• VACCINE PROLIFERATION IN THE FACE OF PUBLIC SCRUTINY

      Sripathi, Nishita; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of History, Anthropology & Philosophy; Turner, Wendy; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      Each newly conceptualized vaccine has faced the same arguments over the last two centuries. A detailed examination of these several vaccines and their influences on the public will hopefully provide a better understanding of why the same arguments against vaccines continuously come up, even though each vaccine becomes widely used and celebrated. I supported my analysis by examining modern vaccine case studies and how those results may or may not skew the public reaction. By focusing on these two areas of research, I tried to understand the reasons behind persisted vaccine apprehension, even though there have been multiple and well-supported conclusions that vaccines are essential to a healthy human population. Perhaps by understanding the public�s fear, I can one day suggest alternate methods of vaccine �roll out� and introduction to the public.
    • Vaccine Proliferation in the Face of Public Scrutiny

      Sripathi, Nishita; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Each newly conceptualized vaccine has faced the same arguments over the last two centuries. A detailed examination of these several vaccines and their influences on the public will hopefully provide a better understanding of why the same arguments against vaccines continuously come up, even though each vaccine becomes widely used and celebrated. I supported my analysis by examining modern vaccine case studies and how those results may or may not skew the public reaction. By focusing on these two areas of research, I tried to understand the reasons behind persisted vaccine apprehension, even though there have been multiple and well-supported conclusions that vaccines are essential to a healthy human population. Perhaps by understanding the public's fear, I can one day suggest alternate methods of vaccine roll out and introduction to the public.
    • A Variable Prenatal Stress Paradigm as a Valid Drug Discovery Platform for Cognitive Deficits Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

      Wilson, Christina Ann; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (2012-10)
      Cognitive dysfunction is now recognized to be central to the functional disability of several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, treatment options for the management of cognitive symptoms are limited and the development of novel therapeutics has been made difficult by the lack of appropriate animal models. It has been suggested that variable prenatal stress (PNS) in rodents might be an etiologically appropriate model for some components of schizophrenia. Thus, the overall goal of this dissertation project was to conduct a comprehensive behavioral study of the model to assess face validity, and to make a preliminary assessment of its construct and predictive validity. Our results indicate that exposure to PNS results in elevated corticosterone levels following exposure to acute stress, increased aggressive behaviors, as well as increased locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors. Further, PNS rats had altered innate fear responses to predator odor as well as impaired fear extinction. Additionally, PNS in rats was associated with impairments of sustained attention, inhibitory response control, and recognition memory all of which could be attenuated by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine. Collectivity, these data support the premise that PNS in rodents is a valid model system for studying some behavioral components of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as their treatment.
    • Vascular Protection by Angiotensin Receptor Antagonism Involves Differential VEGF Expression in Both Hemispheres after Experimental Stroke

      Guan, Weihua; Somanath, Payaningal R.; Kozak, Anna; Goc, Anna; El-Remessy, Azza B.; Ergul, Adviye; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Alhusban, Ahmed; Soliman, Sahar; Fagan, Susan C.; et al. (2011-09-1)
      We identified that the angiotensin receptor antagonist, candesartan, has profound neurovascular protective properties when administered after ischemic stroke and was associated with a proangiogenic state at least partly explained by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). However, the spatial distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms and their receptors remained unknown. Protein analysis identified a significant increase in vascular endothelial grow factor B (VEGFB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the ischemic hemispheres (with increased VEGF receptor 1 activation) of treated animals (p<0.05) which was co-occurring with an increase in protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation (p<0.05). An increase in VEGFA protein in the contralesional hemisphere corresponded to a significant increase in vascular density at seven days (p<0.01) after stroke onset
    • Ventrolateral Origin of Each Cycle of Rhythmic Activity Generated by the Spinal Cord of the Chick Embryo

      Arai, Yoshiyasu; Mentis, George Z.; Wu, Jiang-young; O'Donovan, Michael J.; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2007-05-2)
      Background: The mechanisms responsible for generating rhythmic motor activity in the developing spinal cord of the chick embryo are poorly understood. Here we investigate whether the activity of motoneurons occurs before other neuronal populations at the beginning of each cycle of rhythmic discharge.
    • Vertebrate Lrig3-ErbB Interactions Occur In Vitro but Are Unlikely to Play a Role in Lrig3-Dependent Inner Ear Morphogenesis

      Abraira, Victoria E.; Satoh, Takunori; Fekete, Donna M.; Goodrich, Lisa V.; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2010-02-1)
      Background: The Lrig genes encode a family of transmembrane proteins that have been implicated in tumorigenesis, psoriasis, neural crest development, and complex tissue morphogenesis. Whether these diverse phenotypes reflect a single underlying cellular mechanism is not known. However, Lrig proteins contain evolutionarily conserved ectodomains harboring both leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin domains, suggesting an ability to bind to common partners. Previous studies revealed that Lrig1 binds to and inhibits members of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases by inducing receptor internalization and degradation. In addition, other receptor tyrosine kinase binding partners have been identified for both Lrig1 and Lrig3, leaving open the question of whether defective ErbB signaling is responsible for the observed mouse phenotypes.
    • Very Early Responders, Program Participation, and Weight-Reduction Success with MOVE!®,

      Garvin, Jane; Cota, Karen (2015-11)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of very-early weight- reduction success with the MOVE!® behavioral weight-reduction program, available at the Charlie Norwood Veterans Administration Medical Center, on a) participation in 14 or more sessions within 6 months and b) weight-reduction goal achievement at 6 months.
    • Vigilance at Georgia Health Sciences University

      Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (2011-03)
      Table of Contents: 3-4 Faculty and Staff News; 5 Our First Reception at ASA, In Memoriam: Dr. Jack K Pruett; 6 Zack Gramling: Creating a Legacy; 7 New Name, New Web site, New Email, 'Healthy Perspectives to Improve Cultural Competency at GHSU; 8 Nitric Oxide, Aptamers Could Treat Sickle Cell Disease; 9 Dr. Berger Plans to Combat Pain, Rapid Response Team Take Quick Action; 10 Publications, Presentations and Abstracts, and Research.
    • Vigilance at Georgia Health Sciences University

      Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (2011-09)
      Table of Contents: 3 Respiratory Therapy Receives EPA Award of Excellence, Accomplished researched named Professor, other faculty and staff news; 4 Gale looking forward to retirement, Gregoretti bids department 'arrivederci,' GHSU holds rainly inaugural Earth Day; 5 Alumna of notes: DeCore reminisces about days as a resident; 6 Emergence delirium discussed at Latin American symposium, Thalidomide analog holds hope as sickle cell treatment, What's That? Masks; 7 Publications, Presentations, and Abstracts, and Research.
    • Vigilance at Georgia Health Sciences University

      Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (2012-03)
      Table of Contents: 3 Faculty and Staff News; 4 Chief Resident Anderson: A passion for medicine; 6 Angie Skinner: Blissit award finalist 'always several steps ahead,' Classroom gets an IT makeover; 7 Orthopedic surgeon 'walks a mile' in anesthesiologist's shoes, Publications, Presentations and Research.
    • Vigilance at GRU

      Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (2013-02)
      Table of Contents: 3 Faculty and Staff News; 4 Wu: Physician, Investigator, Resident, Graduation and Awards Banquet, "Small" News; 5 Recognition, FCCS Workshop to Offer Training for Noncritical Care Specialists; 6-9 A Celebration of 75 Years of Anesthetic Excellence, Saluting Our Veteran Anesthesiologists and Nurse Anesthetists; 10-11 Publications, Presentations and Research.
    • Vigilance at MCG

      Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (2009-06)
      Table of Contents: 3 Protein Machines Target Sickle Cell Disease, Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE): A Better Way to Monitor Anesthetized Patients?; 4 Ask-Advise-Refer to Stop Smoking; 5 Welcome New Faculty and Staff; 6 Dr. Perry Volpitto: A Pioneer in Anesthesiology in Georgia; 7 Chairman 1938-72: Dr Perry Volpitto, Dr. John Marion Brown, In Memorian: Dr. Jorge Cue; 8 Anesthesiology in the News; 9-11 Publications, Presentations, Abstracts, and Research.
    • Vigilance at MCG

      Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (2010-03)
      Table of Contents: 3 Faculty and Staff News; 4 Residency Coordinator gives 110 percent, A Glimpse of the Past: Founding chairman was like a father; 5 Guiding the use of spinal cord stimulators, Aptamers target sickle cell pain, Decive eases difficult intubations; 6 Publications, Presentations and Abstracts, and Research.
    • Vigilance at MCG

      Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (2010-09)
      Table of Contents: 3 Faculty and Staff news; 4 Who are the Aqualumni?, Rawlings believes in caring for people; 5 Medical students scope out anesthesiology, Antibiotic sponge ineffective on sternal wound infections, Critical care workshop slated for January, Study notes risks of desflurane during pediatric surgery; 6 Publications, Presentations and Abstracts, and Research.
    • Vitamin D Moderators and Supplementation Outcomes

      Havens, Robyn Lynn; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2017)
      Abstract Robyn L. Havens Vitamin D Moderators and Supplementation Outcomes (Under the direction of Dr. Elizabeth NeSmith) Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health concern affecting approximately 1 billion people, including about one third of the American population. Vitamin D insufficiency promotes the development of chronic diseases. The people most at risk for developing chronic diseases from vitamin D insufficiency are those individuals in the vulnerable populations who experience poor health outcomes. Currently, researchers and clinicians disagree as to the recommended daily allowance and therapeutic range supporting sufficient serum vitamin D concentrations. To provide data to resolve this disagreement, the objectives of this secondary analysis were to determine if age, sex, and body mass index were moderators of serum vitamin D concentration and if varying dosages of vitamin D supplementation affected serum interleukin-6 concentrations. The data records of 60 healthy male and female African American participants were examined who were aged 13-45 years, categorized as overweight or obese, and exhibited a baseline serum vitamin D concentration ≤ 50 nmol/L. The participants were randomized into four treatment groups for the original study: 1) a control group that received a placebo; (2) a group that received monthly supervised doses of 18,000 IU (equivalent to 600 IU/day); (3) a group that received monthly supervised doses of 60,000 IU (equivalent to 2,000 IU/day); and (4) a group that received monthly supervised doses of 120,000 IU (equivalent to 4,000 IU/day). After 16 weeks of vitamin D supplementation, the only statistically significant interaction found was with sex as a moderating variable despite the small sample size of men. No other significant interactions were found, including no interaction with vitamin D supplementation and interleukin-6. Despite lacking statistical significance, the data results suggested that the 2,000 or 4,000 IU/day dosages of vitamin D supplementation was needed for the overweight/obese African American participants to achieve a sufficient serum vitamin D concentration > 50 nmol/L as recommended in the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. These results also suggest that the overweight/obese, African American adolescents and adults needed much more vitamin D supplementation than the 600 IU/day recommended by National Institute of Health researchers. Lastly, the findings suggest that the national clinical guidelines published by the Endocrine Society may warrant revision to at least 2,000 IU/day to be effective for individuals in vulnerable populations. Future research is needed to further elucidate the role vitamin D plays in maintaining overall good health and the benefits of vitamin D supplementation. Keywords: vitamin D, vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D supplementation, age, sex, body mass index, interleukin-6, vulnerable populations conceptual model
    • Vulnerability of the developing brain to thyroid abnormalities: environmental insults to the thyroid system.

      Porterfield, S P; Department of Physiology (1994-11-23)
      Neurologic development follows orderly patterns that can be severely disturbed when thyroid hormones are deficient or excessive. Should this occur at appropriate development periods, irreversible neurologic damage can result. The nature of the deficits depends upon the specific development period and the severity of the thyroid disturbance. PCBs and dioxins are structurally similar to the thyroid hormones. Their binding characteristics are similar to those of thyroid hormones and all three groups bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor, the thyroid hormone receptor and the serum thyroid hormone binding protein transthyretin. Depending upon the dose of toxin and the congener used, the toxins either decrease or mimic the biological action of the thyroid hormones. Either effect, if occurring during brain development, can have disastrous consequences. Children and animals exposed to PCBs or dioxins in utero and/or as infants can exhibit varying degrees of behavioral disorders. These disorders resemble those seen in children exposed to thyroid hormone deficiencies in utero and/or in infancy. The mechanism of developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs and dioxins is not known but data suggest it could be partially or entirely mediated by alterations in availability and action of thyroid hormones during neurological development. It is possible that transient exposure of the mother to doses of toxins presently considered nontoxic to the mother could have an impact upon fetal or perinatal neurological development. If the toxins act via their effect on thyroid hormone action, it is possible that doses of toxins that would normally not alter fetal development, could become deleterious if superimposed on a pre-existing maternal/or fetal thyroid disorder.
    • Waiting for Heroes: An Examination of P.1ychologica/ Disorders, Existentialism, and General Strain Themy in Superhero Films

      Hendricks, Austin; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2015-12)
      For years following the release of the first superhero comics in 1938, comic enthusiasm boomed, leading to the creation of countless superheroes and crime fighters. However, these comics were regarded by many to belong solely to a certain group of people. According to Marvel Comics publisher Martin Goodman, the main audience for comics was young kids and illiterate adults (Goldin, 2003). A big contributor to this fact was the Comic’s Code, which was introduced in 1954 by the United States government to regulate comic books and ensure that they were appropriate for children through the banning of content that was considered to be too “adult.” This led to the cancellation of many comics and the proliferation of the idea that comics were supposed to be for children. It was not until the release of the film Superman in 1978 that superheroes entered the big screen and appealed to a larger audience of all ages. While there had been many adaptations of superhero comics up to this point in the form of live-action television shows and cartoons, the 1978 Superman film presented the world of superheroes to the general public in the most influential form yet. The success of this film resulted in three sequels and the release of four films about the vigilante Batman by Tim Burton and Joel Schumacher. The success of the Superman and Batman films then led to the release of numerous other superhero film franchises including Spiderman, X-Men, Iron Man, the Christopher Nolan Batman trilogy, and Thor. These films have been met with different levels of success, ranging from mockery to large-scale financial success. Regardless of whether or not they are successful, the films attempt to reinvent the characters for a modern audience while still adhering to the comics that serve as the base material. [Introduction]
    • "Waiting for the Spider to Come Home": Mothers and Mothering in Lalita Tademy's Cane River

      Williams, Seretha D.; Department of English and Foreign Languages (Cambridge Scholars Press, 2009-11)
    • Weight Before and After the MOVE! Program

      Garvin, Jane (2014-02)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of weight before and after enrollment in the MOVE!® program at the Charlie Norwood VAMC (CNVAMC) in Augusta, Georgia.