• Postmodernism & the Sexual Awakening of E.L. Doctorow's Ragtime

      Rosier, Melanie (2017-03-06)
      This analysis utilizes both a Postmodernist and Feminist approach to E.L. Doctorow's novel Ragtime in order to provide a social commentary on the hardships of women and minorities in Pre-WWI America. Historically, the patriarchal system has contributed to the sociopolitical oppression of women on an international level. The sexual repression of women, in particular, has lead to a system of hierarchy that has been permanently instilled in society. However, with the turn of the nineteenth century, the dissolution of familial roles for women began taking place. In this analysis, Doctorow's narration of the lives of five different female characters is defined as an illumination of the socioeconomic hardships of women in the height of immigration and labor exploitation within the United States. This historiographical commentary continues by recognizing the inability to acquire liberation from oppression for minority women.
    • The potential role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) as a predictive and therapeutic target for diabetes treatment: a mythical truth

      Baban, Babak; Penberthy, W. Todd; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Department of Oral Biology (2010-03-19)
      Keywords: Individual tolerance
    • Power, Creativity and Reminiscence in the Elderly

      Bramlett, Martha H.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing; American Nurses' Foundation (1990-05)
      The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between creativity and power in a sample of well elderly adults. Additionally, the usefulness of reminiscent storytelling as a therapeutic modality in patterning power and creativity in well elders was explored. The study was conceptualized within Rogers' (1986) Science of Unitary Human Beings, and incorporated Barrett's theory of power, the latter derived from the Rogerian conceptual system. Specifically, the study sought evidence for the mutual patterning of power and creativity in older adults.
    • PREDICTING TRAINEE PSYCHOTHERAPIST GRADUATE STUDENT SUCCESS WITH ACADEMIC AND PERSONALITY MEASURES

      Lewis, Casey; Department of Psychological Sciences (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      Success in counseling psychology programs includes both academic and clinical performance. Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) and undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) have been linked to the academic aspects of success in programs (e.g., Daehnert & Carter, 1987). Letters of recommendation, personal statements, and interviews are thought to assess interpersonal functioning, which is important in therapeutic ability (e.g., Barnicot, Wampold, & Priebe, 2014). However, these assessments have significant limitations. The current study uses standardized personality assessments in conjunction with GRE and UGPA to predict student success. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980, 1983) was used to assess self-reported empathy. Additionally, a performance-based measure, the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale – Global Rating Method (SCORS-G; Westen, 1995) was used to rate Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1973) narratives to assess trainees’ interpersonal functioning. Variables related to students’ completion vs. non-completion of the first year of a master in clinical and counseling psychology program were analyzed using t-tests and discriminant function analyses. Our findings suggest that a performance-based measure of interpersonal ability is useful at assessing applicants to counseling psychology programs, while GRE scores may not be as useful in the admissions process. Additionally, a significantly higher rate of male vs. female non-completers may reveal a trend in clinical/counseling psychology programs that needs to be addressed.
    • Prediction of diabetic retinopathy: role of oxidative stress and relevance of apoptotic biomarkers

      Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Smith, Sylvia B; Department of Oral Biology; Department of Ophthalmology; Vision Discovery Institute; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2010-03-23)
      Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy
    • Predictive Inference for Linear and Circular Concomitants with Biomedical Applications

      Howie, Melissa; Department of Philosophy (Augusta University, 2021-07)
      Let (X_i, Y_i), for i=1,...,n, be a random sample from a bivariate distribution. If the sample is ordered with respect to one of the variables, say X, then the rth ordered X-value is called the rth order statistic and is denoted X_{r:n}. The Y-value corresponding to this value is called the concomitant of the rth order statistic and is denoted Y_{[r:n]}. In biomedical research, there is an interest in predicting the concomitant variable corresponding to the rth order statistic of the other variable. For example, one may be interested in predicting the time at which a patient has the peak blood pressure or the mercury level in fish where the water is most polluted. One such distribution of interest is the bivariate exponential conditionals distribution (BEC), whose conditional distributions are both exponential. The asymptotic predictive distribution of the concomitants of order statistics from the BEC is derived. The results are used in a prediction problem involving the mercury concentration in largemouth bass sampled from Florida lakes, as a function of surface water pollution level. Clinicians are often confronted with data such that one variable is linear and the other variable is circular, i.e., measured as an angle. A particular linear-circular distribution of interest is the exponential circular normal distribution. The predictive distribution of concomitants of order statistics from the exponential circular normal distribution is derived. The results are applied to predicting the future value of time at maximum heart rate in subjects from the Augusta Heart Study, a longitudinal study of normotensive children with verified family histories of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., hypertension and premature myocardial infarction).
    • Prehistoric Dinosaurs: An Exploration of Fact vs. Fiction Through the Creation of Comparative Sculptural Forms

      Havens, Krista; Department of Art and Design (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      Prehistoric Dinosaurs: An Exploration of Fact vs. Fiction Through the Creation of Comparative Sculptural Forms, is an art exhibition which displays the differences between how dinosaurs look in film and media verses how they are proposed to have looked based on scientific findings. The impetus for this project was to create a kid friendly educational tool, comprised of three hand-sculpted dinosaurs and three resin cast dinosaurs. The species of dinosaurs created were Carnotaurus, Velociraptor, and Dilophosaurus, some of the most commonly portrayed dinosaurs in the film industry. Each scientifically accurate dinosaur sculpture will be placed next to its film and media representation counterpart to allow for the viewer to compare and contrast the differences in the physical appearances.
    • Preoperative Evaluation with fMRI of Patients with Intracranial Gliomas

      Kapsalakis, Ioannis Z.; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z.; Gotsis, Efstathios D.; Verganelakis, Dimitrios; Toulas, Panagiotis; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios; Chung, Indug; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Robinson, Joe Sam; et al. (2012--2012)
    • Preparation, Physical-Chemical Characterization, and Cytocompatibility of Polymeric Calcium Phosphate Cements

      Khashaba, Rania M.; Moussa, Mervet M; Koch, Christopher; Jurgensen, Arthur R.; Missimer, David M.; Rutherford, Ronny L.; Chutkan, Norman B.; Borke, James L.; Department of Oral Biology; Department of Surgery (2011-09-20)
    • Prevalence of Holistic Admission Criteria Among Entry-Level Occupational Therapy Programs

      Taylor, Kristian; Nguyen, Cat-Tien; Grant, Jenny; Brewster, Mary Beth; Barrett, Mary Alice; Benevides, Teal; Cosper, Sharon M.; Department of Occupational Therapy (Augusta University, 2021-09)
      Objectives of Presentation: At the conclusion of this poster, attendees will: 1. Describe the difference between holistic admissions and academic metric- only procedures implemented by entry-level occupational therapy programs. 2. Discuss the relationship between implementation of holistic admissions criteria and entry-level occupational therapy program ranking. Research Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the holistic admissions criteria used by the top fifty ranked entry-level occupational therapy master’s and doctoral programs to the fifty lowest ranked programs.
    • The prevalence of intragenic deletions in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome.

      Pedersen-White, Jennifer R; Chorich, Lynn P; Bick, David P; Sherins, Richard J; Layman, Lawrence C; Department of Medicine; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics; Institute of Neuroscience (2008-06-23)
      Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and Kallmann syndrome (KS) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by a deficiency of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Mutations in three genes--KAL1, GNRHR and FGFR1--account for 15-20% of all causes of IHH/KS. Nearly all mutations are point mutations identified by traditional PCR-based DNA sequencing. The relatively new method of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) has been successful for detecting intragenic deletions in other genetic diseases. We hypothesized that MLPA would detect intragenic deletions in approximately 15-20% of our cohort of IHH/KS patients. Fifty-four IHH/KS patients were studied for KAL1 deletions and 100 were studied for an autosomal panel of FGFR1, GNRH1, GNRHR, GPR54 and NELF gene deletions. Of all male and female subjects screened, 4/54 (7.4%) had KAL1 deletions. If only anosmic males were considered, 4/33 (12.1%) had KAL1 deletions. No deletions were identified in any of the autosomal genes in 100 IHH/KS patients. We believe this to be the first study to use MLPA to identify intragenic deletions in IHH/KS patients. Our results indicate approximately 12% of KS males have KAL1 deletions, but intragenic deletions of the FGFR1, GNRH1, GNRHR, GPR54 and NELF genes are uncommon in IHH/KS.
    • Prevention of Progressive Deterioration of Motor Evoked Potentials During General Anesthesia

      O'Bannon, Robert Toney; Dubin, Stevin; Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (Society for Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care, 2010-10)
      The increasing frequency and complexity of spinal column corrective procedures have aided the advancement of evoked potential monitoring. The effectiveness of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to detect iatrogenic cord ischemia during surgical manipulation has been well established. Detection followed by corrective measures can limit and/or prevent iatrogenic injuries associated with instrumentation during these corrective surgical procedures.
    • Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma in a defunctionalized urinary bladder: a case report.

      Taneous, Mary; Ramalingam, Preetha; Mode, Donald G; Heiner, Jared G; Terris, Martha K; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Department of Pathology; Department of Surgery (2010-01-11)
      INTRODUCTION: Malignancies are rare in defunctionalized bladders and are thought to arise from metaplasia secondary to chronic inflammation. Transitional cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common but there are three reported cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 57-year-old Caucasian man presenting with penile discharge for 30 years following ileal conduit surgery for neurogenic bladder, and who was found to have primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of his defunctionalized bladder. CONCLUSION: Although urinary diversion without cystectomy is less common in current urologic practice, there are many patients with longstanding defunctionalized bladders. While there are no established surveillance protocols, defunctionalized bladder patients with urethral discharge should be evaluated.
    • Primary Tumor-Induced Immunity Is Suppressed By Surgery-Induced Inflammation In The Presence Of Residual Tumor Cells

      Piranlioglu, Raziye; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Augusta University, 2019-12)
      It is widely thought that tumor cells disseminate from a primary site into the circulation during the early stages of tumor development. However, the fate of these early disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) has been elusive. By utilizing the murine mammary tumors, 4T1 and EMT6, in a syngeneic mouse model, we show that both tumors disseminate into secondary organs but only 4T1 tumors are able to generate metastasis. In contrast, EMT6 primary tumors induce an anti-tumor response that leads to elimination of DTCs. This anti-tumor immunity is CD8+ T cell-dependent and provides long-term immunity. Furthermore, the mice are free of DTCs within a couple of days when primary tumors are completely resected and they reject subsequently injected tumors, whereas mice with residual tumors following surgery show enhanced local recurrence and outgrowth of DTCs at metastatic sites; this effect may be explained by elevated levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This increase is accompanied by an accumulation of immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the spleen and lungs, the main target organ for metastasis. Moreover, the infiltration of a granulocytic subset of MDSCs (gMDSCs) leads to a decrease in a subset of T cells that have a role in long-term immunity. Our goal for this study is to elucidate how immune components of distant organs affect the fate of DTCs and the role of surgery induced-inflammation in generating a pre-metastatic niche. Our studies may also provide a molecular explanation of improved overall survival in breast cancer patients following complete resection of primary tumors with negative margins.
    • Primary versus secondary reconstruction of mandibular critical size defects using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2: an experimental study in dogs

      Hussein, Khaled A.; Department of Oral Biology (2012-12)
      Very often, delayed reconstruction becomes the setting of choice in the reconstruction of large segmental defects in the mandible. Our hypothesis is that rhBMP2 delivery would elicit endogenous expression of BMP2 and VEGF in the soft tissue bed of the defect. Such response is expected to be more pronounced in the immediate than the delayed reconstruction, which will correlate with the quantity and quality of bone formation in the two settings. We also hypothesized that vascular endothelial cells (ECs) of the surrounding soft tissue contribute to the endogenous production of BMP2. In this study we used a mandibular canine segmental defect model (35 mm), periosteum was excised and also the delayed reconstruction group was included in this study in addition to the control group. We investigated the effect of different reconstruction settings on the quantity and quality of bony regenerates; on the production of endogenous BMP2 from the soft tissue bed of the defects and finally we tried to explore the source of this rhBMP2- induced endogenous BMP2 production both in vivo and in vitro. This study demonstrated that rhBMP2 delivery is more effective in immediate reconstruction of large mandibular segmental defects. Immediate delivery of rhBMP2 yielded more adequate reconstruction of the defect after 12 weeks, evident by the quantity and quality of the bone regenerate. Only in the immediate reconstruction group, the advantageous bone parameters were associated with significant up-regulation of BMP2 mRNA and protein in the soft tissue bed of the defect. This suggests that endogenous-BMP2 is important in maintaining the short-acting effect of the delivered rhBMP2. Regarding the source of the endogenous-BMP2, protein co-localization with ECs marker suggested that these cells could be the source for the endogenous BMP2 secretion in response to rhBMP2 treatment. This was confirmed by the in-vitro results on both the mRNA and protein levels. The gradual increase in expression of BMP2 mRNA and the significant upregulation of secreted BMP2 protein upon stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 100-ng/ml rhBMP2 recognized a new mechanism of positive feed back response of ECs in response to BMP2 treatment.
    • Proactive Readiness Among Parents of Children with Chronic Mental Health Conditions

      McKinnon, Caroline R.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2013-11)
      Childhood mental health conditions are prevalent, persistent, serious, and complex. Families are expected to be involved in their child’s care, but may vary in their readiness for taking an active role. Proactive readiness is a new concept encompassing role beliefs, knowledge, confidence, and self-efficacy. Understanding the relevance of proactive readiness is a critical first step in supporting family management for mentally ill children. The study purpose was to describe the extent for which mothers of mentally ill children discussed proactive readiness. Data from a social support intervention study for mothers of children with mental health conditions (Scharer et al., 2009) were used in a secondary analysis to examine the extent to which mothers participated in a web-based chat room intervention and the content of their posts. A step-wise quantitative content analysis was conducted using a census sample of transcript data. Trained coders categorized mothers’ posts into one of four proactive readiness categories or as other content. Relationships between content of mothers’ posts, chat room participation, and demographic and health variables were examined. Over 3 years, 24 of 39 mothers posted approximately 5,000 messages. Mothers posted proactive readiness content in an average of 20% of their sentences (n=1190). Knowledge was the dominant content category, followed by role belief and much less frequently confidence of self-efficacy. Mothers in the lowest income group posted significantly more proactive readiness, role belief, and confidence content. Maternal race was significantly associated with chat room attendance and total posts, but not with posts per session attended. Proactive readiness content and chat room participation were unrelated to any other child, maternal, or family demographic or health variable. based on the findings of this study, proactive readiness appears to be a relevant topic among mothers of children with chronic mental health conditions. Further data are needed to provide details about the nature of mothers’ proactive readiness. Future researchers should consider using this study’s coding scheme as well as research designs and statistical analyses that would expand on the limited generalizability of this exploratory study. Nursing practice implications include a particular concern for low-income families receiving child mental health services.
    • The Proficiency-Based Classroom: Building on the Standards

      Watts, Tara; Department of English & Foreign Languages; Sandarg, Jana; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      Proper communication is the most important element in any classroom, in particular, a foreign language classroom. Foreign language acquisition is essential, with many secondary schools and higher education institutions worldwide requiring foreign language studies in order to receive a degree. Students can learn foreign languages in many ways based on the ACTFL Standards: Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities. These standards expand the expectations of teaching methods as the guidelines in which a student is able to use the language outside of the classroom. The most important of these standards is Communication, which is the sending of a message from one individual to another. In this study, I will focus on the Communication standard, in particular, verbal communication in the classroom. Many students in the foreign language classroom struggle with the conversational aspect; therefore, teachers are focusing more on how to aid students in conversational learning. Furthermore, teachers incorporate cultural knowledge as a means to expand language acquisition in the classroom, giving language a context. In this presentation, I will study research on language acquisition and the ACTFL Standards; I will discuss proficiency-based projects I have done in addition to projects I plan on using in the classroom after graduation.
    • PROFILING G PROTEINS USING BIOLUMINESCENCE RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER

      Farooq, Maheen; Department of Chemistry and Physics; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology; Spencer, Angela; Lambert, Nevin; Okashah, Najeah; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      GPCRs are receptors that act in signal transduction pathways via guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Extracellular ligands act on GPCRs resulting in activation of one or more G protein subtypes (Gs, Gi/o, Gq/11 and G12/13) affecting the concentration of intracellular second messenger molecules ultimately altering cellular function. Cellular responses to external signals are typically studied indirectly by measuring concentration changes in second messengers. However, this approach can be problematic as many GPCRs can activate multiple G protein subtypes, and many second messenger pathways engage in crosstalk. To address this issue, we used Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) to directly measure coupling between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) receptors and different G protein family subtypes. We co-transfected cells with plasmid DNA encoding the 5-HT2B or 5-HT4 receptors fused to the bioluminescent protein nanoluciferase (NLuc) as well as plasmid DNA containing G protein subtypes fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. In BRET assays, we found that mGsq couples to 5-HT2B and mGscouples with 5-HT4 in response to 5-HT activation. These results are consistent with the literature. Interestingly, initial studies suggest that activated 5-HT4 shows secondary coupling to mGsi highlighting the potential novel signaling pathways that can be elucidated using this technique.
    • Profiling G Proteins Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

      Farooq, Maheen; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      GPCRs are receptors that act in signal transduction pathways via guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Extracellular ligands act on GPCRs resulting in activation of one or more G protein subtypes (Gs, Gi/o, Gq/11 and G12/13) affecting the concentration of intracellular second messenger molecules ultimately altering cellular function. Cellular responses to external signals are typically studied indirectly by measuring concentration changes in second messengers. However, this approach can be problematic as many GPCRs can activate multiple G protein subtypes, and many second messenger pathways engage in “crosstalk”. To address this issue, we used Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) to directly measure coupling between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) receptors and different G protein family subtypes. We co-transfected cells with plasmid DNA encoding the 5-HT2B or 5-HT4 receptors fused to the bioluminescent protein nanoluciferase (NLuc) as well as plasmid DNA containing G protein subtypes fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. In BRET assays, we found that mGsq couples to 5-HT2B and mGs couples with 5-HT4 in response to 5-HT activation. These results are consistent with the literature. Interestingly, initial studies suggest that activated 5-HT4 shows secondary coupling to mGsi highlighting the potential novel signaling pathways that can be elucidated using this technique.
    • Profiling Insulin Like Factor 3 (INSL3) Signaling in Human Osteoblasts

      Ferlin, Alberto; Perilli, Lisa; Gianesello, Lisa; Taglialavoro, Giuseppe; Foresta, Carlo; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2011-12-28)
      Background: Young men with mutations in the gene for the INSL3 receptor (Relaxin family peptide 2, RXFP2) are at risk of reduced bone mass and osteoporosis. Consistent with the human phenotype, bone analyses of Rxfp2â /â mice showed decreased bone volume, alterations of the trabecular bone, reduced mineralizing surface, bone formation, and osteoclast surface. The aim of this study was to elucidate the INSL3/RXFP2 signaling pathways and targets in human osteoblasts.