two pools of enzyme in ECs and determine their functional significance in response to agonist stimulation and manipulation of membrane cholesterol levels. Using an RNAi strategy, we generated stable populations of EC that had greater than 90% inhibition of eNOS expression and lacked the ability to produce NO. Reconstitution of these eNOS “knockdown” EC with Golgi and PM targeted eNOS restored the ability of EC to produce NO. This approach can be broadly applied to endothelial cells from a number of different species and from different vascular beds and should have broad utility. Using these cells we found that the PM is the optimal location within the cell to produce NO, but it is also the most vulnerable to changes in cholesterol and oxidized LDL. Calcium-dependent agonists were the more efficient stimulus for the PM-restricted eNOS in EC. In contrast, Golgi eNOS was less responsive to both calcium and Akt-dependent agonists. The functional significance of the increased NO produced by the PM eNOS is reflected in the greater ability to elicit endothelium-dependent relaxation, greater suppression of vWF secretion, a key regulator of platelet aggregation, and inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Mechanistically, PM eNOS induces more nitrosylation of proteins such as NSF, but this is related to the amount of NO being produced, rather than its intracellular location. Increased superoxide formation in endothelial cells (ECs) has been identified as a causative factor in endothelial dysfunction by reducing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, uncoupling eNOS. A major source of intracellular superoxide is the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of enzymes. In experiments to address the effect of superoxide on local eNOS activity, we found that Nox5 increased eNOS activity paradoxically in both cotransfected COS-7 cells and transduced bovine aortic ECs determined by chemiluminescence to measure the NO metabolite. Nox5 also activated eNOS in human aortic ECs as detected by a cGMP reporter assay that measured the release of biologically functional NO from cells in the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD). To establish the functional significance of this observation in blood vessels, the endothelium of mouse aorta was tranduced with Nox5 or control adenoviruses. Nox5 potently inhibited Achinduced relaxation, potentiated contractile responses to phenylephrine. In precontracted blood vessels, acute exposure to SOD induced significant vascular relaxation in vessels exposed to Nox5 versus control and unmasked the ability of Nox5 to activate eNOS in blood vessel endothelium. These results are in contrast to a number of described mechanisms for eNOS inhibition and provide valuable clues that in complex diseases such as diabetes and hypertension that ROS production is not the sole cause of endothelial cell dysfunction.
    • Regulation of GluN2C-Containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptors

      Chung, Connie; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (6/3/2016)
      NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a major role in the pathological events following excitotoxicity. Post-ischemic activation of NMDARs has been linked to opposing signaling that mediates pro-survival or pro-death activity. This dichotomy is largely due to distinct GluN2 subunit compositions governing important receptor functions including channel properties, receptor trafficking, and synaptic localization. Compared to GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs, the trafficking of GluN2C in non-cerebellar granule neurons is less well understood. Moreover, the role of GluN2C following cerebral ischemia remains unknown. Here, we report 14-3-3 isoform-specific binding and regulation of GluN2C. Our findings highlight the isoform-specific structural and functional differences within the 14-3-3 family of proteins which determine GluN2C binding and its essential role in targeting the receptor to the cell surface to facilitate glutamatergic neurotransmission. Next, we sought to investigate the role of GluN2C following cerebral ischemia. We show that GluN2C expression promotes neuronal survival as a homeostatic mechanism by which intracellular Ca2+ levels are maintained by upregulation of GluN2C. Through such a mechanism, not only the intracellular Ca2+ level but also NMDAR signaling can be maintained at equilibrium.
    • Regulation of Granulosa Cell Proliferation in the Rat

      Cannon, Jennifer D.; Department of Biological Sciences (2006-08)
      The growth and maturation of the ovarian follicle is central to reproductive cyclicity in females and is under the endocrine control of the pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH, as well as locally produced steroids and growth factors. A fundamental aspect of follicle development is proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells, although the precise temporal dynamics and regulation remain largely unknown. FSH acts through its receptor to stimulate estradiol synthesis, which together with FSH induces proliferation of the granulosa cells in preantral and small antral follicles (95). In contrast, the LH surge initiates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum (luteinization) in preovulatory follicles. Luteinization has been considered the terminal differentiation of granulosa to luteal cells and has been associated with a rapid reduction in granulosa cell proliferation (36, 114). However, more recent evidence suggests that (a) cell cycle control and luteinization are not functionally and/or mechanistically linked (113, 137), and (b) luteinization is associated with additional granulosa cell proliferation (100, 124, 126-128). The data presented herein challenge the dogma that granulosa cell proliferation is strictly associated with follicle growth and exit from the cell cycle is strictly associated with the LH surge and luteinization. The role of granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation in follicular development and luteinization is only just now beginning to be elucidated. Several ovarian pathologies are associated with defects in these processes, including luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS, in particular, is a serious public health issue, affecting anywhere from 3.4% to 6.8% of women (138). Among females undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles in the United States in 2003, 6% had been diagnosed with ovulatory dysfunction (139). Thus, pathologies associated with follicular development and luteinization have the potential to afflict large numbers of reproductive-age women. Further, the use of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycles to generate large numbers of oocytes for use in ART procedures is fraught with problems, such as a shortened luteal phase as well as a heterogeneous population of antral follicles likely differing in size, health, and oocyte quality (140) all affecting the rate of pregnancy from these procedures. For example, of the 122,872 ART cycles performed in 2003, only 35, 785 (-30%) resulted in a live birth (139). Finally, a better understanding of the processes that govern granulosa cell proliferation has important ramifications for ovarian cancer, especially rare juvenile granulosa cell tumors that are nevertheless associated with a high mortality (141).
    • Regulation of Pharyngeal Region Patterning and Organogenesis by Sonic Hedgehog

      Moore-Scott, Billie A.; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2005-03)
      Patterning of the pharyngeal region determines the proper development of multiple organs in addition to structures of the face, head and neck. The thymus and parathyroid originate from the third pharyngeal pouch and regulate the development of the immune system and calcium homeostasis, respectively. Although functionally these organs are in no way similar, they are derived from a common endodermal primordium, which develops around E l 1.0-El 1.5 in the mouse. At this stage it is apparent that the rudiment has regionalized into the parathyroid and thymus specific domains. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted molecule that contributes to the patterning and regionalization of multiple tissues throughout embryonic development. As a morphogen, Shh initially specifies heterogeneous cell types within a field of cells, regionalizing the target tissue into functional domains. Shh activity can also regulate the proliferation and/or survival of those same cells continuing to contribute to the development of the tissue both morphologically and functionally. Since Shh expression is present in the pharyngeal endoderm, it was a promising candidate for patterning of the pharyngeal region as well as the regionalization of the common parathyroid/thymus primordium. Since die pharyngeal region is a specialized vertebrate structure from which several endocrine organs are derived, correct patterning of the pharyngeal region is important for these organs to initiate and develop properly. Our analysis of the Shh'A mutant has revealed multiple organ phenotypes which are die result of die necessity for Shh signaling at multiple stages of development in the pharyngeal region. These include loss of pharyngeal pouch identity, atrophy of the first pharyngeal arch, parathyroid agenesis, dysmorphic and ectopic growth of the thyroid; and thymic hypoplasia and improper differentiation of the thymic epithelial cell microenvironment. This dissertation is a description of our analysis of the early patterning and organogenesis phenotypes of the Shh'A mutant. Based on these data we propose a model describing the Shh-dependent mechanisms that regulate these events in the mid-gestation staged mouse embryo.
    • Regulation of Reduced-Folate Transporter-1 in Retinal Pigment Epithelium

      Naggar, Hany A.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2003-04)
      (First Paragraph) The purpose of these studies was to analyze the regulation of the folate transport protein, reduced-folate transporter (RFT-1) in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) under conditions o f hyperglycemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and folate deficiency. A detailed description o f the retina, followed by information regarding folate and regulation o f RFT-1, is provided below.
    • Regulation of renal medullary endothelin B receptor function by angiotensin II: evidence of sex differences

      Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Department of Medicine (2012-08)
      The renin angiotensin system and endothelin (ET) systems play critical roles in regulating kidney function and blood pressure. Angiotensin (Ang) II exerts its prohypertensive effects through AT1 receptor activation. ET-1 has similar effects mediated by ETA receptor stimulation. In contrast, ET-1, via ETB receptors, mediates vasodilation, anti-inflammation, and natriuresis. In the clinical setting, hypertension is more common in men than in premenopausal women of the same age. Moreover, in a number of animal models of genetic or experimental hypertension, females are somewhat protected from high blood pressure compared to males. We previously found that hypertensive male rats, induced by chronic Ang II infusion, have impaired ETB receptor function. Because ETB receptors are highly expressed in the renal medulla, the overall aim of this dissertation is to determine the role of Ang II in mediating renal medullary ETB receptor function, and to determine if differences in renal medullary ETB receptor function contribute to the sex differences observed in Ang II hypertension. The first aim was to test the hypothesis that renal medullary ETB receptor function is impaired in male Ang II hypertensive rats. However, ET-mediated natriuresis is preserved in female rats in response to chronic Ang II infusion. We compared the diuretic and natriuretic responses to intramedullary infusion of the ETB receptor agonist, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c), in male and female rats treated with Ang II (260 ng/kg/min s.c.) or vehicle for 14 days. Male Ang II hypertensive rats had impaired ETB-dependent sodium and water excretion. In contrast, renal medullary ETB receptor function was preserved in female Ang II-treated rats. Moreover, ETA-mediated diuretic and natriuretic responses were maintained in female Ang II hypertensive rats. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to male Ang II hypertensive rats, ET receptor-induced diuretic and natriuretic responses are preserved in female rats during chronic Ang II infusion. The second aim was to determine if ETB receptors limit the hypertensive response and renal injury induced by chronic Ang II infusion in female rats compared to males. Male and female rats received Ang II infusion (150 ng/kg/min; sc.) along with a high salt diet (4% Na) for 4 weeks; blood pressure was measured by telemetry. After one week of Ang II infusion with a high salt diet, subsets of both male and female rats received the ETB antagonist, A-192621, at three doses on consecutive weeks (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/d in food). Male rats had significantly higher blood pressure compared to females after 4 weeks of Ang II. A-192621 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure in female Ang II hypertensive rat while there was no significant change in males. After 4 weeks of Ang II infusion, the levels of proteinuria and nephrinuria were higher in male rats compared to female. A-192621 did not further increase urinary excretion of protein or nephrin in either male or female Ang II hypertensive rats. In conclusion, ETB receptors provide more protection against hypertension during chronic Ang II infusion in female rats compared to male. The third aim was to determine the physiological role of Ang II in regulating renal ETB receptor function during salt deprivation, a model with high levels of endogenous Ang II. After 2 weeks of normal (0.4% Na) or low (0.01-0.02% Na) salt feeding, the activation of ETB receptors in the renal medulla increased urine flow and sodium excretion of rats on normal salt diet. While urinary ET-1 excretion was comparable between a normal and low salt diet, ETB-dependent diuresis and natriuresis in response to acute intramedullary infusion of S6c was reduced in the low salt treated rats. Chronic treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan, restored ETB-induced water and sodium excretion in rats fed low salt diet. These findings support the hypothesis that AT1 receptors regulate renal medullary ETB receptor function in a low salt diet model to conserve sodium. From these studies, we conclude that Ang II via the AT1 receptor attenuates renal medullary ETB receptor function resulting in sodium and water retention. During pathological situations, Ang II has a greater inhibitory effect on ETB receptor function in male rats compared to females, leading to a greater increase in blood pressure in response to chronic Ang II infusion.
    • REGULATION OF SYNAPSE DEVELOPMENT BY GABA ACTIVITY OF ERBB4-POSITIVE INTERNEURONS

      Lin, Thiri W.; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (11/2/2017)
      GABA activity has been implicated in neural development; however, in vivo genetic evidence is missing because mutant mice lacking GABA activity die prematurely. Here, we studied postnatal synapse development in ErbB4-Vgat-/- mice where Vgat was deleted in ErbB4+ interneurons. We show that the number of inhibitory axo-somatic synapses onto pyramidal neurons is layer-specific; however, inhibitory synapses on axon initial segments (AISs) were similar from layer to layer. On the other hand, PV+ErbB4+ interneurons and PV-only interneurons receive higher number of inhibitory synapses from PV+ErbB4+ interneurons, compared with ErbB4-only interneurons. Erbb4-Vgat-/- mice exhibited fewer inhibitory synapses from PV+ErbB4+ interneurons onto excitatory neurons (either axo-somatic or axo-axonic), compared with control mice. The Vgat mutation seemed to have little effect on inhibitory synapses onto PV+ and/or ErbB4+ interneurons. These morphological alterations were associated with concomitant changes in neurotransmission. Finally, perineuronal nets were increased in the cortex of ErbB4-Vgat-/- mice. These results demonstrate that GABA activity from ErbB4+ interneurons specifically regulates the development of inhibitory synapses onto excitatory neurons and provides in vivo evidence for a critical role of GABA activity in circuit assembly.
    • Regulation of the Caudal Ventrolateral Medulla by Glutamatergic and Respiratory-Related Inputs

      Mandel, Daniel A.; Department of Physiology (2008-10)
      Many prevalent human conditions, including chronic pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, and obesity, are characterized by concomitant changes in respiratory and cardiovascular function. Mounting evidence suggests the hypertension that presents in many of these patients is attributable to a chronic elevation in sympathetic nerve activity to the vasculature that may be related to changes in central respiratory drive. The neural network that regulates central respiratory drive provides a significant input to the neural network that promotes sympathetic vasomotor tone, as evident by respiratory-related activity in peripheral sympathetic nerves. Changes in central respiratory drive are known to cause changes in arterial pressure via changes in sympathetic nerve activity, but the neural circuitry that connects these systems is not known. We hypothesized that neurons within the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), in addition to their well established role conferring homeostatic changes in sympathetic nerve activity during acute changes in arterial pressure, have an underappreciated role in the promotion of respiratory-related activity in the sympathetic nerves that control cardiovascular function. The principal findings from specific aims designed to investigate this hypothesis are: 1) glutamatergic inputs to the CVLM are enhanced under conditions of elevated central respiratory drive, 2) CVLM neurons have distinct patterns of respiratory modulated activity that are not dependent upon cardiovascular-related inputs, 3) CVLM neurons respond to hypoxia in a way that may support hypoxia-induced, respiratory-related changes in sympathetic nerve activity, and 4) glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs to the CVLM, most likely of respiratory origin, modulate the magnitude of the sympathetic response to hypoxia. These data are the first to implicate the CVLM as a primary site for cardio-respiratory integration and further suggest these neurons participate in the complex physiological responses to acute hypoxia.